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Bam and its Cultural Landscape

Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Factors affecting the property in 2007*
  • Housing
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Lack of comprehensive management plan;

b) The boundaries of the property inscribed on an emergency basis were not aligned with the Outstanding Universal Value of the property ;

c) Development pressures related to the post-disaster reconstruction process.

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Destruction of the property caused by the earthquake in December 2003.
  • Development pressures related to the post-disaster reconstruction process.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Proposed in the draft Decision.

Corrective Measures for the property

They are being proposed in the draft Decision and refer to the Concluding Recommendations of the ICHHTO-UNESCO-ICOMOS Workshop, organised in Bam in 2004, which outlined the short through long-termactions required to address emergency conservation needs.  

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
The timeframe has been estimated at three more years by the State Party, that is 2010.
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2007

Total amount provided to the property: USD 568,000 (2004-2007) from the UNESCO-Japan Funds-in-Trust Project “Emergency Technical Co-operation for Bam Post-Earthquake”; USD 300,000 (2005-2008) from the UNESCO Italy Funds-in-Trust Project “Rehabilitation of Bam’s Cultural Heritage”; USD 20,000 (2004) from the World Bank Italian Trust Funds for Development for the “Organization of an international workshop for the conservation and management of Bam’s cultural heritage, April 2004.”

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2007
Requests approved: 1 (from 2004-2004)
Total amount approved : 50,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2007**

UNESCO has undertaken numerous missions since January 2004. The latest UNESCO mission took place in February 2007.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2007

In order to remove the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger, the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran and UNESCO Tehran Cluster Office are redefining the protective zones and identifying the benchmarks.In addition, they have submitted a report on 28 January 2007 on the following activities:

a) The final, comprehensive draft of the management plan should be completed and then reviewed and adopted at the final stakeholders meeting to be held on 15 to 17 April 2007. It should then be approved by the Higher Council for Architecture and Urban Development and be in effect by late 2007.

b) In January 2007,the Iranian authorities suggested minor modifications to the original core and buffer zones. The core zone will be slightly enlarged at its northern boundary near Qaleh Dokhtar. This minor extension will protect Qaleh Dokhtar against informal settlements. In the southern area, the original buffer zone coincided with the core boundary, and for that reason will be extended so that it effectively surrounds the core zone. In the western area, the buffer zone originally cut through the important Bagh Chemak (Garden of Chemak), an integral part of the cultural landscape. The revised buffer zone will enclose the entire Bagh Chemak. The minor modifications to the boundaries do not alter the Outstanding Universal Value of the property and will be discussed in Document WHC-07/31.COM/8B.

c) Benchmarks and corrective measures have been proposed by the Iranian authorities and UNESCO and are presented hereunder in the draft Decision.

d) Corrective measures currently taken at the property include a conservation programme to preserve the Arg-e-Bam and its setting in a manner that respects the authenticity and integrity of the remaining structures. Significant progress has been made in an operation to stabilise the lower part of the citadel, and measures are being discussed to solve the structural problems in the upper part of the citadel. The emergency phase of the stabilisation and reinforcement of the Governor’s House will begin once Iranian experts formulate a detailed work plan. The emergency stabilisation of the Arg-e-Bam is expected to be completed within the next three years; a significant amount of debris has already been carefully removed from the Arg-e-Bam and surrounding area.

The State Party believes that by 2010 it can implement the corrective measures to lead to the removal of Bam and its Cultural Landscape from the List of World Heritage in Danger. The Concluding Recommendations of the ICHHTO-UNESCO-ICOMOS Workshop, outlined the short through long-termactions required to address emergency conservation needs. 

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2007
31 COM 7A.22
Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Islamic Republic of Iran) (C 1208)
 

The World Heritage Committee,

1.       Having examined Document WHC-07/31.COM/7A,

2.       Recalling Decision 30 COM 7A.25, adopted at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006),

3.       Notes the commitment of the State Party and the international community to the safeguarding of this property;

4.       Adopts the following as the desired state of conservation for the property to be achieved by 2010, in view of its removal from the List of World Heritage in Danger:

a)      Conservation of the Arg-e-Bam and other cultural heritage assets within the World Heritage property;

b)      Completion of necessary scientific studies for the recognition, registration, and legal protection of properties with historical, cultural, and natural significance within the cultural landscape zone, as well as marking the protective boundaries around each property within this zone;

c)      Implementation of Management Plan;

d)      Precise understanding and definition of the outer boundaries of the heritage areas surrounding the property;

e)      Adequate security of the heritage areas within the World Heritage property in addition to the Arg-e Bam.

5.       Encourages the State Party to implement corrective measures for:

a)      Stabilisation and protection of the Arg-e-Bam and other significant cultural heritage assets within the World Heritage property by:

(i)      Stabilisation of both the lower and upper parts of the citadel;

(ii)      Removal and documentation of debris;

b)      Completion of necessary scientific studies for the recognition, registration, and legal protection of properties with historical, cultural and natural significance within the cultural landscape zone, as well as marking the protective boundaries around each property within this zone;

c)      Management Plan implemented by:

(i)      Approval at final stakeholders meeting;

(ii)      Legal Adoption by late 2007;

(d)     Precise definition of the outer boundaries of the heritage areas surrounding the property by completing the mapping of the archaeology and geomorphology of Bam and its Cultural Landscape;

(e)     Adequate security of the heritage areas within the World Heritage property in addition to the Arg-e Bam by increased number of guards and vehicles;

6.      Requests the State Party, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and ICOMOS, to develop a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value including the conditions of integrity and authenticity, for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008;

7.       Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2008 a progress report on the implementation of corrective measures, for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008;

8.       Decides to retain Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Islamic Republic of Iran) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

31 COM 8B.59
Minor modification to the boundaries of properties already inscribed on the World Heritage List - Bam and its Cultural Landscape

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Documents WHC-07/31.COM/8B.Add and WHC-07/31.COM/INF.8B1.Add,

2. Approves the revised boundaries of the core and buffer zones of Bam and its Cultural Landscape, Islamic Republic of Iran.

31 COM 8C.2
Update of the list of the World Heritage in danger - maintenance

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-07/31.COM/7A and WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add, WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add.3),

2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:

  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 31 COM 7A.20)
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley, (Decision 31 COM 7A.21)
  • Azerbaijan, Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower (Decision 31 COM 7A.26)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.1)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 31 COM 7A.29)
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.2)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 31 COM 7A.3)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Virunga National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.4)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.5)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Garamba National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.6)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Salonga National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.7)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 31 COM 7A.8)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 31 COM 7A.16)
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.9)
  • Germany, Dresden Elbe Valley (Decision 31 COM 7A.27)
  • India, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (Decision 31 COM 7A.11)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 31 COM 7A.22)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 31 COM 7A.17)
  • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 31 COM 7A.18)
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 31 COM 7A.10)
  • Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 31 COM 7A.24)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 31 COM 7A.30)
  • Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 31 COM 7A.25)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 31 COM 7A.28)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 31 COM 7A.15)
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 31 COM 7A.31)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 31 COM 7A.19)
Draft Decision: 31 COM 7A.22

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-07/31.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 30 COM 7A.25, adopted at its 30thsession (Vilnius, 2006),

3. Notes the commitment of the State Party and the international community to the safeguarding of this property;

4. Adopts the following benchmarks for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger to be reached by 2010:

a) Conservation of the Arg-e-Bam and other cultural heritage assets within the World Heritage property;

b) Completion of necessary scientific studies for the recognition, registration, and legal protection of properties with historical, cultural, and natural significance within the cultural landscape zone, as well as marking the protective boundaries around each property within this zone;

c) Implementation of Management Plan;

d) Precise understanding and definition of the outer boundaries of the heritage areas surrounding the property;

e) Adequate protection of the heritage areas within the World Heritage property in addition to the Arg-e Bam.

5. Encourages the State Party to implement corrective measures for:

a) Stabilisation and protection of the Arg-e-Bam and other significant cultural heritage assets within the World Heritage property by:

(i) Stabilisation of both the lower and upper parts of the citadel;

(ii) Removal and documentation of debris;

b) Completion of necessary scientific studies for the recognition, registration, and legal protection of properties with historical, cultural and natural significance within the cultural landscape zone, as well as marking the protective boundaries around each property within this zone;

c) Management Plan implemented by:

(i) Approval at final stakeholders meeting;

(ii) Legal Adoption by late 2007;

d) Precise definition of the outer boundaries of the heritage areas surrounding the property by completing the mapping of the archaeology and geomorphology of Bam and its Cultural Landscape;

e) Adequate protection of the heritage areas within the World Heritage property in addition to the Arg-e Bam by increased number of guards and vehicles;

6. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2008 a progress reporton the implementation of corrective measures, for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008;

7. Decides to retain Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Islamic Republic of Iran) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Report year: 2007
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Date of Inscription: 2004
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)(v)
Danger List (dates): 2004-2013
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 31COM (2007)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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