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Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary

Senegal
Factors affecting the property in 2021*
  • Financial resources
  • Fishing/collecting aquatic resources
  • Human resources
  • Invasive / alien freshwater species
  • Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Subsistence hunting
  • Other Threats:

    Soils salinity

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Invasive species;
  • Integrated water management system not operational and lack of hydrological monitoring;
  • Soils salinity;
  • Cattle grazing;
  • Poaching and illegal fishing;
  • Lack of management plan and sustained funding (issue resolved);
  • Poor management capacity and constant changes in staff;
  • Poor visitor management.
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2021

Total amount granted: USD 300,000 from the Government of Norway for the period 2020-2022

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2021
Requests approved: 8 (from 1980-2021)
Total amount approved : 332,493 USD
Missions to the property until 2021**

September 2000: UNESCO/IUCN/Ramsar mission; April 2004: UNESCO and IUCN participation in a multi-stakeholder workshop; May 2005: UNESCO/IUCN monitoring mission 

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2021

On 31 January 2020, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/25/documents, which provides the following information:

  • The intensification of rice cultivation near the property due to the development of hydro-agricultural infrastructures produces discharges of effluents inside the property, thus causing water pollution, the proliferation of invasive already identified species such as Typha australis and the appearance of others such as Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas marina;
  • The area colonized by Typha is estimated at around 790.67 ha, almost 5% of the area of ​​the property. On the basis of the results of studies carried out on invasive plants, actions (in particular grubbing-up) have been undertaken to limit their proliferation;
    • Physico-chemical and chromatographic analyses of the property's waters revealed the presence of pesticide residues leading to accelerated eutrophication of effluent discharge areas;
  • A Development and Management Plan (2017-2022) has been adopted for the property but cattle straying and illegal fishing within the property continue. The regularity of the surveillance patrols enabled the arrest of six poachers, the seizure of seven pirogues, nearly a ton of fish, and the application of transactional fines for more than a thousand heads of cattle;
  • Regarding the straying of livestock, in addition to information, education and awareness raising actions carried out among communities, the directory of livestock owners has been created and enclosures have been built;
  • Major development works are underway and / or planned with the support of the MAVA Foundation and Luxembourg cooperation to combat the proliferation of invasive species and create optimal ecological conditions. It is also planned to build a bund and a canal along the outer limits of the park to limit inputs related to rice cultivation and the proliferation of invasive species, demarcate the boundaries of the property, prevent the straying of livestock and develop access routes to the villages.

On 23 March 2019, the World Heritage Centre received the technical documents of the project for the construction of a bund and a canal.  In its technical review of 12 March 2020, IUCN recognized the need to act to preserve the site and the value of the proposed project given the various threats to the property.  It insisted on the need to ensure that the project clearly identifies and avoids any potential negative impact on the property and its Outstanding Universal Value (OUV).

In addition, the World Heritage Centre, with funding from the Government of Norway, also contributes to the establishment of protective measures to mitigate the impacts of agro-industrial projects located near the property and to the strengthening of the resilience of the communities.

On 23 January 2021, the State Party reported the death of at least 750 juvenile white pelicans in the property. The results of laboratory analyses confirmed an outbreak of avian influenza. UNESCO thus organized, on 11 February 2021, a virtual meeting with the Senegalese and Mauritanian authorities in charge of the management of the property and the National Parks of Diawling (PND) and Banc d’Arquin (PNBA), as well as the representatives of the FAO, the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), the CMS Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds, the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA), the RAMSAR Convention, IUCN, the MAVA Foundation, The Regional Partnership for the Conservation of the Coastal and Marine Zone of West Africa (PRCM) and Migratory Birds of the Western Palearctic (OMPO).

The request for Emergency Assistance to contain the epizootic and sensitize neighbouring communities was approved on 9 March 2021.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2021

It is recalled that the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger in 2000 due to the proliferation of invasive species, in particular Pistia and Typha. The removal of the property from this List in 2006 was justified by the implementation of an action plan that made it possible to better control this problem. Unfortunately, it is of great concern that the accelerated development of agro-industrial projects in the buffer zone is causing pollution of the waters of the property and the exponential proliferation of several invasive species, again threatening the OUV of the property. It is crucial that the State Party take urgent actions to intercept the flow of pollutants into the watershed and define an emergency plan for the decontamination of the water.

The commitment of the State Party to address the above issues, including through the proposed Luxembourg-funded project, and to restore the ecological integrity of the property is noted with satisfaction. However, it is important that the Committee reiterates the need to ensure that this project clearly identifies and avoids any potential negative impact on the OUV of the property. UNESCO is providing financial support for the implementation of certain development works with the support of the Government of Norway.

The proliferation of agro-industrial projects in the buffer zone of the property is of great concern. It is regrettable that the World Heritage Centre has not been informed of the development of these multiple projects and it is recommended that the Committee request the State Party that no new projects be developed in the vicinity of the property without an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) or Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) being carried out in order to assess the impacts on the OUV of the property, including the cumulative effects of these projects.

Noting the persistence of livestock straying and illegal fishing within the property, it is recommended that the Committee requests the State Party to strengthen monitoring and management efforts and encourages it to continue the patrols and awareness-raising actions among communities, while implementing the Land Use and Allocation Plans to better control these threats. Other threats to the property mentioned in the past (sedimentation, water softening, reduction of natural periods of drying out) must also be addressed.

The avian influenza epidemic is worrying. Recognizing also the potential impacts in migration areas on a regional scale, it is recommended to apply the orientations provided by the Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds to contain the epizootic, to work in regional and international collaboration, and to monitor and report impacts on the OUV of the property.

Furthermore, it is regrettable that the State Party has not provided any information on the results of the ecological monitoring, in particular on population trends of resident and migratory birds, and it is recommended that the Committee requests the State Party to continue its efforts to improve the monitoring and protection of species characteristic of the OUV, and inform the World Heritage Centre accordingly.

In view of the threats described above, it is recommended that the Committee requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN Reactive Monitoring mission to assess the state of conservation of the property, in particular the impacts on the OUV of the property of the proliferation of invasive species and water pollution linked to the multiplication of agro-industrial projects in the buffer zone of the property, and to assess whether the conditions for a new inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger are met.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2021
44 COM 7B.83
Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary (Senegal) (N 25)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 35 COM 7B.4, adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),
  3. Welcomes the education, information and awareness-raising actions initiated by the State Party and its partners with a view to better involvement of the communities in the management of the property and encourages the State Party to continue this collaboration;
  4. Expresses its deepest concern at the proliferation of agricultural and agro-industrial projects in the buffer zone of the property resulting in pollution of the waters of the property and a new proliferation of various invasive species, which constitute a potential threat to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property, and requests the State Party:
    1. That no new project be developed near the property without first carrying out an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) or a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and submitting it to the World Heritage Centre, for examination by IUCN, in order to assess the impacts, including cumulative ones, of these projects, in accordance with paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines and the IUCN Advisory Note on World Heritage and Environmental Assessment,
    2. To take immediate emergency measures to intercept the flow of pollutants into the watershed and define a plan for water pollution control and control of invasive species;
  5. Takes note of the actions initiated by the State Party and its partners to improve the management of the property and combat the proliferation of invasive species, and also requests the State Party to ensure that any intervention measures taken do not threaten the OUV of the property;
  6. Notes with satisfaction the adoption of the Development and Management Plan for the property (2017-2022), the monitoring efforts that have enabled the arrest of several poachers and the seizure of their equipment, and requests the State Party to strengthen management measures, by implementing Land Use and Allocation Plans to eradicate threats affecting the property;
  7. Expresses concern about the appearance of the epidemic of avian influenza in Senegal and Mauritania which has caused a high mortality of juvenile white pelicans within the property, and encourages the State Party and its partners to apply the orientations of the Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds in their efforts to contain the epizootic, and further requests the State Party to monitor the impacts on the OUV and provide a report to the World Heritage Centre;
  8. Thanks the donors who continue to support the conservation of the property, in particular the Governments of Luxembourg and Norway;
  9. Regrets that the State Party has not provided any information on the results of ecological monitoring, in particular on trends in populations of resident and migratory birds, and further requests that it continue its efforts to improve the monitoring and protection of species characteristic of the OUV, and to inform the World Heritage Centre accordingly;
  10. Additionally requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN Reactive Monitoring mission to assess the state of conservation of the property, in particular the impacts of the proliferation of invasive species and water pollution related to the multiplication of agro-industrial projects in the buffer zone of the property on the OUV of the property, and assess whether the conditions for a new inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger are met;
  11. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session.
Draft Decision: 44 COM 7B.83

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 35 COM 7B.4, adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),
  3. Welcomes the education, information and awareness-raising actions initiated by the State Party and its partners with a view to better involvement of the communities in the management of the property and encourages the State Party to continue this collaboration;
  4. Expresses its deepest concern at the proliferation of agricultural and agro-industrial projects in the buffer zone of the property resulting in pollution of the waters of the property and a new proliferation of various invasive species, which constitute a potential threat to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property, and requests the State Party:
    1. That no new project be developed near the property without first carrying out an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) or a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and submitting it to the World Heritage Centre, for examination by IUCN, in order to assess the impacts, including cumulative ones, of these projects, in accordance with paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines and the IUCN Advisory Note on World Heritage and Environmental Assessment,
    2. To take immediate emergency measures to intercept the flow of pollutants into the watershed and define a plan for water pollution control and control of invasive species;
  5. Takes note of the actions initiated by the State Party and its partners to improve the management of the property and combat the proliferation of invasive species, and also requests the State Party to ensure that any intervention measures taken do not threaten the OUV of the property;
  6. Notes with satisfaction the adoption of the Development and Management Plan for the property (2017-2022), the monitoring efforts that have enabled the arrest of several poachers and the seizure of their equipment, and requests the State Party to strengthen management measures, by implementing Land Use and Allocation Plans to eradicate threats affecting the property;
  7. Expresses concern about the appearance of the epidemic of avian influenza in Senegal and Mauritania which has caused a high mortality of juvenile white pelicans within the property, and encourages the State Party and its partners to apply the orientations of the Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds in their efforts to contain the epizootic, and further requests the State Party to monitor the impacts on the OUV and provide a report to the World Heritage Centre;
  8. Thanks the donors who continue to support the conservation of the property, in particular the Governments of Luxembourg and Norway;
  9. Regrets that the State Party has not provided any information on the results of ecological monitoring, in particular on trends in populations of resident and migratory birds, and further requests that it continue its efforts to improve the monitoring and protection of species characteristic of the OUV, and to inform the World Heritage Centre accordingly;
  10. Additionally requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN Reactive Monitoring mission to assess the state of conservation of the property, in particular the impacts of the proliferation of invasive species and water pollution related to the multiplication of agro-industrial projects in the buffer zone of the property on the OUV of the property, and assess whether the conditions for a new inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger are met;
  11. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session in 2022.
Report year: 2021
Senegal
Date of Inscription: 1981
Category: Natural
Criteria: (vii)(x)
Danger List (dates): 1984-1988, 2000-2006
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2020) .pdf
Initialy proposed for examination in 2020
arrow_circle_right 44COM (2021)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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