English Français

Ephesus

Ephesus

Located within what was once the estuary of the River Kaystros, Ephesus comprises successive Hellenistic and Roman settlements founded on new locations, which followed the coastline as it retreated westward. Excavations have revealed grand monuments of the Roman Imperial period including the Library of Celsus and the Great Theatre. Little remains of the famous Temple of Artemis, one of the “Seven Wonders of the World,” which drew pilgrims from all around the Mediterranean. Since the 5th century, the House of the Virgin Mary, a domed cruciform chapel seven kilometres from Ephesus, became a major place of Christian pilgrimage. The Ancient City of Ephesus is an outstanding example of a Roman port city, with sea channel and harbour basin.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Éphèse

Située dans l’ancien estuaire du Caystre, Ephèse comprend des établissements successifs formés sur de nouveaux sites tandis que la côte se déplaçait vers l’ouest. L’implantation hellénistique et romaine a suivi ce déplacement. Les fouilles ont révélé de grands monuments de la période de l’Empire romain, comme la bibliothèque de Celsus et le grand théâtre. Il ne reste que peu de vestiges du célèbre temple d’Artémis, l’une des « sept merveilles du monde » qui attirait des pèlerins de tout le bassin méditerranéen. A partir du Ve siècle après J.-C., la Maison de la Vierge Marie, une chapelle cruciforme surmontée de coupoles située à sept km d'Ephèse, est devenue un important lieu de pèlerinage chrétien. La cité antique d’Ephèse est un exemple exceptionnel de cité portuaire avec un canal maritime et un bassin portuaire.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

أفسس
تقع مدينة أفسس عند المصب القديم لنهر كيستر وتشمل منشآت بُنيت تدريجياً في مواقع جديدة خلال فترة عمد فيها سكان الساحل إلى الانتقال إلى المنطقة الغربية. وحذا اليونانيون والرومان لاحقاً حذو هؤلاء السكان، إذ كشفت عمليات التنقيب عن وجود آثار عظيمة تعود إلى عصر الإمبراطورية الرومانية، ومنها مكتبة سيلسوس والمسرح الكبير. ولم يبق سوى القليل من آثار معبد أرتميس الشهير الذي يُعتبر من "عجائب العالم السبع" والذي كان يزوره حجاج من كل بلدان حوض البحر الأبيض المتوسط. وتُعد مدينة أفسس القديمة مثالاً استثنائياً على مدينة ساحلية تضم قناة بحرية وحوضاً لرسو السفن.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

以弗所

以弗所位于曾经的凯斯特古河口,包括随着海岸线不断西移,而不断在新地址上建起的一系列古希腊、罗马定居点。这里发掘出了罗马帝国时期宏伟的建筑,如赛尔苏斯图书馆和大剧院,以及吸引整个地中海地区朝圣者的著名阿提米斯神庙残存少部分遗迹,这座神庙被称为“世界七大奇迹”之一。公元五世纪以来,距以弗所七公里的圣母玛丽亚终老之地,一座穹顶十字形教堂成为基督教朝圣者的重要膜拜地。内港和海道使以弗所古城成为古罗马海港城市突出代表。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Эфес
Объект, расположенный на месте бывшего устья реки Каистр (современный Малый Мендерес) включает следы ряда поселений, греческих и римских, последовательно возникавших на новых землях, по мере того как море отступало на запад. Производимые здесь раскопки позволили обнаружить ряд выдающихся памятников времен Римской империи, в том числе библиотеку Цельса и величественный Большой театр. Немногие сохранившиеся развалины знаменитого храма Артемиды – одного из «семи чудес света», привлекали сюда паломников со всего Средиземноморья.  В V веке н.э. важным местом паломничества для христиан становится также Дом Богородицы – часовня в форме креста, увенчанная куполами и расположенная в 7 км от Эфеса. Древний город Эфес является уникальным примером античного портового города с судоходным каналом и морским бассейном.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Éfeso
Situada en la antigua desembocadura del río Caístro, esta ciudad comprende una serie de asentamientos humanos que fueron ocupando sucesivamente nuevos sitios, a medida que la acción de la naturaleza iba desplazando el litoral hacia el oeste. Los asentamientos de las épocas helenística y romana también fueron condicionados por ese desplazamiento. Las excavaciones arqueológicas han puesto de manifiesto la existencia de monumentos importantes de la época del Imperio Romano, como la Biblioteca de Celso y el gran teatro. Apenas quedan unos pocos vestigios del célebre templo de la diosa Artemisa (Diana), considerado una de las “Siete Maravillas del Mundo Antiguo”, que fue un importante centro de atracción de visitantes y adoradores venidos de toda la cuenca del Mediterráneo. A partir del siglo V de nuestra era, la Casa de la Virgen María, una capilla cruciforme cubierta de cúpulas y situada a 7 km de Éfeso, se convirtió en un importante lugar de peregrinación cristiana. La antigua Éfeso es un ejemplo, único en su género, de ciudad portuaria con una dársena y un canal marítimos.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

エフェソス
青銅器時代中期を起源とするエフェソスは、紀元前4世紀頃に現在の地に移転し、前133年にローマ帝国の支配下でアナトリア地方で最も重要な都市として最盛期を迎えた。古代ギリシャ時代から中世にかけて都市景観は変化したが、特にローマ時代の港湾都市として名高い。また、アルテミス信仰を背景に古代世界有数の巡礼地として発展し、ローマ帝国でのキリスト教の伝播に重要な役割を果たし、また哲学と医学の中心地でもあった。セルスス図書館、大劇場、ハドリアヌス神殿など、その威容を示す遺構が発掘されている。

source: NFUAJ

Efese

Efese bestaat uit opeenvolgende Hellenistische en Romeinse nederzettingen. Het is gelegen aan de voormalige monding van de rivier de Kaistros. De nederzettingen verplaatsten zich naar nieuwe locaties, omdat de kustlijn zich terugtrok in westelijke richting. Opgravingen hebben belangrijke monumenten uit de Romeinse keizertijd aan het licht gebracht, waaronder de bibliotheek van Celsus en het grote theater. Van de beroemde tempel van Artemis resteren slechts brokstukken. Deze tempel, een van de Zeven Wereldwonderen, trok pelgrims uit het hele Middellandse Zeegebied. Vanaf de vijfde eeuw na Chr. trokken veel christelijke pelgrims naar het Huis van de Maagd Maria, een overkoepelde kruisvormige kapel zeven kilometer vanaf Efese. De antieke stad Efese is een uniek voorbeeld van een Romeinse havenstad met een kanaal naar de zee en een binnenhaven.

Source: unesco.nl

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch
Great theatre © General Directorate for Cultural Heritage and Museums
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Within what was once the estuary of the river Kaystros, a continuous and complex settlement history can be traced in Ephesus beginning from the seventh millennium BCE at Cukurici Mound until the present at Selçuk. Favourably located geographically, it was subject to continuous shifting of the shore line from east to west due to sedimentation, which led to several relocations of the city site and its harbours. The Neolithic settlement of Cukurici Mound marking the southern edge of the former estuary is now well inland, and was abandoned prior to settlement on the Ayasuluk Hill from the Middle Bronze Age. Founded by the 2nd millennium BCE, the sanctuary of the Ephesian Artemis, originally an Anatolian mother goddess, became one of the largest and most powerful sanctuaries of the ancient world. The Ionian cities that grew up in the wake of the Ionian migrations joined in a confederacy under the leadership of Ephesus. In the fourth century BCE, Lysimachos, one of the twelve generals of Alexander the Great, founded the new city of Ephesus, while leaving the old city around the Artemision. When Asia Minor was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 133 BCE, Ephesus was designated as the capital of the new province Asia. Excavations and conservation over the past 150 years have revealed grand monuments of the Roman Imperial period lining the old processional way through the ancient city including the Library of Celsus and terrace houses. Little remains of the famous Temple of Artemis, one of the ‘seven wonders of the world’ which drew pilgrims from all around the Mediterranean until it was eclipsed by Christian pilgrimage to the Church of Mary and the Basilica of St. John in the 5th century CE. Pilgrimage to Ephesus outlasted the city and continues today. The Mosque of Isa Bey and the medieval settlement on Ayasuluk Hill mark the advent of the Selçuk and Ottoman Turks.

Criterion (iii): Ephesus is an exceptional testimony to the cultural traditions of the Hellenistic, Roman Imperial and early Christian periods as reflected in the monuments in the centre of the Ancient City and Ayasuluk. The cultural traditions of the Roman Imperial period are reflected in the outstanding representative buildings of the city centre including the Celsus Library, Hadrian’s Temple, the Serapeion and Terrace House 2, with its wall paintings, mosaics and marble panelling showing the style of living of the upper levels of society at that time.

Criterion (iv): Ephesus as a whole is an outstanding example of a settlement landscape determined by environmental factors over time. The ancient city stands out as a Roman harbour city, with sea channel and harbour basin along the Kaystros River. Earlier and subsequent harbours demonstrate the changing river landscape from the Classical Greek to Medieval periods.

Criterion (vi): Historical accounts and archaeological remains of significant traditional and religious Anatolian cultures beginning with the cult of Cybele/Meter until the modern revival of Christianity are visible and traceable in Ephesus, which played a decisive role in the spread of Christian faith throughout the Roman Empire. The extensive remains of the Basilica of St. John on Ayasuluk Hill and those of the Church of Mary in Ephesus are testament of the city’s importance to Christianity. Two important Councils of the early Church were held at Ephesus in 431 and 449 CE, initiating the veneration of Mary in Christianity, which can be seen as a reflection of the earlier veneration of Artemis and the Anatolian Cybele. Ephesus was also the leading political and intellectual centre, with the second school of philosophy in the Aegean, and Ephesus as a cultural and intellectual centre had great influence on philosophy and medicine.

Integrity

The serial components contain sites which demonstrate the long settlement history of the place, each making a significant contribution to the overall Outstanding Universal Value. Together the components include all elements necessary to express Outstanding Universal Value and the property is of adequate size to ensure the complete representation of the features and processes which convey the property’s significance.

Authenticity

The component properties retain authenticity in terms of location and setting, form and design. The remains at Cukurici Mound retain authenticity in terms of materials and substance. The other two component properties have all been subject to stone robbing in the past and subsequently to varying degrees of anastylosis, reconstruction and stabilisation using modern materials. Recent interventions have rectified damage caused by earlier inappropriate materials where possible and now make use of reversible techniques.

Protection and management requirements

The property is protected by Decisions of the Izmir Regional Conservation Council as empowered by the National Law for the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Property no. 2863, 23 July 1983, as amended. The Conservation Council has overall responsibility for the urban and archaeological sites within the property and buffer zone that are declared First Degree Archaeological Sites. Some areas within the buffer zone are protected as a Third Degree Archaeological Site and others are protected as an Urban Conservation Area. The legislative protection of the entire buffer zone should be raised to the highest level.

The Supervision and Coordination Council controls the implementation of the management plan for the serial property prepared by Selçuk Municipality with input from the Advisory Council. The Management Plan includes an Action Plan covering conservation, visitor management and risk and crisis preparedness among other activities. It will specifically include the research and conservation programmes for the overall property with provision for findings to be integrated into future management, education and interpretation and the extension of the monitoring system to relate to the inventory/database of the property; and provision for impact assessments of all new management planning proposals including visitor management, infrastructure, landscaping, and transport/coach park proposals.