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Brasilia

Brazil
Factors affecting the property in 2021*
  • Housing
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Housing (urban pressure that may affect the original city plan (Plano Piloto) that warranted inscription on the World Heritage List)
  • Management systems/ management plan (lack of a Master Plan)
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2021
Requests approved: 2 (from 1997-2000)
Total amount approved : 42,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2021**

1993: technical mission; November 2001: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS mission; March 2012: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2021

On 30 November 2020, the State Party presented a state of conservation report, which is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/445/documents/, and responds in part to Decision 43 COM 7B.96 of the World Heritage Committee, as follows:

  • The Technical Support Agreement between the National Historic and Artistic Heritage Institute (IPHAN) and the Government of the Federal District (GDF) was renewed up to June 2024. The Technical Support Group meets regularly to elaborate recommendations, discuss case studies, and respond together to issues involving responsibilities of the institutions comprising the Group;
  • The draft Preservation Plan for the Urban Ensemble of Brasilia (PPCUB) was evaluated by IPHAN in December 2019 and is currently being revised by the State Secretariat for Urban Development and Housing (SEDUH), as a priority issue in its Strategic Institutional Plan;
  • The elaboration of the Management Plan, using participatory and strategic planning methodologies, is envisaged for 2021;
  • The constitution of the Management Committee, including mapping of active and acknowledged agents and organizations in the field of cultural heritage, selection of these organizations through public notice, and establishment of the Management Committee through an IPHAN Ordinance, is envisaged for 2022;
  • Two proposals are currently under discussion between IPHAN and the GDF that could have an impact on the conservation of the property. The South Commercial Sector Revitalisation Programme (Viva Centro!) envisages the inclusion of housing in 30% of the South Commercial Sector, which implies the change of use of the area. After the current process of public debate, the proposal will be submitted to IPHAN for technical assessment. The second proposal (Pátio Ferroviário de Brasilia) intends to develop extensive open spaces in the property’s buffer zone to house a new neighbourhood that would include collective dwellings, commercial buildings, and public equipment. The State Party acknowledges the concern regarding the verticalization of the new neighbourhood, to be located in a sensitive area near the Monumental Axis of the city;
  • The GDF has recently undertaken actions for preserving heritage buildings and sites within the property, including measures to enable the restoration of Oscar Niemeyer’s Touring Club to house a museum, and implementing an accessibility and requalification project at South W3 Avenue public spaces;
  • Activities related to fostering promotion and interpretation of the property have been carried out by IPHAN in partnership with the GDF, including the signing of a Technical Cooperation Agreement with the local Secretariat of Education, through which books on cultural heritage have been written and distance learning activities offered for public elementary and high school teachers, and holding initial debates for the implementation of the interpretation centre for the property (with the local Secretariat of Tourism) and a series of events, Jornadas do Patrimônio (in partnership with the local Secretariats of Education and Culture).
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2021

The renewal of the Technical Support Agreement between IPHAN and the GDF up to June 2024, the actions and projects related to the conservation and eventual restoration of heritage buildings and sites, and the activities regarding promotion and interpretation of the property, are noted with appreciation. The State Party should consider a future institutionalization of the Technical Support Agreement in a broader Management Committee in the longer term.

The Committee may wish to welcome that the PPCUB was evaluated by IPHAN in December 2019 and is currently being revised by the SEDUH. As reported by the State Party, the ongoing revision of the Plan includes taking into account suggestions made by IPHAN and other organizations; it is recommended that the Committee invite the State Party to submit the Plan, once revised, to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies.

As for the elaboration of the Management Plan and the constitution of the Management Committee, the State Party reports a timeframe of one and two years, respectively. Even though those actions are acknowledged, it is unclear whether the planned constitution of the Management Committee only in 2022 might delay the full implementation of the plan, once approved. Considering the existence of project proposals that could constitute a potential risk to the preservation of the property, such as those mentioned in the report or others that could come in the future, it is considered that both the elaboration of the Management Plan and the constitution of the Management Committee should be considered priority actions that it would be advisable to envisage by the end of 2021.  

The Viva Centro! and Pátio Ferroviário de Brasilia projects are particular cause for concern. Regarding the former, the change of uses and the inclusion of housing in the commercial sector would imply an alteration of the scales described and designed in Lucio Costa’s Plano Piloto, one of the main attributes of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV). The second project, involving land development of unoccupied areas of the buffer zone, would signify an irreversible alteration of part of the original plan of Brasilia. The negative impact of this proposal would not be limited to visual aspects, caused by its proximity to the Monumental Axis, but would also result in the further alteration of the relationship between the Plano Piloto and its surrounding natural areas, and increase the pressure on the World Heritage property provoked by an increased number of inhabitants and vehicular traffic; the State Party itself acknowledges concerns about this project. It is therefore recommended that the Committee request the State Party to halt the ongoing processes of discussion and elaboration of both proposals until a clear management and legal framework, based on the preservation of the OUV and the attributes that convey it, is in place. It is also recommended that the State Party ensure that any major interventions to the property are first reviewed, as defined in Title IV of IPHAN Ordinance 421/2018, and approved by the Technical Support Group.

Therefore, despite the reported progress regarding the current revision of the PPCUB and the elaboration of the Management Plan, the framework for the conservation of the property is still fragile, and several of the recommendations of the 2012 joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission have not yet been implemented, including some of those considered priorities. In this context, proposals such as Viva Centro! and Pátio Ferroviário de Brasilia put in evidence a lack of adequate understanding of the OUV and its attributes, especially the four scales on which Lucio Costa’s Plano Piloto is based. Any potential discussion on the alteration of the land uses within the boundaries of the property and its buffer zone should be based on the consideration of the preservation of the attributes of OUV, and any proposal that could put this at risk should be avoided. It is also advised that IPHAN be involved in these projects from the early stages of the proposals.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2021
44 COM 7B.163
Brasilia (Brazil) (C 445)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7B.96, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Welcomes the renewal of the Technical Support Agreement between the National Historic and Artistic Heritage Institute (IPHAN) and the Government of the Federal District (GDF), and the activities and projects related to the conservation and eventual restoration of heritage buildings and sites, and to the promotion and interpretation of the property;
  4. Notes with satisfaction that the draft Preservation Plan for the Urban Ensemble of Brasilia (PPCUB) was evaluated by IPHAN in December 2019 and is currently being revised by the State Secretariat for Urban Development and Housing (SEDUH), and requests the State Party to submit the plan, once revised, together with IPHAN’s technical opinion, to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  5. Notes that a timeframe for the elaboration of the Management Plan and the constitution of the Management Committee is proposed, but also requests the State Party to envisage the conclusion of both actions by the end of 2021, so that the Management Plan can be approved and put in place;
  6. Notes with concern that new projects that could jeopardise the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property and its attributes are proposed, urges the State Party to halt the ongoing processes of discussion and elaboration of projects until a clear management and legal framework, based on the preservation of the OUV and the attributes that convey it, is in place, and further requests the State Party to ensure that major interventions to the property are first reviewed as defined in Title IV of IPHAN Ordinance 421/2018 and approved by the Technical Support Group, and to keep the World Heritage Centre informed of any potential projects that may negatively impact the OUV of the property, in line with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines;
  7. Also urges the State Party to fully implement the recommendations of the 2012 joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission;
  8. Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by December 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 46th session.
Draft Decision: 44 COM 7B.163

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7B.96, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Welcomes the renewal of the Technical Support Agreement between the National Historic and Artistic Heritage Institute (IPHAN) and the Government of the Federal District (GDF), and the activities and projects related to the conservation and eventual restoration of heritage buildings and sites, and to the promotion and interpretation of the property;
  4. Notes with satisfaction that the draft Preservation Plan for the Urban Ensemble of Brasilia (PPCUB) was evaluated by IPHAN in December 2019 and is currently being revised by the State Secretariat for Urban Development and Housing (SEDUH), and requests the State Party to submit the plan, once revised, together with IPHAN’s technical opinion, to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  5. Notes that a timeframe for the elaboration of the Management Plan and the constitution of the Management Committee is proposed, but also requests the State Party to envisage the conclusion of both actions by the end of 2021, so that the Management Plan can be approved and put in place;
  6. Notes with concern that new projects that could jeopardise the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property and its attributes are proposed, urges the State Party to halt the ongoing processes of discussion and elaboration of projects until a clear management and legal framework, based on the preservation of the OUV and the attributes that convey it, is in place, and further requests the State Party to ensure that major interventions to the property are first reviewed as defined in Title IV of IPHAN Ordinance 421/2018 and approved by the Technical Support Group, and to keep the World Heritage Centre informed of any potential projects that may negatively impact the OUV of the property, in line with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines;
  7. Also urges the State Party to fully implement the recommendations of the 2012 joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission;
  8. Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by December 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 46th session in 2023.
Report year: 2021
Brazil
Date of Inscription: 1987
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iv)
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2020) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 44COM (2021)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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