28. “Sustainable development and the conservation of the world’s cultural and natural heritage are undermined by war, civil conflict and all forms of violence. The World Heritage Convention is an integral part of UNESCO’s established mandate to build bridges towards peace and security. It is therefore incumbent upon States Parties, in conformity also with provisions of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (The 1954 Hague Convention) and its two (1954 and 1999) Protocols, for the States that have ratified them, as well as in accordance with the UNESCO Declaration concerning the Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage (2003) and international customary law protecting cultural property in the event of armed conflict, to ensure that the implementation of the World Heritage Convention is used to promote the achievement and maintenance of peace and security between and within States Parties”.
29. “Recalling also the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001), States Parties should therefore acknowledge the reality of cultural diversity within and around many World Heritage properties, and promote a culturally pluralistic approach in strategies for their conservation and management. States Parties should also recognise that peace and security, including freedom from conflict, discrimination and all forms of violence, require respect for human rights, effective systems of justice, inclusive political processes and appropriate systems of conflict prevention, resolution and post-conflict recovery”.
30. “States Parties have a critically important role to play in ensuring that the implementation of the World Heritage Convention, including the establishment of the World Heritage List and management of inscribed properties, are used to prevent conflicts between and within States Parties and to promote respect for cultural diversity and around World Heritage properties (…)”.
31. “During armed conflict, States Parties must refrain from any use of World Heritage properties and their immediate surroundings for purposes which are likely to expose them to destruction or damage. They must also refrain from any act of hostility directed against such properties (…)”.
32. “The inherent potential of World Heritage properties and of their conservation to contribute favourably to conflict resolution and re-establishment of peace and security should be acknowledged and harnessed (…)”
33. “During a conflict and in the post-conflict transition phase, World Heritage properties and their wider settings can make a significant contribution to recovery and socio-economic reconstruction (…)”.