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Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun

Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun

The enormous mining excavation known as the Great Pit at Falun is the most striking feature of a landscape that illustrates the activity of copper production in this region since at least the 13th century. The 17th-century planned town of Falun with its many fine historic buildings, together with the industrial and domestic remains of a number of settlements spread over a wide area of the Dalarna region, provide a vivid picture of what was for centuries one of the world's most important mining areas.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Zone d'exploitation minière de la grande montagne de cuivre de Falun

L'immense excavation minière connue sous le nom de Grande Fosse constitue, à Falun, le trait le plus marquant d'un paysage qui illustre la production de cuivre dans cette région depuis le XIIIe siècle au moins. Aussi bien la ville planifiée de Falun, née au XVIIe siècle et dotée de plusieurs magnifiques bâtiments historiques, que les vestiges industriels et domestiques des peuplements disséminés sur une grande partie de la Dalécarlie offrent une image vivante de ce que fut, pendant des siècles, l'une des plus importantes régions minières du monde.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

منطقة استخراج المناجم من جبل النحاس الكبير في فالون

تعتبر الحفريات المجمية المعروفة باسم الحفرة الكبيرة في فالون السمة الأبرز لمنظر يجسّد انتاج النحاس في هذه المنطقة منذ القرن الثالث عشر على الأقل. أما مدينة فالون المخططة العائدة الى القرن السابع عشر والمزودة بعدد من الأبنية التاريخية الجميلة وآثار المصانع والمنازل الخاصة بالسكان المنتشرين على جزء كبير من دلارنا فتجسد صورة حية لمنطقة اعتبرت لقرون طوال من اهم المناطق المنجمية في العالم.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

法伦的大铜山采矿区

法伦大矿坑庞大的开采挖掘是其最惊人的景观,表现了该地区的采矿活动至少开始于13世纪。17世纪开始规划的法伦镇有许多精美的历史性建筑,加之达拉纳地区工业经济时代和家庭经济时代的大量居民遗址,展示给世人一幅几个世纪前世界上最重要的采矿区的生动画面。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Горнопромышленный район Большая Медная гора, город Фалун

Этот огромный горный карьер, известный как «Большая яма в Фалуне», является наиболее яркой приметой данного района, где, начиная ещё с XIII в., было развито медеплавильное производство. Заложенный в XVII в. город Фалун, с множеством прекрасных исторических зданий, старинных промышленных и жилых построек, разбросанных по обширной области Даларна, наглядно демонстрирует, что данный район на протяжении столетий являлся одним из важнейших в мире центров горнодобывающей промышленности.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Zona de explotación minera de la “Gran Montaña de Cobre” de Falun

La inmensa excavación minera conocida con el nombre de “Gran Pozo” es el rasgo más notable del paisaje de Falun, ilustrativo de la producción de cobre en esta región desde el siglo XIII por lo menos. Fundada en el siglo XVII y provista de magníficos edificios históricos, la ciudad planificada de Falun, así como los vestigios industriales y domésticos de los poblamientos diseminados en gran parte de la región de Dalecarlia, ofrecen una imagen vívida de la que fue, durante siglos, una de las más importantes zonas mineras del mundo.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

ファールンの大銅山地域
スウェーデン中部、コッパーベリー州の州都。ダールエルブ川北岸の湖に臨む大銅鉱山があり、この一帯は13世紀より続く銅生産地としての顕著な景観を保持している。中世には世界最大の銅生産地として知られた。多くの歴史的建造物が残るファールンは17世紀に設計された町で、かつてはダラーナ地方の中心地であったことから、この地方全域に居住した多くの住民が残した産業用地やその伝統が当時の様子そのままに残されている。

source: NFUAJ

Mijngebied van de Grote koperberg in Falun

Het hele Falun landschap wordt gedomineerd door de overblijfselen van kopermijnbouw en -productie, die begon in de 9e eeuw en eindigde in de laatste jaren van de 20e eeuw. enorme mijnbouw opgraving – de Grote Kuil bij Falun – is het opvallendste kenmerk van het gebied. Falun geeft een levendig beeld van wat eeuwenlang een van ’s werelds belangrijkste mijngebieden was. De 17e-eeuwse stad bezit vele mooie historische gebouwen en industriële en huiselijke overblijfselen van een aantal nederzettingen verspreid over een groot gebied van de regio Dalarna. Het culturele gebied rond Falun staat bekend als Kopparbergslagen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief Synthesis

The Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun is one of the most outstanding industrial monuments in the world. The cultural landscape graphically illustrates the activities of copper production in the Dalarna region of central Sweden since at least the 9th century. Over many centuries, until production ceased in the late 20th century, the region was one of the most significant areas of mining and metals production. This culminated in the 17th century in the dominance of Sweden as the major producer of copper and exerting a strong influence on the technological, economic, social, and political development of Sweden and Europe.

The history of the mining industry can be seen in the abundant industrial and domestic remains characteristic of this industry that still survive in the natural landscape around Falun, which has been moulded and transformed by human ingenuity and resourcefulness. The enormous mining excavation known as the Great Pit (Stora Stöten) at Falun is the most striking feature of this landscape. Associated with the enormous open-cast mine and its galleries, shafts and visitors’ mine are hoisting gear, head frames, wheelhouses, winch houses, pivot and administrative buildings, housing for workers and ancillary facilities.

The Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun is noteworthy not only for its technological heritage but also for the abundant evidence illustrating the economic and social evolution of the copper industry and the social structure of the mining community over time. Many small mining settlements and miners dwellings, as well as the 17th-century planned town of Falun graphically illustrate the special socio-economic framework of much of European mining up to late 19th century. The fine historic buildings of Falun and the industrial and domestic remains of a number of settlements spread over a wide area of the property provide a vivid picture of life in one of the world’s most important mining areas.

Criterion (ii): Copper mining at Falun was influenced by German technology, but this was to become the major producer of copper in the 17th century and exercised a profound influence on mining technology in all parts of the world for two centuries.

Criterion (iii): The entire Falun landscape is dominated by the remains of copper mining and production, which began as early as the 9th century and came to an end in the closing years of the 20th century.

Criterion (v): The successive stages in economic and social evolution of the copper industry in the Falun region, from a form of “cottage industry” to full industrial production, can be seen in the abundant industrial, urban, and domestic remains characteristic of this industry that still survive.

Integrity

The integrity of both the Great Pit and its associated buildings and the urban fabric of the old part of Falun have been maintained by the application of statutory regulations, reinforced by a strong resolution on the part of the residents to ensure the survival of the evidence of Falun’s great industrial heritage. All of the buildings, structures and associated equipment within the World Heritage property are well preserved.

Authenticity

The authenticity of individual buildings and monuments within the inscribed property is high. They have been well preserved and show the old traditions of mining construction. This is the result of stringent conditions laid down by the relevant legislation regarding maintenance and materials selected for restoration and implemented by the national, county and municipal agencies involved.

Mining activities and metal productions have left innumerable traces in both the landscape and the settlement. Collectively these attributes create the cultural landscape of the Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun and underpin the authenticity of the property. Metals are in great demand on the world market prompting interest in ore prospecting in the area surrounding the Great Pit in Falun. Given the potential impact from future prospecting or mining on the attributes of the property and the authenticity of the cultural landscape, this will warrant careful evaluation before any decision is made on allowing these activities while also taking into account the International Council of Mining and Metals (ICMM) Position Statement not to explore or mine in World Heritage properties.

Protection and management requirements

The monuments, sites and landscape that make up the World Heritage property are all protected under the comprehensive and interlocking Swedish legislation for cultural and environmental protection.

All archaeological monuments and sites, listed historic buildings and ecclesiastical buildings of the Church of Sweden, are given full legal protection by the Historic Environment Act (1988:950). Any interventions must receive authorization from the County Administration.

The Environmental Code (1998:808) lays down general rules relating to the protection and conservation of the environment. There are two provisions relating to cultural values. First, it specifies fundamental requirements for the use of land and water areas, design to maintain their cultural values. These are applicable to public authorities as well as private individuals or enterprises. Secondly, it introduces the concept of cultural reserve. The Code is regulated by the County Administration.

The Foundation Stora Kopparberget owns the Falun mine. The miner-yeomen’s homesteads and town buildings are for the most part privately owned. The Municipality of Falun, the Church and the National Property Board own a number of official buildings. The authority of the Municipality of Falun, the County Administrative Board and the Swedish National Heritage Board supervises them.

The Management of the World Heritage property is coordinated through a comprehensive Management Plan. In addition, a World Heritage Council consisting of representatives of Falun Municipality, the Stora Kopparberget Foundation, the Dalarna Museum and the County Administration Board has been established. The Council manages the preservation and strengthening of the historical values within the World Heritage property.