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Bam and its Cultural Landscape

Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Factors affecting the property in 2009*
  • Housing
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Lack of comprehensive management plan;

b) The boundaries of the property inscribed on an emergency basis were not aligned with the written text of the original Nomination File;

c) Development pressures related to the post-disaster reconstruction process.

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Severe damage to the property caused by the earthquake in December 2003;
  • Development pressures related to the post-disaster reconstruction process.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

a) Conservation of the Arg-e-Bam and other cultural heritage assets within the World Heritage property;

b) Completion of necessary scientific studies for the recognition, registration, and legal protection of properties with historical, cultural, and natural significance within the cultural landscape zone, as well as marking the protective boundaries around each property within this zone;

c) Implementation of the management plan;

d) Precise understanding and definition of the outer boundaries of the heritage areas surrounding the property;

e) Adequate security of the heritage areas within the World Heritage property in addition to the Arg-e Bam.

Corrective Measures for the property

a) Stabilisation and protection of the Arg-e-Bam and other significant cultural heritage assets within the World Heritage property by:

(i) Stabilisation of both the lower and upper parts of the citadel;

(ii) Removal and documentation of debris;

b) Completion of necessary scientific studies for the recognition, registration, and legal protection of properties with historical, cultural and natural significance within the cultural landscape zone, as well as marking the protective boundaries around each property within this zone;

c) Management Plan implemented by:

(i) Approval at final stakeholders meeting;

(ii) Legal Adoption by late 2007;

d) Precise definition of the outer boundaries of the heritage areas surrounding the property by completing the mapping of the archaeology and geomorphology of Bam and its Cultural Landscape;

e) Adequate security of the heritage areas within the World Heritage property in addition to the Arg-e Bam by increased number of guards and vehicles

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
2010
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2009

Total amount provided to the property: USD 568,000 (2004-2007) from the UNESCO-Japan Funds-in-Trust; USD 300,000 (2005-2008) from the UNESCO Italy Funds-in-Trust; USD 20,000 (2004) from the World Bank Italian Trust Funds. 

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2009
Requests approved: 1 (from 2004-2004)
Total amount approved : 50,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2009**

Since January 2004: several UNESCO missions. 

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2009

Bam and its Cultural Landscape was originally inscribed on both the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger in 2004 due to damage it sustained from an earthquake in December 2003. The World Heritage Committee requested in 2008 (Decision 32 COM 7A.22) that the State Party continue its work on the corrective measures adopted at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007), required for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger. The World Heritage Committee also requested the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre an updated nomination file based on the property boundaries approved in Decision 31 COM 8B.59, a draft Statement of outstanding universal value of the property, and a progress report on the implementation of the corrective measures.

 

The World Heritage Centre received a comprehensive state of conservation report from the State Party on 5 February 2009. The report includes a proposed Statement of outstanding universal value for the property and describes the progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures as follows:

a) Emergency conservation carried out during 2008 focused on the stabilization and preservation of a range of structures in the Arg-e-Bam area and the continuation of the removal of debris. Techniques for the conservation of earthern architecture, developed in previous years, have been used to reconstruct approximately ten buildings;

b) Approximately 80% of the debris within Arg-e-Bam have now been removed and documented;

c) As reported in 2008, the protective boundaries around Arg-e-Bam have been marked by ICHHTO (Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicraft and Tourism Organization). All constructions around the Arg-e-Bam are being effectively controlled and the Gardens are being preserved. Mapping of the archaeology and geomorphology of Bam and its Cultural Landscape has progressed and is continuing;

d) The State Party reported in 2008 that the review process for the legal adoption of the comprehensive management plan was in progress. The 2009 state of conservation report by the State Party does not clarify whether it has yet been adopted;

e) Archaeological and geomorphology studies are continuing, to precisely define the outer boundaries of the heritage areas surrounding the property;

f) Adequate protection of the heritage areas continues to be ensured by the Security Base established in 2007, which currently includes 11 guards and assistance from the police if necessary.

The World Heritage Centre also received on 5 February 2009 an interim updated nomination file which includes new information from ongoing research on the property, in line with the property boundaries approved in Decision 31 COM 8B.59. This interim report will form the basis of the final updated Nomination file, which the State Party indicates will be submitted in 2010.

The State Party notes in its cover letter for the above two documents its concern that despite the amount of focus and effort being applied to the conservation of the property, it may not be able to complete all of the required corrective measures by 2010. The State Party’s main concern is related to the precise definition of the property boundary, which is reliant on the completion of the archaeological work. As the archaeological work progresses, additional archaeology is being revealed, thus extending the timeframe and amount of work required. The State Party indicates that it will clarify the expected timeframe for completion of the corrective measures in late 2009.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2009
33 COM 7A.22
Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Islamic Republic of Iran) (C 1208)

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-09/33.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 32 COM 7A.22, adopted at its 32nd session (Quebec City, 2008),

3. Warmly congratulates the State Party for its commitment and efforts in reaching the desired state of conservation and thanks the international community for its support;

4. Recognizes the efforts of the State Party in continuing its work on the corrective measures adopted at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007);

5. Requests the State Party to clarify the status of the legal adoption of the comprehensive management plan;

6. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2010, an up-dated Nomination file based on the property boundaries approved in Decision 31 COM 8B.59, and a report on the progress made in implementing the corrective measures for examination by the World Heritage Committee in view of the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger at its 34th session in 2010;

7. Decides to retain Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Islamic Republic of Iran) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

33 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-09/33.COM/7A, WHC-09/33.COM/7A.Add and WHC-09/33.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC-09/33.COM/7A.Corr),

2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:

  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 33 COM 7A.20)
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley, (Decision 33 COM 7A.21)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.1)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 33 COM 7A.28)
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.2)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 33 COM 7A.3)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.4)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.5)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.6)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.7)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 33 COM 7A.8)
  • Ecuador, Galápagos Islands (Decision 33 COM 7A.13)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 33 COM 7A.15)
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.9)
  • India, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (Decision 33 COM 7A.12)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 33 COM 7A.16)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 33 COM 7A.17)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 33 COM 7A.22)
  • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 33 COM 7A.18)
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 33 COM 7A.10)
  • Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 33 COM 7A.23)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 33 COM 7A.29)
  • Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 33 COM 7A.24)
  • Senegal, Niokolo Koba National Park (Decision 33 COM 7A.11)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 33 COM 7A.27)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 33 COM 7A.14)
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 33 COM 7A.30)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 33 COM 7A.19 )
Draft Decision: 33 COM 7A.22

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-09/33.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 32 COM 7A.22, adopted at its 32nd session (Quebec City, 2008),

3. Notes the commitment and efforts of the State Party and the international community in reaching the Desired state of conservation;

4. Urges the State Party to continue its work on the corrective measures adopted at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007);

5. Requests the State Party to clarify the status of the legal adoption of the comprehensive management plan;

6. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2010, an up-dated Nomination file based on the property boundaries approved in Decision 31 COM 8B.59, and a report on the progress made in implementing the corrective measures for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session in 2010;

7. Decides to retain Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Islamic Republic of Iran) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Report year: 2009
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Date of Inscription: 2004
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)(v)
Danger List (dates): 2004-2013
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 33COM (2009)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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