Decision : 33 COM 8B.3
Natural properties - Extension of properties already inscribed on the World Heritage List - Tubbataha Reef Marine Park (Philippines)
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Documents WHC-09/33.COM/8B and WHC-09/33.COM/INF.8B2,
2. Approves the extension of the Tubbataha Reef Marine Park, Philippines, inscribed under natural criteria (vii), (ix) and (x) and takes note of the consequent revised name of the extended property of Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park;
3. Adopts the following Statement of Outstanding Universal Value:
Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park lies in a unique position in the centre of the Sulu Sea, and includes the Tubbataha and Jessie Beazley Reefs. It protects an area of almost 100,000 hectares of high quality marine habitats containing three atolls and a large area of deep sea. The property is home to a great diversity of marine life. Whales, dolphins, sharks, turtles and Napoleon wrasse are amongst the key species found here. The reef ecosystems support over 350 species of coral and almost 500 species of fish. The reserve also protects one of the few remaining colonies of breeding seabirds in the region.
Criterion (vii): Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park contains excellent examples of pristine reefs with a high diversity of marine life. The property includes extensive reef flats and perpendicular walls reaching over 100m depth, as well as large areas of deep sea. The remote and undisturbed character of the property and the continued presence of large marine fauna such as tiger sharks, cetaceans and turtles, and big schools of pelagic fishes such as barracuda and trevallies add to the aesthetic qualities of the property.
Criterion (ix): Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park lies in a unique position in the middle of the Sulu Sea and is one of the Philippines' oldest ecosystems. It plays a key role in the process of reproduction, dispersal and colonization by marine organisms in the whole Sulu Sea system, and helps support fisheries outside its boundaries. The property is a natural laboratory for the study of ecological and biological processes, displaying the ongoing process of coral reef formation, and supporting a large number of marine species dependant on reef ecosystems. The presence of top predator species, such as tiger and hammerhead sharks, are indicators of the ecological balance of the property. The property also offers a demonstration site to study the responses of a natural reef system in relation to the impacts of climate change.
Criterion (x): Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park provides an important habitat for internationally threatened and endangered marine species. The property is located within the Coral Triangle, a global focus for coral biological diversity. The reefs of the property support 374 species of corals, almost 90% of all coral species in the Philippines. The reefs and seas of the property also support eleven species of cetaceans, eleven species of sharks, and an estimated 479 species of fish, including the iconic and threatened Napoleon wrasse. The property supports the highest population densities known in the world for white tip reef sharks. Pelagic species such as jacks, tuna, barracuda, manta rays, whale sharks and different species of sharks also are common here and the property is a very important nesting, resting and juvenile development area for two species of endangered marine turtles: green turtles and hawksbill turtles. There are seven breeding species of seabirds and Bird Islet and South Islet are breeding grounds to seven resident and endangered breeding species of seabirds. The critically endangered Christmas Island Frigatebird is a regular visitor to the property.
The property comprises two atolls (North and South Atoll) and an emergent coral cay, Jessie Beazley Reef. It includes open sea with an average depth of 750 m and still displays a well preserved marine ecosystem with top predators, and a large number and diversity of coral reef and pelagic species. The property also hosts an important population of resident, nesting and feeding seabirds. The area is free of human habitation and activities and is of a sufficient size to maintain associated biological and ecological processes. The property is of an adequate size to ensure the complete representation of the key features and processes of the reef systems within it, although the maintenance of these values also requires measures to be taken outside the boundaries of the property in relation to some migratory species and the buffering of the property from threats to the marine environment that could occur in the wider area. A key aspect of the integrity of the property is the low level of fishing pressure, due to the no-take policies which are in place throughout its area.
Management and protection requirements
Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park is legally protected through national protected areas legislation and a range of other environmental legislation which enable action to be taken against a wide range of threats. The implementation of the legislation is assisted by clear delegation to the management authority for the property. This is a remote property and its management is therefore a significant logistical challenge, requiring a well-equipped team with operational boats, well trained and well equipped staff and a sufficient operating budget for fuel, maintenance and accommodation to ensure a strong and responsive presence on the water. Tourism visitation requires careful planning and management to ensure the values of the property are maintained, and to respect the capacity of the property, as well as visitor safety and to ensure income is returned to both site management and local communities. There are threats to the property from shipping, marine litter, fishing, marine pollution and oil exploration. Thus effective buffer zone arrangements are needed, and internationally supported legislation to protect the property from shipping threats, and greater enforcement of marine litter regulation on the High Seas by the appropriate international organisations would be a significant benefit to the property.
4. Appreciates the State Party's efforts for acting on the Committee's 1993 recommendation that the area of the property be extended, and for the action in response to the Committee's previous consideration of state of conservation issues affecting the existing property;
5. Commends the State Party and specifically the Province of Palawan and the Tubbataha Protected Area Management Board for the progress in managing the property, and the allocation of increased budgets and equipment to the property, and also acknowledges the important technical and financial support provided by the Non Governmental Organisation partners;
6. Welcomes the inter-agency cooperation at the Provincial and National levels to support the extended property; and encourages these stakeholders to continue this work particularly towards improving enforcement and halting illegal fishing activities, assessing the relevance of designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas for the region surrounding the property, and ensuring the sustainable financing of the management of the property;
7. Also welcomes the boundary changes to oil concession areas near to the extended property which will reduce their potential impacts, and encourages the State Party to ensure that concession holders respect the Outstanding Universal Value and integrity of the property; noting in particular the sensitivity of marine mammals to acoustic research methods and the potential risk to the values and integrity of the property from pollution;
8. Regrets that illegal fishing continues to affect the existing and extended property, and urges the State Party to continue to seek ways to increase compliance with the no-take policies within the extended property;
9. Requests the State Party to put in place a programme of ecological monitoring of the extended property, particularly the effect of climatic events on sea surface temperature and coral bleaching, storm frequency and other factors that could be related to climate change;
10. Also requests the State Party to develop a sustainable tourism strategy in collaboration with stakeholders and fishing community to ensure that increased tourism does not impact the Outstanding Universal Value or integrity of the property;
11. Further requests the State Party to provide to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2011 a report on the state of conservation of the property, including progress in establishing a buffer zone, reducing illegal fishing activities, continued provision of adequate funding for the management of the property and the other issues noted above, for examination by the Committee at its 35th session in 2011.