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Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore

Pakistan
Factors affecting the property in 2010*
  • Deliberate destruction of heritage
  • Financial resources
  • Housing
  • Land conversion
  • Legal framework
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Demolition of two of the tanks and partial demolition of a third tank of the hydraulic works of the ShalamarGardens;

b) Encroachments and urban pressure;

c) Inadequate management mechanisms (including incomplete legislation, lack of financial resources);

d) Lack of definition of boundaries of the Lahore Fort and ShalamarGardens.

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Damage to the external walls and demolition of hydraulic works of Shalamar Gardens;
  • Serious state of degradation of the historic monuments and garden complex within the property
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

a) Master Plans for Lahore Fort and ShalamarGardens approved and implemented;

b) Foundations of the water tanks of the hydraulic works at ShalamarGardens protected and consolidated as archaeological relics;

c) External walls of ShalamarGardens and Lahore Fort preserved and protected;

d) Boundaries of the core and buffer zones of Lahore Fort and ShalamarGardens redefined and extended;

e) Encroachments and urban pressure adequately controlled;

f) Safeguarding programme with corresponding timeframe and financial resources elaborated.

Corrective Measures for the property

a) Implementation of Master Plans for Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens;

b) Consolidation and adequate protection of the foundations of the demolished water tanks and preservation of the remaining third tank of the hydraulic works at Shalamar Gardens, as well as overall preservation of the hydraulic works as archaeological relics;

c) Protection and preservation measures for the external walls of Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens;

d) Redefinition of boundaries of the core and buffer zones of Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens and submission of proposal for extension to the World Heritage Committee, taking into account the recommendations to include the Badshahi Masjid (Royal Mosque) and Tomb of Rangjit Singh, proposed following the 2003 and 2005 missions;

e) Removal of encroachments and control of urban pressures, including removal of parking for busses in the immediate vicinity of Lahore Fort;

f) Prioritisation for allocation and use of available resources according to the management objectives determined in the Master Plans.

UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2010

Total amount provided to the property: USD 975,000, Norwegian Funds in Trust, Japanese Funds-in-Trust, Getty Foundation, United States Embassy in Pakistan

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2010
Requests approved: 5 (from 1981-2000)
Total amount approved : 121,000 USD
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2010

The State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property on 15 April 2010. With regard to the above-mentioned corrective measures, the report presented by the State Party outlines progress as follows:

a) Implementation of Master Plans for Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens

The report states that further progress has been made in the implementation of the Master Plans for Lahore Fort and ShalamarGardens, according to a 5 year programme. The workplans for 2009-2010 have been approved by a Steering Committee and the planned restoration and preservation activities are progressing for which an amount of RS 50.00 million have been allocated.

b) Consolidation and adequate protection of the foundations of the demolished water tanks

Following the consolidation and restoration of the remaining hydraulic structures, a permanent boundary wall with fence has been built around the area. All the debris and encroachments around the area have been removed.

c) Protection and preservation measures for the external walls of Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens

The State Party report lists the extensive actions carried out to repair and strengthen the badly deteriorated external walls of Lahore Fort and ShalamarGardens. Other activities include the creation of walkways in the Moat area, partial conservation of the Ath Dara Pavillion and of a water tank in Jahangir’s Quadrangle, of the Diwan-e-Aam, Akbari Mahal, and Kharak Singh Haveli, of the Shish Mahal surroundings and the Shah Burj area, of Sha Jahan’s Quadrangle, of the 2nd storey roof of the Shish Mahal, and of the Moti Mosjid, restoration of the walkways of the summer pavilion, of the Khwabgah Building, of the Moor-Craft Building of the Aramgah Shahjahani (Royal Rest House), of the Corner Towers. Thanks to internationally funded projecs the authorities have been able to import red sandstone from India for the conservation works.

d) Redefinition of the boundaries

The State Party reports that the boundaries of Lahore Fort and ShalamarGardens have been defined and that notifications in this respect have been issued by the Government of Punjab.

e) Removal of encroachments and control of urban pressure

The State Party has acquired land for parking and a public facilities at the south-east corner of ShalamarGardens. Efforts on the Government side are being made to control the urban pressure and encroachments inside the buffer zone.

f) Prioritisation for allocation and use of available resources

Information on the amount of funding for conservation works as foreseen in the Master Plans for Lahore and Shalamar Gardens has been provided, although no further information is given concerning the prioritisation for the use of these and other resources.

The State Party report does not provide any further information concerning progress made with the preparation of the Statement of Outstanding Universal Value, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 33rd session (Seville, 2009), nor have the redefined boundaries been submitted for formal approval to the World Heritage Committee according to the procedures set out in the Operational Guidelines.

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies note the considerable progress made in the implementation of the Master Plans for the Lahore Fort and ShalamarGardens, notably as concerns the conservation of individual buildings and structures within the property and the measures taken to protect the remains of the demolished water tanks. They further note that work remains to be done to ensure an effective control of encroachments around the ShalamarGardens. This is a delicate issue that requires careful consultations with the local community and appropriate solutions that balance conservation needs and sustainable development.

As regards the draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies suggest that this be addressed in the framework of the Periodic Reporting exercise for Asia and Pacific, when the State Party will receive training and technical assistance. Once the State Party has submitted a proposal for the extension of the property, as recommended by the World Heritage Committee at previous sessions, and based on the progress made on controlling urban pressure on the two component sites of the property, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies consider that a monitoring mission could be dispatched to assess the possibility of removing the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2010
34 COM 7A.25
Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) (C 171–172)

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add,

2. Recalling Decision 33 COM 7A.23, adopted at its 33rd session (Seville, 2009),

3. Notes with satisfaction the continuing progress made by the State Party in the overall preservation and restoration of Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens;

4. Also notes, however, that work remains to be done to ensure an effective control of encroachments around the Shalamar Gardens, and considers that this is a delicate issue that requires careful consultations with the local community and appropriate solutions that balance conservation needs and sustainable development;

5. Reiterates its request to the State Party:

a) to develop, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value, and to submit it to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2011, for examination by the World Heritage Committee,

b) to redefine in a precise manner the boundaries of the property, as well as its buffer zone, and to consider the extension of the property with the aim to include the Royal Mosque (Badshahi Masjid) and the Tomb of Rangit Singh,

c) to identify an appropriate solution to control urban pressure and encroachments around the Shalamar Gardens;

6. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2011, a report on the progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures, particularly on the above mentioned points for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session in 2011;

7. Decides to retain the Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

34 COM 8C.2
Establishment of the World Heritage List in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-10/34.COM/7A, WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add and WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add.2),

2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:

  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 34 COM 7A.22)
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 34 COM 7A.23)
  • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 34 COM 7A.13)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.1)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 34 COM 7A.29)
  • Colombia, Los Katios National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.14)
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.2)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 34 COM 7A.3)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Virunga National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.4)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.5)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Garamba National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.6)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Salonga National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.7)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 34 COM 7A.8)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 34 COM 7A.17)
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.9)
  • Georgia, Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Decision 34 COM 7A.27)
  • India, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (Decision 34 COM 7A.12)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 34 COM 7A.18)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 34 COM 7A.19)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 34 COM 7A.24)
  • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 34 COM 7A.20)
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 34 COM 7A.10)
  • Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 34 COM 7A.25)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 34 COM 7A.30)
  • Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 34 COM 7A.26)
  • Senegal, Niokolo Koba National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.11)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 34 COM 7A.28)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 34 COM 7A.16)
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 34 COM 7A.31)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 34 COM 7A.21)
Draft Decision: 34 COM 7A.25

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add,

2. Recalling Decision 33 COM 7A.23, adopted at its 33rd session (Seville, 2009),

3. Notes with satisfaction the continuing progress made by the State Party in the overall preservation and restoration of Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens;

4. Also notes, however, that work remains to be done to ensure an effective control of encroachments around the Shalamar Gardens, and considers that this is a delicate issue that requires careful consultations with the local community and appropriate solutions that balance conservation needs and sustainable development;

5. Reiterates its request to the State Party:

a) to develop, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value, and to submit it to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2011, for examination by the World Heritage Committee,

b) to submit to the World Heritage Committee a formal request for the modification of the boundaries of the property, according to the provision of Paragraphs 163-165 of the Operational Guidelines,

c) to identify an appropriate solution to control urban pressure and encroachments around the ShalamarGardens;

6. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2011, a report on the progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures, particularly on the above mentioned points for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session in 2011;

7. Decides to retain the Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger. 

Report year: 2010
Pakistan
Date of Inscription: 1981
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(ii)(iii)
Danger List (dates): 2000-2012
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 34COM (2010)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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