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Brasilia

Brazil
Factors affecting the property in 2017*
  • Housing
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Urban pressure that may affect the original city plan (Plano Piloto) that warranted inscription in the World Heritage List 
  • Lack of a Master Plan
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2017
Requests approved: 2 (from 1997-2000)
Total amount approved : 42,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2017**

1993: technical mission; November 2001: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS mission; March 2012: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2017

On 1 December 2016, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, which is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/445/documents and presents the following information:

  • A working group of the Federal District Agency for Territorial Management and Housing (SEGETH) restarted the process of the preparation of the Preservation Plan of Brasilia’s Urban Area (PPCUB) in January 2016, and established a work plan and methodology. This is presently being implemented in collaboration with the Federal District Council on Preservation and Territorial Planning (CCPPTM/DF) that includes civil society. It is expected that the third version of the PPCUB Draft Bill will be presented to the Legislative Branch in the course of 2017;
  • In March 2015, a Technical Support Agreement was signed between SEGETH and the National Historic and Artistic Heritage Institute (IPHAN) to create a Technical Support Group and establish a shared agenda for the management of the Urban Ensemble. In June 2016, two other federal agencies - the Culture Agency (SeCult) and the Fiscalization Agency (AGEFIS) - joined the Agreement. To date, the Technical Support Group held 57 meetings to address issues such as urban drainage, land developments in the Embassies Sector, guidelines for commercial kiosks in public spaces, renewal/restoration of the Bus Central Terminal (Rodoviária do Plano Piloto), completion of the IPHAN Ordinance nr. 314/92 and changes to the road access (Eixo Rodoviário Norte);
  • Following consultations with the Technical Support Group and architects and urban planners, IPHAN issued Ordinance nr. 166/2016 (dated 11 May 2016 and attached to the State Party report in Portuguese and English). This Ordinance complements Ordinance 314/1992 and organizes the World Heritage area of Brasilia in two protected areas (A and B) according to their historical and urban importance. The Ordinance defines strict criteria for the Plano Piloto and its four preservation zones (Area A) and specific parameters and levels of preservation for the three other preservation zones (Area B).

Among other measures for the conservation of the property, the State Party refers to IPHAN Ordinance 184 for the conditions for temporary structures on the Esplanada dos Ministérios, Praça dos Três Poderes and their surroundings, the declaration as national monuments of 23 individual structures of Oscar Niemeyer, initiatives of the Technical Support Group to involve inhabitants of the superquadras in cultural heritage preservation and issues of housing and commercial spaces, and the adoption of a heritage education policy by the Federal District Education Agency.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2017

The State Party report provides limited information regarding the preparation of the PPCUB and the cooperation agreement between the two institutions (IPHAN and SEGETH). However, an analysis of the text of the cooperation agreement confirms that the objectives and methods of operation of the agreement are clearly spelled out. The fact that to date more than 50 working meetings of the Technical Support Group were held demonstrates that the Group is operational and forms an appropriate mechanism for cooperation and coordination. It is noted however that the duration of the agreement is 48 months. It should be recommended that after this period, the effectiveness of the agreement be assessed and a long-term mechanism of cooperation be established.

As to the third version of the PPCUB, the State Party informs that this will be concluded in 2017. It is recommended that the Committee request the State Party to submit this document as soon as it becomes available to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies.

IPHAN Ordinance 166/2016 as a complement to Ordinance 314/1992 is an important document in the process to preserve the Urban Ensemble of Brasilia. The Technical Document that accompanies the Ordinance recalls the origins of the Plano Piloto and its development over time and the efforts to preserve its Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) through specific legislation by the Government of the Federal District (GDF) and IPHAN. The document underscores that the dynamics and rapid growth of the city require new approaches, new instruments and new management practices.

The Federal Legislation now consists of Ordinance 314/1992 (to which is attached Lucio Costa´s study and recommendations: Brasilia Revisited 1985/1987 Complementation, Preservation, Densification and Urban Expansion) that is now complemented by Ordinance 166/2016. This Ordinance defines two main protected areas (A and B) and a number of preservation zones, for which specific guidelines regarding use, occupancy and height, among others, are stablished. Area A includes the Plano Piloto itself and the land up to the lake shore, stressing the intimate relation between the city and the lake and its surrounding landscape.

The final provisions of Ordinance 166/2016 stipulate that interventions in the Urban Ensemble of Brasilia should be submitted for analysis and approval by the Federal District and that IPHAN´s approval will be mandatory only in specific cases. It is noted that the Ordinance does not define the mechanisms for the implementation of these provisions. An effective cooperation and coordination between the two bodies through the Technical Support Group and other mechanisms is considered indispensable, as is the alignment between the Ordinances and the PPCUB.

ICOMOS’ Technical Review of the Ordinance concludes that an important result has been achieved, but it points out that a great number of civic and other organizations signed in May 2016 a Manifesto that expresses very serious concerns about the implications of the Ordinance regarding the changes in use and heights, the use and functions of the residential areas and the entrequadras, the original concept for the use and functions of the border of Lake Paranoá, among other matters. Therefore, a public debate about Ordinance 166/2016 would be desirable with the participation of the population and civil organizations, and this should eventually lead to a review of the Ordinance in order to clarify any imprecision and contradiction with previous ordinances, and to strengthen the integrity and preservation of the property.

The same Review points out that Ordinance 184 should be more restrictive and should only allow for the temporary uses of the Esplanada associated with its symbolic values, and should further minimize the time and dimensions of the installations and temporary structures.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2017
41 COM 7B.58
Brasilia (Brazil) (C 445)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/17/41.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 39 COM 7B.88, adopted at its 39th session (Bonn, 2015),
  3. Commends the progress made in establishing institutional mechanisms for the cooperation and coordination between the National Historic and Artistic Heritage Institute (IPHAN) and the Federal District Agency for Territorial Management and Housing (SEGETH), and other parties, and that a joint Technical Support Group has been operational since 2015; and recommends that the effectiveness of this agreement be assessed after the initial three-year period in order to establish long-term mechanisms for institutional cooperation and coordination;
  4. Welcomes IPHAN Ordinance 166/2016 as a complement to Ordinance 314/1992 that establishes protective areas and protective zones for the World Heritage site and defines criteria for functions, density, building heights and open spaces; notes however that a number of civil and professional organizations expressed serious concerns about its impact and implications on core values and attributes of the property and therefore recommends that the State Party initiate an open debate to discuss these concerns and eventually review the Ordinance in order to strengthen it as a tool to preserve and enhance the OUV of the Urban Ensemble of Brasilia;
  5. Equally welcomes IPHAN Ordinance 184 that establishes conditions for temporary use and structures on the Esplanada dos Ministérios, Praça dos Três Poderes and their surroundings, and also recommends that the State Party consider even more restrictive regulations in this respect;
  6. Also notes that the process for the preparation of the Preservation Plan of Brasilia’s Urban Area (PPCUB) has been restarted and that a third draft will be finalized in the course of 2017, and requests the State Party to submit the final draft of the PPCUB as soon as it becomes available to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  7. Also requests the State Party to provide to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2018, a report on:
    1. the alignment and interaction of the IPHAN Ordinances 166/2016, 314/1992 and the PPCUB,
    2. the assessment of the effectiveness of the Technical Support Agreement and Technical Support Group as a mechanism of institutional cooperation and coordination,
    3. the provisions for the review and approval of interventions in the Urban Ensemble of Brasilia as defined in Title IV of IPHAN Ordinance 166/2016 and the PPCUB;
  8. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2018, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above for review by the Advisory Bodies, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 43rd session in 2019.
Draft Decision: 41 COM 7B.58

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/17/41.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 39 COM 7B.88, adopted at its 39th session (Bonn, 2015),
  3. Commends the progress made in establishing institutional mechanisms for the cooperation and coordination between the National Historic and Artistic Heritage Institute (IPHAN) and the Federal District Agency for Territorial Management and Housing (SEGETH), and other parties, and that a joint Technical Support Group has been operational since 2015; and recommends that the effectiveness of this agreement be assessed after the initial three-year period in order to establish long-term mechanisms for institutional cooperation and coordination;
  4. Welcomes IPHAN Ordinance 166/2016 as a complement to Ordinance 314/1992 that establishes protective areas and protective zones for the World Heritage site and defines criteria for functions, density, building heights and open spaces; notes however that a number of civil and professional organizations expressed serious concerns about its impact and implications on core values and attributes of the property and therefore recommends that the State Party initiate an open debate to discuss these concerns and eventually review the Ordinance in order to strengthen it as a tool to preserve and enhance the OUV of the Urban Ensemble of Brasilia;
  5. Equally welcomes IPHAN Ordinance 184 that establishes conditions for temporary use and structures on the Esplanada dos Ministérios, Praça dos Três Poderes and their surroundings, and also recommends that the State Party consider even more restrictive regulations in this respect;
  6. Also notes that the process for the preparation of the Preservation Plan of Brasilia’s Urban Area (PPCUB) has been restarted and that a third draft will be finalized in the course of 2017, and requests the State Party to submit the final draft of the PPCUB as soon as it becomes available to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  7. Also requests the State Party to provide to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2018, a report on:
    1. the alignment and interaction of the IPHAN Ordinances 166/2016, 314/1992 and the PPCUB,
    2. the assessment of the effectiveness of the Technical Support Agreement and Technical Support Group as a mechanism of institutional cooperation and coordination,
    3. the provisions for the review and approval of interventions in the Urban Ensemble of Brasilia as defined in Title IV of IPHAN Ordinance 166/2016 and the PPCUB;
  8. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2018, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above for review by the Advisory Bodies, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 43rd session in 2019.
Report year: 2017
Brazil
Date of Inscription: 1987
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iv)
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2016) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 41COM (2017)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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