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Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore

Pakistan
Factors affecting the property in 2011*
  • Deliberate destruction of heritage
  • Financial resources
  • Housing
  • Land conversion
  • Legal framework
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Demolition of two of the tanks and partial demolition of a third tank of the hydraulic works of the Shalamar Gardens;

b) Encroachments and urban pressure;

c) Inadequate management mechanisms (including incomplete legislation, lack of financial resources);

d) Lack of definition of boundaries of the Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens.

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Damage to the external walls and demolition of hydraulic works of Shalamar Gardens;
  • Serious state of degradation of the historic monuments and garden complex within the property.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

a) Master Plans for Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens approved and implemented;

b) Foundations of the water tanks of the hydraulic works at Shalamar Gardens protected and consolidated as archaeological relics;

c) External walls of Shalamar Gardens and Lahore Fort preserved and protected;

d) Boundaries of the core and buffer zones of Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens redefined and extended;

e) Encroachments and urban pressure adequately controlled;

f) Safeguarding programme with corresponding timeframe and financial resources elaborated.

Corrective Measures for the property

a) Implementation of Master Plans for Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens;

b) Consolidation and adequate protection of the foundations of the demolished water tanks and preservation of the remaining third tank of the hydraulic works at Shalamar Gardens, as well as overall preservation of the hydraulic works as archaeological relics;

c) Protection and preservation measures for the external walls of Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens;

d) Redefinition of boundaries of the core and buffer zones of Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens and submission of proposal for extension to the World Heritage Committee, taking into account the recommendations to include the Badshahi Masjid (Royal Mosque) and Tomb of Ranjit Sing, proposed following the 2003 and 2005 missions;

e) Removal of encroachments and control of urban pressures, including removal of parking for busses in the immediate vicinity of Lahore Fort;

f) Prioritisation for allocation and use of available resources according to the management objectives determined in the Master Plans.

UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2011

Total amount provided to the property: USD 975,000, Norwegian Funds in Trust, Japanese Funds-in-Trust, Getty Foundation, United States Embassy in Pakistan

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2011
Requests approved: 5 (from 1981-2000)
Total amount approved : 121,000 USD
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2011

On 1 February 2011, a report on the state of conservation of the Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) was submitted by the State Party. The report gives an overview of the state of conservation of the property, and information on the implementation of the corrective measures identified by the World Heritage Committee.

The report also addresses issues raised by the World Heritage Committee during its 34th session including ensuring “effective control of encroachments around the Shalamar Gardens”, developing a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (SOUV) for submission to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2011, and redefiningthe boundaries of the property and its buffer zone, and considering the extension of the property to include the Royal Mosque (Badshahi Masjid) and the Tomb of Ranjit Sing.

Concerning the overall state of conservation of the property, the report describes a series of key conservation works being undertaken in the framework of a “Five Year Program for Preservation and Restoration of Lahore Fort” and a “Five Year Program for Preservation and Restoration of Shalamar Gardens”. 19 projects being undertaken in the current year are described, involving a State expenditure of 70 million rupees (around USD 824.500).

Among the corrective measures mentioned above, a), b) & c) have been achieved. Progress with regard to corrective measures d) (boundary definition) and e) (urban encroachments), as well as the requests made by the World Heritage Committee in its Decision 34 COM 7A.25 (Brasilia, 2010) are reported on below.

 

a) Statement of Outstanding Universal Value

As part of the Periodic Reporting process, the Sate Party submitted a draft SOUV on 1 February 2011. It has been forwarded to ICOMOS for review for eventual submission to the World Heritage Committee for approval in 2012

 

b) Boundaries and buffer zone

The State Party has defined the property’s boundaries and buffer zone, and these have been notified by the Government of Punjab, although not yet been formally submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review. With regard to the possible inclusion of the Badshahi Mosque and the Tomb of Ranjit Sing, the State Party is of the view that they could be nominated separately in the future.

 

c) Appropriate solutions to urban pressures and encroachments

The State Party reports having made substantial progress on this issue by working together with all relevant stakeholders, as well as through the application of relevant legislation. Activities mentioned in the State Party report (provision of alternative parking, improved property access, compensation mechanisms for displaced house-holders, prohibition on new construction, etc.) could lead to a sustainable solution to reduce the urban pressures and encroachments.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2011

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies are of the view that the State Party has taken positive steps to comply with the corrective measures mentioned above, thus moving towards fulfilling the requirements under the Desired State of Conservation. A mission to the property would allow ascertaining if all conditions have been met for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger.

They would however urge the State Party to formally submit to the World Heritage Centre a proposal for defining the boundaries of the property and the proposal for the establishment of a buffer zone, for the approval of the World Heritage Committee. In regard to the possible extension to include the Badshahi Mosque and Tomb of Ranjit Sing, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies concur that these sites may be considered as possible separate future nominations.  

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2011
35 COM 7A.27
Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) (C 171–172)

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 34 COM 7A.25, adopted at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010),

3. Recognizes the efforts made by the State Party to ensure the safeguarding of the property and encourages it to continue such efforts in cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;

4. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre a map showing the boundaries of the property at the time of inscription, meeting all technical requirements established by the World Heritage Committee, and also encourages the State Party to submit, by 1 February 2012, a formal request for the establishment of a buffer zone;

5. Also requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre /ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to the property with a view to examining the feasibility of removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;

6. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2012, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session in 2012;

7. Decides to retain the Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

35 COM 8C.2
Establishment of the World Heritage List in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-11/35.COM/7A, WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add and WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add.Corr),

2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:

  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 35 COM 7A.24)
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 35 COM 7A.25)
  • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 35 COM 7A.15)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.1)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 35 COM 7A.32)
  • Colombia, Los Katios National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.16)
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.2)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 35 COM 7A.3)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.4)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.5)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.6)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.7)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 35 COM 7A.8)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 35 COM 7A.19)
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.9)
  • Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (Decision 35 COM 7A.29)
  • Georgia, Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Decision 35 COM 7A.30)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 35 COM 7A.20)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 35 COM  7A.21)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 35 COM 7A.26)
  • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 35 COM 7A.22)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 35 COM 7A.10)
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 35 COM 7A.11)
  • Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 35 COM 7A.27)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 35 COM 7A.33)
  • Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 35 COM 7A.28)
  • Senegal, Niokolo Koba National Park (Decision 35 COM  7A.12)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 35 COM 7A.31)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 35 COM 7A.18)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 35 COM 7A.17)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.14)
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 35 COM 7A.34)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 35 COM 7A.23)
35 COM 8E
Adoption of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/8E,

2. Adopts the retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value, as presented in the Annex I of Document WHC-11/35.COM/8E, for the following World Heritage properties:

  • Afghanistan: Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam; Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley;
  • Bahrain: Qal'at al-Bahrain - Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun;
  • Benin: Royal Palaces of Abomey;
  • Botswana: Tsodilo;
  • Cameroon: Dja Faunal Reserve;
  • Central African Republic: Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park;
  • China: Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas;
  • Germany: Upper Middle Rhine Valley;
  • India: Manas Wildlife Sanctuary;
  • Kenya: Lake Turkana National Parks; Lamu Old Town;
  • Malawi: Chongoni Rock-Art Area;
  • Mali: Old Towns of Djenné;
  • Pakistan: Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore;
  • Peru: Chan Chan Archaeological Zone;
  • Philippines: Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras;
  • Senegal: Island of Saint-Louis;
  • South Africa: iSimangaliso Wetland Park; Robben Island; Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape; Cape Floral Region Protected Areas; Vredefort Dome;
  • Togo: Koutammakou, the Land of the Batammariba;
  • Turkey: Historic Areas of Istanbul;
  • Uganda: Bwindi Impenetrable National Park; Rwenzori Mountains National Park;
  • United Republic of Tanzania: Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara;
  • Yemen: Old Walled City of Shibam; Old City of Sana'a;
  • Zimbabwe: Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore Safari Areas;

3. Decides that retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value for World Heritage properties in Danger will be reviewed in priority;

4. Further decides that, considering the high number of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value to be examined, the order in which they will be reviewed will follow the Second Cycle of Periodic Reporting, namely:

  • World Heritage properties in the Arab States;
  • World Heritage properties in Africa;
  • World Heritage properties in Asia and the Pacific;
  • World Heritage properties in Latin America and the Caribbean;
  • World Heritage properties in Europe and North America.

Draft Decision: 35 COM 7A.27

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 34 COM 7A.25, adopted at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010),

3. Recognizes the efforts made by the State Party to ensure the safeguarding of the property and encourages it to continue such efforts in cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;

4. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre a map showing the boundaries of the property at the time of inscription, meeting all technical requirements established by the World Heritage Committee, and also encourages the State Party to submit, by 1 February 2012, a formal request for the establishment of a buffer zone;

5. Also requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre /ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to the property with a view to examining the feasibility of removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;

6. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2012, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session in 2012;

7. Decides to retain the Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Report year: 2011
Pakistan
Date of Inscription: 1981
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(ii)(iii)
Danger List (dates): 2000-2012
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 35COM (2011)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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