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Champagne Hillsides, Houses and Cellars

Champagne Hillsides, Houses and Cellars

The property encompasses sites where the method of producing sparkling wines was developed on the principle of secondary fermentation in the bottle since the early 17th century to its early industrialization in the 19th century. The property is made up of three distinct ensembles: the historic vineyards of Hautvillers, Aÿ and Mareuil-sur-Aÿ, Saint-Nicaise Hill in Reims, and the Avenue de Champagne and Fort Chabrol in Epernay. These three components – the supply basin formed by the historic hillsides, the production sites (with their underground cellars) and the sales and distribution centres (the Champagne Houses) - illustrate the entire champagne production process. The property bears clear testimony to the development of a very specialized artisan activity that has become an agro-industrial enterprise.

Coteaux, maisons et caves de Champagne

Il s’agit des lieux où fut développée la méthode d’élaboration des vins effervescents, grâce à la seconde fermentation en bouteille, depuis ses débuts au XVIIe siècle jusqu'à son industrialisation précoce au XIXe siècle. Le bien se compose de trois ensembles distincts : les vignobles historiques d’Hautvillers, Aÿ et Mareuil-sur-Aÿ, la colline Saint-Nicaise à Reims et l’avenue de Champagne et le Fort Chabrol à Epernay. Ces trois ensembles –soit le bassin d’approvisionnement que forment les coteaux historiques, les unités de production (les caves souterraines) et les espaces de commercialisation (les maisons de Champagne)- reflètent la totalité du processus de production de champagne. Le bien illustre clairement comment cette production a évolué d’une activité artisanale très spécialisée à une entreprise agro-industrielle.

مناطق زراعة الكروم في بورغندي
هي عبارة عن قطع صغيرة من الأراضي المحددة المساحة لزراعة الكروم تقع على منحدرات "كوت دي نوي" و"كوت دي بون" جنوب مدينة "ديجون". وتختلف هذه المناطق بعضها عن بعض بسبب ظروف طبيعية معينة (الجيولوجيا، والتعرض للأحوال المناخية)، فضلاً عن أنواع النبيذ المنتجة هناك، علماً بأنها تشكلت بفعل الأنشطة التي يقوم بها المزارعون. وبمرور الزمن، اشتهرت هذه المناطق بفضل أنواع النبيذ الذي يتم انتاجها فيها. ويتألف هذا المشهد الثقافي من جزأين: أولهما مزارع الكروم ووحدات الإنتاج الملحقة بها، بما في ذلك القرى ومدينة "بون" التي تمثل البعد التجاري لنظام الإنتاج. أما الجزء الثاني فهو يشمل وسط مدينة "ديجون" التاريخي الذي يجسد الزخم السياسي والقانوني الذي أسفر عن إنشاء نظام هذه المناطق. ويُعتبر الموقع مثالاً بارزاً لإنتاج الكروم والنبيذ الذي تطور منذ العصور الوسطى.

source: UNESCO/ERI

以弗所
位于凯斯特古河口,以弗所包含了沿海岸线向西不断移动,在新遗址上建立的一系列定居点。古希腊与罗马定居点延续次转移。挖掘发现了罗马帝国时代的伟大建筑,如赛尔苏斯图书馆和大剧院。目前仅《世界七大奇迹》之一的著名阿提米斯神庙残存少部分遗迹,吸引整个地中海盆地的朝圣者。以弗所古城是一个拥有港池、海道的独特海港城市。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Склоны холмов, винодельческие дома и погреба Шампани
Объект включает в себя места, где была разработана технология производства игристых вин методом вторичного брожения в бутылке. Этот метод был открыт в XVII веке и уже в XIX веке использовался в широких масштабах. Объект состоит из трех элементов: исторические виноградники в коммунах Отвильер, Аи и Марёй-сюр-Аи, холм Сен-Никез в городе Реймс, а также авеню де Шампань и Форт Шаброль в городе Эперне. Склоны холмов, уже несколько столетий используемые для выращивания винограда, подземные погреба, где вино выдерживается, и винодельческие дома, занимающиеся его торговлей, составляют цепочку процесса изготовления и коммерческий реализации шампанского. Объект позволяет получить ясное представление о том, как производство шампанского постепенно приобретало размах, превращаясь из ремесла, навыками которого владела лишь небольшая группа мелких производителей, в целую агропромышленную отрасль.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Viñedos, casas y bodegas de Champaña
Este bien cultural comprende una serie de lugares en los que se elaboró el método de producción de vinos espumosos mediante una segunda fermentación en botella, iniciada en el siglo XVII y aplicada precozmente a escala industrial desde el siglo XIX. El sitio comprende tres conjuntos distintos: los viñedos históricos de Hautvilliers, Aÿ y Mareuil-sur-Aÿ; la colina de Santa Nicasia en la ciudad de Reims; y la avenida de Champaña y el instituto de enología “Fort Chabrol”, en la ciudad de Epernay. Las zonas de viñedos, junto con las bodegas subterráneas donde fermenta el champaña y las sedes de las empresas que lo comercializan, representan la totalidad de las fases de producción de este renombrado caldo. El sitio es ilustrativo de la evolución experimentada por la producción del champaña, elaborado antaño por artesanos sumamente especializados y fabricado hoy en día por importantes empresas agroindustriales.

source: UNESCO/ERI

シャンパーニュの丘陵、メゾンとカーヴ

source: NFUAJ

Heuvels, huizen en kelders van de Champagne

Dit werelderfgoed omvat locaties waar de methode van het produceren van mousserende wijnen werd ontwikkeld, gebaseerd op het principe van nagisting op de fles, sinds het begin van de 17e eeuw tot de vroege industrialisering in de 19e eeuw. Het erfgoed bestaat uit drie verschillende ensembles: de historische wijngaarden van Hautvilliers, Aÿ en Mareuil-sur-Aÿ, de heuvel van Saint-Nicaise in Reims, en de Avenue de Champagne en Fort Chabrol in Epernay. Deze drie componenten – het leveringsgebied op de historische heuvels, de productielocaties (met hun ondergrondse kelders) en de verkoop- en distributiecentra (de Champagne Huizen) – illustreren het volledige champagneproductieproces. Dit erfgoed getuigt van de ontwikkeling van een zeer gespecialiseerde ambachtelijke activiteit naar een vorm van agro-industrie.

Source: unesco.nl

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Cellar, Aÿ © Association Paysages du Champagne
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

In north-east France, on cool, chalky land, the Champagne Hillsides, Houses and Cellars form a very specific agro-industrial landscape, with the vineyards as the supply basin and villages and urban districts concentrating the production and trading functions. The imperatives of Champagne wine production have resulted in an original, three-pronged organisation, based on functional town planning, prestigious architecture and an underground heritage. This agro-industrial system, which has structured not only the landscape but also the local economy and daily life, is the outcome of a long process of development, technical and social innovations, and industrial and commercial transformations, which speeded up the transition from an artisanal crop to mass production of a product sold around the world. Women and the Franco-German heirs of the old Champagne fairs played a special role in this evolution, which has its roots in Hautvillers, among the hills of Aÿ, the heart of the wine-growing sector. In the 18th and 19th centuries, it then spread to the two nearest towns, to Saint-Nicaise Hill in Reims and to Avenue de Champagne in Épernay, which were entirely built on the wine-growing activity of Champagne. The three ensembles that make up the property embody the Champagne terroir and serve as a living and a working environment and a showcase for traditional know-how. Patronage has also been a source of social innovation, the greatest emblem of which is the Chemin Vert garden city in Reims. This is the place where the benchmark method of producing sparkling wine was born, a method that would spread and be copied across the world from the 19th century up to the present day. Champagne is a product of excellence, renowned as the universal symbol of festiveness, celebration and reconciliation.

Criterion (iii): The Champagne Hillsides, Houses and Cellars are the outcome of expertise perfected over the generations, of exemplary inter-professional organisation and of the protection of the appellation, as well as the development of inter-cultural relations and social innovations over a long period of time, which women also took part in. Through the development of traditional know-how, the people of Champagne have overcome a number of obstacles, both in the vineyards (a harsh climate and rather infertile chalky soils), and in the wine-making process, through their mastery of sparkling wine production techniques, and in assembly and bottling. Champagne enterprise was able to gain from the technological and entrepreneurial contributions of the British and Germans. The equilibrium between wine-growers and the Champagne Houses led to the development of a pioneering inter-professional structure that is still active today.

Criterion (iv): As the legacy of wine-growing and wine-making practices perfected over the centuries, production in Champagne is founded on its supply basin (the vineyards), its processing sites (the vendangeoirs, where grapes are pressed, and the cellars) and its sales and distribution centres (the headquarters of the Houses). They are functionally intertwined and intrinsically linked to the chalky substratum where the vines grow, which is easy to hollow out and which is also found in the architecture. The production process specific to Champagne, based on secondary fermentation in the bottle, required a vast network of cellars. In Reims, the use of the former Gallo-Roman and medieval chalk quarries, and the digging of suitable cellars in Épernay or on the hillsides, led to the formation of an exceptional underground landscape – the hidden side of Champagne. As Champagne has been exported around the world since the 18th century, trade development resulted in a special kind of town planning, which integrated functional and showcasing goals: new districts were built around production and sale centres, linked to the vineyards and to transport routes.

Criterion (vi): The Champagne, Hillsides, Houses and Cellars, and particularly the Saint-Nicaise Hill, with its monumental quarry-cellars and its early Champagne Houses, and the Avenue of Champagne, with the showcasing spaces of the commerce houses, convey in an outstanding manner the unique and world-renowned image of Champagne as a symbol of the French art of living, of festiveness and celebration, of reconciliation and victory (particularly in sport). Literature, painting, caricatures, posters, music, cinema, photography and even comics all testify to the influence and the constancy of this unique wine's image.

Integrity

The property includes the most representative and best preserved elements, testifying to the birth, production and spread of Champagne, through symbiotic functional and territorial organisation. The entire property has recovered from wars, the phylloxera crisis and the wine-growers’ revolts. The hillside villages, limited by the topography and high value of the vineyards, remain well preserved within their original limits. Landscape and plots have changed very little and the built heritage is still in good condition. Although it was bombarded during the First World War, Saint-Nicaise Hill was restored and has maintained its function. The chalk quarries are still used in Champagne production and the network of cellars is well preserved and still perfectly operational. Long-term safeguarding of the visual integrity of the property requires monitoring of large energy installations; whilst functional integrity may benefit from a program to restore bio-diversity, which may also contribute to Champagne specificity.

Authenticity

Extensive archival, written and iconographic documentation attests to the history and development of the Champagne story in the area, and to the minor changes to the visual qualities of the landscape. As was the case across the whole of Europe, phylloxera decimated the vines: the replanting of grafted, trellised vines, to replace ungrafted, bulk vines, did not lead to much visible change, although it does bear witness to this major crisis in wine-growing history. The hillsides of Hautvillers, Aÿ and Mareuil sur-Aÿ have exported their wine continuously for at least four centuries and testify to the vine-growing monoculture based on the oldest form of external trade in Champagne. The Champagne Houses have ensured the safeguarding of their architectural heritage, including the original decor and furniture, to a large extent, and they are still used for activities related to the Champagne enterprise.

Protection and management requirements

The property benefits from a comprehensive protection scheme, applying the tools provided by regulations, contracts, land management and heritage-listing, and backed by French and European legislation.

Other tools strengthen this scheme ; for example, designated Aires de mise en Valeur de l’Architecture et du Patrimoine (AVAP) areas, or zones protected as secteur sauvegardé. The boundaries of the official Champagne appellation, comprising over 300 towns and villages, has been defined as a “commitment zone” within the management system. Here, the local communities, the wine growing profession and other stakeholders undertake, on a voluntary basis, to conserve and enhance their landscape and heritage. This commitment zone constitutes the setting and surroundings of the property, and is also a coherent historical and geographical ensemble, embodied by the property and without which its value cannot be understood. It allows for the implementation of extended management and ensures actions taken to enhance the landscape, heritage and the environmental are consistent with one another. To ensure effective conservation of the Outstanding Universal Value, a management structure has been set up, bringing together public and private stakeholders, project managers and representative bodies. The management plan for the Champagne Hillsides, Houses and Cellars is a tool for regional development as well as for protection. It incorporates the overall framework associated with the history of the property and its territory as it is both conceived and experienced.