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Bam and its Cultural Landscape

Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Factors affecting the property in 2012*
  • Housing
  • Management activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Lack of a comprehensive Management Plan;

b) The boundaries of the property inscribed on an emergency basis were not aligned with the written text of the original Nomination File;

c) Development pressure related to the post-disaster reconstruction process.

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Severe damage to the property caused by the earthquake in December 2003;
  • Development pressures related to the post-disaster reconstruction process.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1288

Corrective Measures for the property

Adopted see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1288

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

In progress

UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2012

Total amount provided to the property: USD 568,000 (2004-2007) from the UNESCO Japan Funds-in-Trust; USD 136, 985 (2005-2010) from the UNESCO Italy Funds-in-Trust; USD 20,000 (2004) from the World Bank Italian Trust Funds’ US$50,000 (2004) Emergency Assistance from the World Heritage Fund.

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2012
Requests approved: 1 (from 2004-2004)
Total amount approved : 50,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2012**

Since January 2004: several UNESCO missions; October 2011: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission. 

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2012

A report on the state of conservation of the property was submitted by the State Party on 30 January 2012. From 16 to 22 October 2011, a joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission was carried out, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010). The mission report is available at the following Web address: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1208/documents

a) Conservation of the Arg-e-Bam and other cultural heritage assets within the property

The State Party reports that, for the conservation of the main complexes and monuments of the citadel, conservation and restoration plans were prepared for the Stable, Mir Akbar house, western tower of the second gate, the governor’s house, the commander’s house, Mirza Naeim School, the main gate, the second gate and the large tower of the eastern wall of the second gate. The projects sought to address conservation needs as identified in the Management Plan and to facilitate visitors access. Additional plans were prepared for monuments at the cultural landscape including Kushk-e Rahim Abad, Chartaghi, Ghal`e dokhtar, Shahrbast fortifications, Gheysariyeh complex and Ameri house. Notwithstanding the progress made in regard to interventions, the State Party notes that remaining debris is still considered a threat to several parts. Conservation challenges are also still faced for the recovery of the Qanats. The report includes a work plan for interventions foreseen during 2012.

The October 2011 monitoring mission noted that conservation and restoration efforts are progressing well but that there remains significant work to be accomplished given that 11 of the 15 identified components are still in need of full or partial conservation works. In addition, archaeological and architectural records have not yet been finalised for these components, which is critical for the definition of conservation plans. The mission also highlighted that communication among the different disciplinary teams and a consistent methodological approach could be enhanced to improve linkages among the results derived from each working discipline. Conservation guidelines, in Farsi and in English, would also be beneficial for the systematic implementation of measures.

In regard to the interventions, the mission evaluated the conditions of authenticity and integrity. It expressed concern about several factors, including the use of a heavy retaining structure built in steel and cement at the Governor’s Seat tower and at tower 46. They also highlighted that some of the interventions on the walls have an overdesign in reconstruction, not only due to the fact that the original wall were not followed but also by the stylistic restoration from interventions prior to the earthquake. The identification of the historic fabric and new interventions should also be addressed. The mission also noted that there is a lack of unity in some of the citadel components as different conservation approaches have been used at the diverse sectors, depending on the institutions involved. Efforts should be made to coordinate the diverse interventions and obtain a balanced approach to the conservation of the site. It also notes that more extensive reconstruction has been carried out since 2009, which could affect the conditions of integrity and authenticity. Special attention needs to be placed in meeting existing guidelines and standards for conservation practice.

The October 2011 mission observed the existence of informal settlements and of a gas station near Chahar Taqi which are within the property boundaries. Previous UNESCO missions also formulated recommendations regarding the removal of these illegal settlements, as well as the gas station. Presently, the Governor of Bam is waiting for the court decision to remove the service station.

b) Completion of necessary scientific studies for the recognition, registration, and legal protection of properties with historical, cultural, and natural significance within the cultural landscape zone, as well as marking the protective boundaries around each property within this zone;

The State Party reports on several research activities that were carried out. These include investigations regarding the ancient water pipeline systems, urban planning, alleyways networks and residential blocks at the Citadel and the Konari area. These have served to enhance the understanding of the different historical periods. In addition to archaeological excavations several archaeogeophysics studies were carried to identify limits of potential sites. Findings were recorded in the existing data base bank. Research was also continued on the establishment of the typology of bricks and architectural elements. As for marking of boundaries, work was implemented in this respect although work is still pending on the installation of information signage to inform about legal restrictions.

The mission reported that the archaeological and geo-morphological maps have been fully completed for the citadel but not for the overall cultural landscape. In regard to the boundaries, 13 of the 15 components were visited and these had posts marking the boundaries.

c) Implementation of the Management Plan

The State Party indicates that different meetings were held in regard to the opportunities and challenges faced in the conservation of Bam and its cultural landscape. These meetings served as an opportunity to engage diverse stakeholders and facilitate conservation and management endeavours, as well as for fundraising. Participants in the meetings included both representatives from different government agencies at the national and local level as well as other social actors. The State Party also reports that work continued in the preparation of the Arg-e Bam tourist plan and the tourist routes for the whole of the cultural landscape. The report also notes that work has been carried out for the preparation of the geographic information system for Bam and its cultural landscape and for the monitoring of the buffer zone. Facilities have been established within the restored areas for the different offices required for the conservation and management of the property including a research centre, laboratory, storage areas, etc. Capacity building, at different levels, has continued in collaboration with universities and other higher educational centres.

The mission reports that the adopted Management Plan has been provided to all local stakeholders. It analysed the process followed for implementation and concluded that although progress is being made, an action plan to implement the provisions made would be beneficial in improving the current management system and decision-making mechanisms. It also notes that stronger regulatory measures are needed to be enforced to control construction at the buffer zone.

d) Precise understanding and definition of the outer boundaries of the heritage areas surrounding the property

Efforts have continued on the preparation of different maps to better understand the heritage assets that exist at Bam and its Cultural Landscape. 150 sites have been located so far and work is expected to be continued. In addition to maps, photogrammetric studies and aerial photographs have been produced. Monitoring at the property and the buffer zone has continued to detect illegal construction and activities.

The mission received the finalised topographic map of the citadel and verified that the outer boundaries of the property were clearly defined. However, it noted that the landscape topographic maps are still pending.

e) Adequate security of the heritage areas within the World Heritage property in addition to the Arg-e Bam

The mission reports that the measures taken to safeguard the property include the establishment of a Security Unit, operational since 2007, with 11 permanent guards equipped with vehicles. However, due to the limited number of guards, security efforts concentrate in the citadel. Municipal police protects the remaining 13 components within the landscape. The mission team observed that some of the components do not have systematic police protection, neither a minimum-security light at night.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2012

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies are of the view that sustained and considerable efforts have been made by the State Party in the implementation of the identified corrective measures.

However, in spite of the progress made, the Desired state of conservation has not yet been achieved. They note that the issue of informal settlements within the property remains a management constraint if not addressed quickly. The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies recommend that the World Heritage Committee urge the State Party to put into place some regulatory measures to restrict encroachment of illegal settlements within the property. They also recommend that community awareness-raising activities be undertaken to enhance a better understanding of the local population of the Outstanding Universal Value of the property.

They further recommend that the World Heritage Committee retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger to allow the State Party to fully implement the identified measures.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2012
36 COM 7A.27
Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Islamic Republic of Iran) (C 1208 bis)

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-12/36.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 35 COM 7A.25, adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),

3. Welcomes the progress made by the State Party in the implementation of the corrective measures for the property and calls upon the international community to continue to support these efforts;

4. Takes note of the results of the October 2011 joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission;

5. Requests the State Party to implement the mission’s recommendations, in particular to:

a)  Systematically implement monitoring and security measures and enforce regulatory measures at the different component parts of the property to avoid encroachment and illegal construction,

b)  Complement the Management Plan by defining the existing resources and allocating tasks and timeframes for its efficient implementation,

c)  Secure human and financial resources and ensure their continuity for the sustained implementation of the Management Plan,

d)  Develop guidelines for the physical stabilisation of structures, as well as criteria for conservation interventions and a manual for maintenance of earthen structures to ensure that the conditions of integrity and authenticity continue to be met and to promote a unity in conservation approaches,

e)  Finalise the public use strategy, including the potential development of infrastructure and visitation routes and submit to the World Heritage Centre,

f)   Consider the development of a proposal for the establishment of a training research centre to enhance capacity building and scientific research efforts,

g)  Undertake community awareness-raising activities to enhance a better understanding by the local population of the Outstanding Universal Value of property;

6. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session in 2013;

7. Decides to retain Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Islamic Republic of Iran) on the List of World Heritage in Danger. 

36 COM 8C.2
Establishment of the World Heritage List in Danger (Maintained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

1.   Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-12/36.COM/7A and WHC-12/36.COM/7A.Add),

2.   Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:

    • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 36 COM 7A.25)
    • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 36 COM 7A.26)
    • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 36 COM 7A.15)
    • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.1)
    • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 36 COM 7A.33)
    • Colombia, Los Katíos National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.16)
    • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.2)
    • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 36 COM 7A.3)
    • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.4)
    • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.5)
    • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.6)
    • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.7)
    • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 36 COM 7A.8)
    • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 36 COM 7A.20)
    • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.9)
    • Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (Decision 36 COM 7A.30)
    • Georgia, Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Decision 36 COM 7A.31)
    • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 36 COM 7A.17)
    • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 36 COM 7A.13)
    • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 36 COM 7A.21)
    • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 36 COM 7A.22)
    • Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 36 COM 7A.27)
    • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 36 COM 7A.23.I)
    • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 36 COM 7A.10)
    • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 36 COM 7A.11)
    • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 36 COM 7A.34)
    • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.12)
    • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 36 COM 7A.32)
    • United Rep. of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 36 COM 7A.19)
    • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 36 COM 7A.18)
    • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.14)
    • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 36 COM 7A.35)
    • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 36 COM 7A.24)
36 COM 8E
Adoption of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value

The World Heritage Committee,

1.   Having examined Document WHC-12/36.COM/8E,

2.   Congratulates States Parties for the excellent work accomplished in the elaboration of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value for World Heritage properties in their territories;

3.   Adopts the retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value, as presented in the Annex of Document WHC-12/36.COM/8E, for the following World Heritage properties:

    • Australia:  Great Barrier Reef; Lord Howe Island Group; Gondwana Rainforests of Australia; Wet Tropics of Queensland; Fraser Island; Australian Fossil Mammal Sites (Riversleigh / Naracoorte); Heard and McDonald Islands; Macquarie Island; Purnululu National Park;
    • Bangladesh: Historic Mosque City of Bagerhat;
    • Cambodia: Angkor;
    • China: Mount Taishan; The Great Wall; Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang; Mogao Caves; Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian; Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area; Temple and Cemetery of Confucius, and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu; Ancient Building Complex in the Wudang Mountains; Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, Lhasa; Lushan National Park; Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area; Old Town of Lijiang; Temple of Heaven: an Imperial Sacrificial Altar in Beijing; Mount Wuyi; Dazu Rock Carvings; Mount Qincheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System; Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom; Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries – Wolong, Mt Siguniang and Jiajin Mountains;
    • Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea: Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve;
    • Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Complex of Koguryo Tombs;
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo: Virunga National Park; Garamba National Park; Kahuzi-Biega National Park; Salonga National Park;
    • Egypt: Wadi Al-Hitan (Whale Valley);
    • Estonia: Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn;
    • Ethiopia: Rock-Hewn Churches, Lalibela; Lower Valley of the Awash; Lower Valley of the Omo; Harar Jugol, the Fortified Historic Town;
    • Gambia: Kunta Kinteh Island and Related Sites;
    • Gambia and Senegal: Stone Circles of Senegambia;
    • Ghana: Forts and Castles, Volta, Greater Accra, Central and Western Regions; Asante Traditional Buildings;
    • India: Taj Mahal; Keoladeo National Park; Sundarbans National Park; Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks;
    • Indonesia: Borobudur Temple Compounds; Prambanan Temple Compounds;
    • Islamic Republic of Iran: Bam and its Cultural Landscape;
    • Kazakhstan: Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi; Petroglyphs within the Archaeological Landscape of Tamgaly;
    • Madagascar: Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve; Royal Hill of Ambohimanga;
    • Malaysia: Gunung Mulu National Park;
    • Mali: Timbuktu; Cliff of Bandiagara (Land of the Dogons); Tomb of Askia;
    • Mongolia: Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape;
    • Nepal: Sagarmatha National Park; Kathmandu Valley; Chitwan National Park; Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha;
    • New Zealand: Te Wahipounamu – South West New Zealand; New Zealand Sub-Antarctic Islands;
    • Nigeria: Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove;
    • Pakistan: Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro;
    • Philippines: Baroque Churches of the Philippines; Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park;
    • Republic of Korea: Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple; Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Pangeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks; Jongmyo Shrine; Changdeokgung Palace Complex; Hwaseong Fortress; Gyeongju Historic Areas; Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites;
    • Solomon Islands: East Rennell;
    • Thailand: Historic City of Ayutthaya;
    • Turkmenistan: State Historical and Cultural Park “Ancient Merv”; Kunya-Urgench;
    • United Republic of Tanzania: Serengeti National Park; Kondoa Rock-Art Sites; 
    • Uzbekistan: Historic Centre of Bukhara; Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz; Samarkand – Crossroad of Cultures;
    • Viet Nam: Ha Long Bay; My Son Sanctuary; Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park;
    • Zambia and Zimbabwe: Mosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls;
    • Zimbabwe: Great Zimbabwe National Monument; Khami Ruins National Monument; Matobo Hills;

4.   Decides that retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value for World Heritage properties in Danger will be reviewed by the Advisory Bodies in priority;

5.   Further decides that, considering the high number of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value to be examined, the order in which they will be reviewed by the Advisory Bodies will follow the Second Cycle of Periodic Reporting, namely:

    • World Heritage properties in the Arab States;
    • World Heritage properties in Africa;
    • World Heritage properties in Asia and the Pacific;
    • World Heritage properties in Latin America and the Caribbean;
    • World Heritage properties in Europe and North America. 
Draft Decision: 36 COM 7A.27

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-12/36.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 35 COM 7A.25, adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),

3. Welcomes the progress made by the State Party in the implementation of the corrective measures for the property and calls upon the international community to continue to support these efforts;

4. Takes note of the results of the October 2011 joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission;

5. Requests the State Party to implement the mission’s recommendations, in particular to:

a) Systematically implement monitoring and security measures and enforce regulatory measures at the different component parts of the property to avoid encroachment and illegal construction,

b) Complement the Management Plan by defining the existing resources and allocating tasks and timeframes for its efficient implementation,

c) Secure human and financial resources and ensure their continuity for the sustained implementation of the Management Plan,

d) Develop guidelines for the physical stabilisation of structures, as well as criteria for conservation interventions and a manual for maintenance of earthen structures to ensure that the conditions of integrity and authenticity continue to be met and to promote a unity in conservation approaches,

e) Finalise the public use strategy, including the potential development of infrastructure and visitation routes and submit to the World Heritage Centre,

f) Consider the development of a proposal for the establishment of a training research centre to enhance capacity building and scientific research efforts,

g) Undertake community awareness-raising activities to enhance a better understanding by the local population of the Outstanding Universal Value of property;

6. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session in 2013; 

 

7. Decides to retain Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Islamic Republic of Iran) on the List of World Heritage in Danger. 

 

Report year: 2012
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Date of Inscription: 2004
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)(v)
Danger List (dates): 2004-2013
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 36COM (2012)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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