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Historic Villages of Korea: Hahoe and Yangdong

Historic Villages of Korea: Hahoe and Yangdong

Founded in the 14th-15th centuries, Hahoe and Yangdong are seen as the two most representative historic clan villages in the Republic of Korea. Their layout and location - sheltered by forested mountains and facing out onto a river and open agricultural fields – reflect the distinctive aristocratic Confucian culture of the early part of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910). The villages were located to provide both physical and spiritual nourishment from their surrounding landscapes. They include residences of the head families, together with substantial timber framed houses of other clan members, also pavilions, study halls, Confucian academies for learning, and clusters of one story mud-walled, thatched-roofed houses, formerly for commoners. The landscapes of mountains, trees and water around the village, framed in views from pavilions and retreats, were celebrated for their beauty by 17th and 18th century poets.

Villages historiques de Corée : Hahoe et Yangdong

Fondés au 14e-15e siècle, Hahoe et Yangdong sont considérés comme les deux villages claniques historiques les plus représentatifs de la République de Corée. Leur disposition et leur emplacement, abrités par des montagnes boisées et face à une rivière et à des champs agricoles ouverts, reflètent la culture confucéenne aristocratique propre au début de la dynastie Joseon (1392-1910). Les villages étaient situés de façon à tirer une nourriture à la fois physique et spirituelle des paysages alentour. Ils comprenaient les résidences des familles dirigeantes, les solides maisons à charpente en bois des autres membres du clan, ainsi que des pavillons, des salles d'étude, des académies confucéennes et des groupes de maisons à un étage à murs en torchis et toit de chaume, anciennement réservés aux roturiers. Les paysages de montagnes, d'arbres et d'eau autour des villages, au panorama encadré par des pavillons et des retraites, étaient célébrés pour leur beauté par les poètes des 17e et 18e siècle.

قريتان تاريخيتان في كوريا: هاهوي ويانغدونغ

تُعتبر قريتا هاهوي ويانغدونغ اللتان بُنيتا في القرنين الرابع عشر والخامس عشر أبرز القرى التاريخية العشائرية في جمهورية كوريا. وتعكس طريقة بناء هاتين القريتين وموقعهما – في جبال مغطاة بالغابات تطل على أحد الأنهار وعلى سهول زراعية مفتوحة – الثقافة الأرستوقراطية الكونفوشيوسية الفريدة التي تميز بها الجزء الأول من سلالة جوزيون (1392-1910). وتم تحديد موقع هاتين القريتين لتؤمنا لسكانهما ما يلزمهم من موارد لتغذية الروح والجسد من المناظر المحيطة بهما. وتشمل القريتان مقار إقامة الأسر الرئيسية، فضلاً عن منازل مسيجة بالأخشاب تعود إلى أفراد آخرين من العشائر، وعدد من المقصورات، والباحات المخصصة للدراسة، والأكاديميات الكونفوشيوسية للتعلم، ومجموعة من المنازل من طابق واحد مسقوفة بالقش ومبنية بجدران من الوحل كان يسكنها سابقاً أفراد من عامة الشعب. وتم تخليد جمال مناظر الجبال والأشجار والمياه التي تحيط بالقريتين والتي يمكن التمتع بها من مختلف المقصورات والملتجآت، في قصائد كتبها شعراء في القرنين السابع عشر والثامن عشر.

source: UNESCO/ERI

韩国历史村落:河回村和良洞村

河回村和良洞村始建于14至15世纪,这两座村庄被认为是韩国最具代表性的历史村落。这两个村落背倚树木繁茂的青山,面向河流及开阔的农田,它们的布局和选址的目的在于从周围的环境中汲取物质和精神食粮,反映出朝鲜王朝(1392-1910)早期鲜明的贵族儒家文化特点。其建筑包括村落首领家族的宅第、其他家族成员的木框架结构房屋、亭台、学堂、儒家书院,以及原平民居住的单层泥墙、茅草屋顶的住宅群。河回村和良洞村山环水绕,亭台如画的美丽景致,曾被众多17和18世纪的诗人所咏颂。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Фольклорные деревни Кореи: Хахое и Яньдон

Построенные в 14-15 вв., Хахое и Яньдон являются наиболее типичными образцами исторических родовых деревень в Республике Корея. Их размещение и местоположение – они защищены заросшими лесом горами и смотрят на реку и земледельческие поля – отражают характерную аристократичную культуру конфуцианства ранней стадии правления Династии Чосон (1392-1910). Место строительства деревень выбрано с целью обеспечения как физического, так и духовного насыщения от окружающих ландшафтов. Сюда входят резиденции глав семей, а также прочные дома других членов родовой общины, отделанные бревнами, беседки, залы для занятий, конфуциианские учебные заведения и группы одноэтажных хижин с глинобитными стенами и соломенными крышами – для простонародья. Рельеф местности, с ее горами, деревьями и рекой, обрамленный видами из беседок и мест уединения, был воспет за свою красоту поэтами 17 и 18 вв.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Pueblos históricos de Corea: Hahoe y Yangdong

Fundados en los siglos XIV y XV, Haoe y Yangdong se consideran dos de los pueblos clánicos históricos más representativos de la República de Corea. Su disposición y su emplazamiento, en montañas boscosas y frente a un río y a campos agrícolas abiertos, reflejan la cultura confuciana aristocrática propia de los inicios de la dinastía Joseon (1392-1910). El emplazamiento de los pueblos estaba pensado para extraer de los paisajes aledaños un alimento a la vez físico y espiritual. Comprendían residencias para las familias dirigentes, sólidas viviendas de armazón de madera para los otros miembros del clan así como pabellones, salas de estudio, academias confucianas y grupos de casas de una sola planta con paredes de adobe y tejados de paja reservadas a la plebe. Los poetas de los siglos XVII y XVIII celebraban la belleza de estos paisajes montañosos y arbolados, de pueblos rodeados de agua y paisajes punteados de casas de campo y lugares de retiro.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Historische dorpen van Korea: Hahoe en Yangdong

De historische dorpen Hahoe en Yangdong werden in de 14e en 15e eeuw gesticht en worden gezien als de twee meest representatieve historische clandorpen in Zuid-Korea. Het ontwerp en de locatie – beschut door beboste bergen en met uitzicht op een rivier en agrarische velden – weerspiegelen de karakteristieke aristocratische confucianistische cultuur van de beginperiode van de Joseon dynastie (1392-1910). De dorpen omvatten residenties van de hoofdfamilies en houten huizen van andere clanleden. Verder waren er paviljoens, studiezalen, confucianistische academies en clusters van lemen huizen met rieten daken. De schoonheid van het omringende landschap met bergen, bomen en water, is door veel 17e en 18e-eeuwse dichters bezongen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Historic Villages of Korea: Hahoe and Yangdong © UNESCO
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief Synthesis

The two villages of Hahoe and Yangdong are located in the south-eastern region of the Korean peninsula, the heartland of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), that ruled the Korean Peninsula for more than five hundred years. There is a distance of 90km between them.

Sheltered by forested mountains and facing out onto rivers and open agricultural fields, Hahoe and Yangdong in their landscape settings are seen as the two most representative historic, clan villages in Korea. They were founded in the 14th-15th century and subsequently expanded to their present size and composition in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Their layout and siting, reflect the distinctive aristocratic Confucian culture of the early part of the Joseon Dynasty.

The villages were located to provide both physical and spiritual nourishment from their surrounding landscapes. They include the residences of the head families, together with substantial timber framed houses of other clan members, also pavilions, study halls, Confucian academies for learning, and clusters of one storey mud-walled, thatched-roofed houses, formerly for commoners. The landscapes of mountains, trees and water around the villages, framed in views from pavilions and retreats, were celebrated for their beauty by 17th and 18th century poets.

Within the two villages, the outstanding ensembles of buildings, their siting, planning and building traditions, are exceptional reflections of the social and cultural systems of the Joseon Dynasty, of the particularly distinctive system of clan villages that is specific to this area, and of the way these evolved over five centuries.

Criterion (iii): Hahoe and Yangdong are two of the best preserved and representative examples of clan villages, a type of settlement characterizing the early part of the Joseon Dynasty. In their siting, planning and building traditions the two villages are an exceptional testimony to the Confucianism of the Joseon dynasty, which produced settlements that followed strict Confucian ideals over a period of some five hundred years.

Criterion (iv): The village ensembles of Hahoe and Yangdong reflect the impact of the Joseon Dynasty that profoundly influenced the development of the Korean peninsula over some five centuries. The villages, and particularly the ensemble of yangban and commoners’ houses, and their overall and individual planning, reflect the precepts of this Dynasty in terms of its social structures and cultural traditions as well as its power and influence and its literary, and philosophical traditions.

Integrity

The main attributes of the clan village such as houses of the nobility and commoners, formal spatial layout, study halls and academies, are present within the nominated boundaries of both villages. In Hahoe, the Byeongsanseowon Confucian Academy is 4km to the east and in Yangdong village the Oksanseowon and Donggangseowon Confucian Academies are some 8km and 4km respectively from the village and not spatially linked to it.

The harmonious landscape setting, including the river, forests and mountain that inspired writers is present in Hahoe, although partly in the buffer zone, and is present to a lesser degree of completeness in Yangdong. Here the Allakcheon stream, the Angang fields, (both of which are in the view from the Suunjeong Pavilion) and the upper reaches of the mountain are not included in the nominated area.

The property does not suffer from other than minimal adverse effects of development and has not suffered from neglect. However the setting of Yangdong village has been compromised to a degree by new infrastructure, such as bridges, roads and a railway.

Authenticity

In terms of the clan villages the way the attributes truthfully reflect Outstanding Universal Value relates to the ability of the buildings, village layout, setting and dynamic clan rituals to express the way the village houses are an exceptional manifestation of the Joseon political and cultural regimes and the way they were shaped by Confucianism. ICOMOS considers that villages express well the hierarchical layout of the settlements, and the expressions of the influential clan nobility and scholars.

Where authenticity has been slightly compromised is in the use of materials for some of the restoration projects the remodeling that has taken place, particularly in Hahoe, where some of the buildings have been modified for new uses. These interventions at time blur the link with Joseon period materials, techniques and planning, and the ability of the buildings to contribute to outstanding universal value.

Requirements for Protection and Management

Both Hahoe Village and Yangdong Village have been protected under the National Heritage Protection Act since 1984. For Hahoe village the boundary of the Cultural Heritage Protection Area covers the shared buffer zone, and, in some instances, even extends the protection to the wider setting. For Yangdong village the boundary of the Cultural Heritage Protection Area covers the village area and a small portion of the buffer zone, and the outlying property, except Donggangseowon Confucian Academy, and a small portion of the buffer zone (except in the case of Dongnakdang House). The forests are preserved under the framework of the Cultural Heritage Protection Law – just like the buildings and houses in the villages. Within the villages, six houses in Hahoe (out of 124) and two houses in Yangdong (out of 149) are individually designated as National treasures. In summary, at the state level, there is protection, through designation, of both Hahoe and Yangdong Villages, and all associated places, except for Donggangseowon Confucian Academy, and individual protection for eight houses.

This national protection has been strengthened by the following national directives or guidance: Mid- and Long-term Vision of the Cultural Heritage Policy: Cultural Heritage 2011 (2007); Detailed Implementation Plan for the Conservation, Utilization and Comprehensive Maintenance of Folk Villages (2004); Hahoe Village Design Guidelines (2007); and Yangdong Village Design Guidelines (2007).

At provincial level there are overall provisions for conservation, ranging from the definition of cultural heritage to their conservation, management and utilization. Donggangseowon Confucian Academy is protected at provincial level.

At local level, for Hahoe Village there are Ordinances of Andong City for Protecting Cultural Heritage (2004) which includes provisions for conservation and management. There is also a Master Plan for Hahoe Village Renovation (2002); an Urban Master Plan for Andong City toward 2016 (1998) and a Hahoe Tourism Complex Development (Creation) Plan (2003 [1998]).

For Yangdong village there is a Master Plan for Yangdong Village Renovation (2002); Long-term Comprehensive Development Plan for Gyeongju City for 2006-2020 (2006); and a Development Master Plan for Creation of Historic and Cultural City of Gyeongju for 2005-2034 (2004). Within the villages, six houses in Hahoe (out of 124) and two houses in Yangdong (out of 149) are individually designated as National treasures.

Additionally, the entire area of properties and buffer zones and the immediate surroundings are under a series of government controls, i.e. Control Area, Agriculture and Forest Area or Natural Environment Protection Area.

In summary, at the state level, there is protection, through designation, of both Hahoe and Yangdong Villages, and all associated places, except for Donggangseowon Confucian Academy, and individual protection for eight houses.

This national protection has been strengthened by the following national directives or guidance: Mid- and Long-term Vision of the Cultural Heritage Policy: Cultural Heritage 2011 (2007); Detailed Implementation Plan for the Conservation, Utilization and Comprehensive Maintenance of Folk Villages (2004).

There is a need to ensure that detailed guidance on restoration techniques and materials is adhered to for all buildings in order to maintain authenticity of individual buildings. In order to prevent visuals intrusions in the landscape, there is a need to wider active conservation to include forest areas, trees, river margins and the overall visual landscape. As the villages are very well visited, there is also a need to ensure that cultural tourism strategies respect an agreed carrying capacity of buildings and the tolerance of residents. And of utmost importance is the need to ensure the highest standards of fire protection and fire response are in place.

Historical Description

Clan villages developed and flourished in the Joseon dynasty which consolidated its absolute rule over Korea, encouraged the adoption of Confucian ideals in Korean society, (which had been introduced to Korean Peninsula in the first century), absorbed Chinese culture, and, through prosperity founded on trade, fostered classical Korean culture, science, literature, and technology.

Although the concept of villages planned to harmonise with the local topography, through the implementation of pungsu principles, had appeared in the preceding Goryeo period, it was during the Joseon Dynasty that those who had become small and medium sized land owners and local government officers rose into yangban or nobility clans, and then played a central role in the founding or enlargement of new settlements, based on Confucian principles. These clan villages for the nobility usually housed members of one or two clans and existed alongside fortified, walled towns where government and county officers lived who were of lower status and from diverse backgrounds. The clan villages also produced civil and military officials for the government.

Hahoe village is an example of a new yangban settlement being formed at the end of the Goryeo Dynasty by three clans, Heo, An and Ryu.

In the 16th century the Ryu clan produced distinguished politicians and scholars and this is reflected in the architecture of the village, particularly the study halls.

The new village flourished but by the mid 17th century the Heo and An clans left and Hahoe village became the clan village of the single Ryu clan. The village continued to expand in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 1980s, in line with the majority of Korean villages, young people migrated to the towns and cities and in 1991 the elementary school was closed. However there are some signs of a reversal of this trend with two newly built traditional houses in the 1990s.

Yangdong village is an example of a settlement that grew into a village of the nobility through the marriage of one of its daughters to the son of the Son clan. In turn his daughter married into the Yi clan. These two clans produced several distinguished figures in the 16th century.

The village expanded around the clan branches.

In the early 20th century a railway line was built to the village and a school constructed. In the 1940s a Buddhist Temple was constructed, and a decade later a Church. In the 1970s a bridge was erected over the Allakcheon Stream and in 1971 the pattern of arable land on the Angang Field was restructured and a community warehouse built.

In the 1980s, the village did not suffer such a severe decline in population as some other villages.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation