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Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary

Senegal
Factors affecting the property in 2001*
  • Invasive / alien freshwater species
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Construction of a dam (issue resolved)
  • Proliferation of the aquatic fern Salvinia molesta 

 

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2001
Requests approved: 6 (from 1980-2001)
Total amount approved : 229,607 USD
Missions to the property until 2001**

September 2000: joint World Heritage Centre / IUCN / Ramsar mission; March-April 2001: expert mission

Information presented to the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee in 2001

Previous deliberations:
Twenty-fourth session of the Committee – paragraph VIII.22
Twenty-fourth ordinary session of the Bureau – paragraph IV.38

New information: At its last session (Cairns, November-December 2000), the Committee approved a sum of US$ 130,475 for a project on the "Fight against Salvinia molesta in the Delta of the Senegal River at Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary". Since then, the Centre and IUCN together with the Ramsar Secretariat and the State Party, have been developing a plan to eradicate and control invasive species in the Wetlands of the Senegal River Delta and the Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary.

A two-person expert mission to the site was fielded from 31 March to 10 April 2001 to start work on the development of the plan, to be incorporated as part of the management plan of the Sanctuary. The mission reviewed the following issues: (a) role and functions of relevant Government agencies and the interests of major donors and partners; (b) co-ordination mechanisms to promote synergies between the major stakeholders and for integrating the invasive species plan as part of the long-term management of the site and the Delta; (c) evaluation of the need for further studies to better understand the ecology of the Delta; and (d) development of the institutional, organisational and budgetary aspects of the plan and the identification of indicators and actions for implementing monitoring activities. A report on the main findings of the mission, including the possible timing and goal and objectives of a second mission, is expected to be ready soon.

The State Party has mobilised Government authorities, armed forces and the local population during the last six months to manually clear Salvinia molesta and protect key sites, notably those located at the entrance to the Sanctuary. Mechanical and manual removal of the invasive species are essential steps during a 2-3 year period when biological control measures will play a key role in invasive species control. The insect Cyrtobagus salvinae has been identified as the biological predator to control Salvinia molesta and about 1,200 insects have been imported and are presently being bred at the Djoudj Biological Station to increase their numbers. The Senegal Delta is threatened by other invasive plants too, e.g. Typha australis, and a comprehensive approach to mitigate the spread of invasive species throughout the Delta is needed. Biological control measures are being implemented on the Mauritanian side of the Delta as well, and co-ordination mechanism for the work of the two Governments are in place. IUCN has informed the Centre that a 2-year European Union project on "Policy research to identify conditions for optimal functioning of the Senegal River Ecosystem in Mali, Mauritania and Senegal" has begun. IUCN has stressed the importance of  linking the EU project to the World Heritage and State Party-sponsored initiatives in the Senegal River Delta.

The Directorate of the National Parks of Senegal has been designated by the Ministry of Environment as the lead agency for implementing the biological control measures. The Directorate is seeking support, both at the national and local levels, to: (a) improve staff presence in the Delta; (b) implement and monitor progress of the biological control measures; (c) co-ordinate and co-operate with national, regional and local institutions; and (d) access up-to-date information and knowledge in invasive species mitigation, particularly in respect to Salvinia molesta, and disseminating such information and knowledge to stakeholders and partners via technical meetings and training acitivities.

Action Required

The Bureau may wish to review the conclusions and recommendations of the report of the first mission undertaken in March - April 2001 expected to be available at the time of its session, and take appropriate decisions.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2001

Principal issues:

Control and eradication of the invasive species, Salvinia molesta.

New information:

In June 2001, the twenty-fifth session of the Bureau noted detailed findings of the results of the two-person mission undertaken to the site from 31 March to 10 April 2001 and mechanical and biological control measures being initiated to prevent the spread of the invasive species Salvinia molesta. The Bureau noted the awareness, donor co-ordination and other co-operative activities needed for the effective eradication of the invasive species.

 

UNESCO’s Division of Equipment Procurement is in the process of purchasing and delivering essential equipment foreseen as part of the project, for which the Committee approved a sum of US$ 130,000 at its last session in Cairns, Australia. A regional workshop on invasive species was organized from 15 – 17 October 2001, in Djoudj, Senegal, with joint financial support from Ramsar, IUCN and the World Heritage Fund.  The Chairperson approved an amount of US$20,000 to enable the participation of World Heritage site managers at this workshop. The aim of the workshop was to work out modalities for a co-operative project on “Wetlands and Harmful Invasive Species in Africa – Awareness and Information” involving IUCN, the Ramsar Convention Bureau, the MacArthur Foundation, Wetlands International, WWF International and others.  Focusing on fresh water ecosystems, the programme aimed to define the best strategic tools and the most appropriate operational instruments that can help to achieve the prevention, the control or the eradication of invasive species wherever they can have adverse impacts on ecological, economic and social functions and values of wetlands. The project includes the establishment of a network of expertise (a team that could provide “rapid response services”) that can be accessed quickly by wetland managers in need of further information, and provide assistance in prevention and control of invasive species.  

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2001
25 BUR V.45-50
Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary (Senegal)

V.45       The Bureau recalled that at its last session (Cairns, 2000), the Committee approved a sum of US$ 130,475 for a project on the "Fight against Salvinia molesta in the Delta of the Senegal River at Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary". Since then, the Centre and IUCN, together with the Ramsar Secretariat and the State Party, have been developing a plan to eradicate and control invasive species in the Wetlands of the Senegal River Delta and the Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary.

V.46       A two-person expert mission to the site was fielded from 31 March to 10 April 2001 to start work on the development of the plan, to be incorporated as part of the management plan of the Sanctuary. The mission reviewed the following issues: (a) role and functions of relevant Government agencies and the interests of major donors and partners; (b) co-ordination mechanisms to promote synergies between the major stakeholders and for integrating the invasive species plan as part of the long-term management of the site and the Delta; (c) evaluation of the need for further studies to better understand the ecology of the Delta; and (d) development of the institutional, organisational and budgetary aspects of the plan and the identification of indicators and actions for implementing monitoring activities. The Bureau noted the conclusions and recommendations of the mission outlined in the Document WHC-2001/CONF.205/WEB.2.

V.47       The State Party has mobilised Government authorities, armed forces and the local population during the last six months to manually clear Salvinia molesta and protect key sites, notably those located at the entrance to the Sanctuary. Mechanical and manual removal of the invasive species are essential steps during a 2-3 year period when biological control measures will play a key role in invasive species control. The insect Cyrtobagus salvinae has been identified as the biological predator to control Salvinia molesta and about 1,200 insects have been imported and are presently being bred at the Djoudj Biological Station to increase their numbers. The Senegal Delta is threatened by other invasive plants too, e.g. Typha australis, and a comprehensive approach to mitigate the spread of invasive species throughout the Delta is needed. Biological control measures are being implemented on the Mauritanian side of the Delta as well, and co-ordination mechanisms for the work of the two Governments are in place.

V.48       The Bureau was informed that a 2-year European Union project on "Policy research to identify conditions for optimal functioning of the Senegal River Ecosystem in Mali, Mauritania and Senegal" has begun. The Bureau agreed with IUCN’s view that the work of the different projects attempting to control the spread of invasive species in the Senegal River Delta needs to be co-ordinated and that the Centre should attempt to do all possible in this regard. 

V.49       The Directorate of the National Parks of Senegal has been designated by the Ministry of Environment as the lead agency for implementing the biological control measures. The Directorate is seeking support, both at the national and local levels, to: (a) improve staff presence in the Delta; (b) implement and monitor progress of the biological control measures; (c) co-ordinate and co-operate with national, regional and local institutions; and (d) access up-to-date information and knowledge in invasive species mitigation, particularly in respect to Salvinia molesta, and disseminate such information and knowledge to stakeholders and partners by means of technical meetings and training acitivities.

V.50       The Bureau noted that the report of the experts' mission to the site describes several measures, including manual removal of Salvinia, and biological control programmes, awareness-raising and co-ordination activities etc., that are being implemented by the Department of National Parks and the Ministry of Environment of Senegal to control and eradicate the spread of Salvinia. The Bureau agreed with the position of the authorities and experts against using chemical control methods; and recognised that programmes integrating manual removal with biological control programmes based on Cyrtobagus salvinae are likely to be the best option for control and eradication of Salvinia. The Bureau noted that the results of the biological control programme will only be known over time when sufficient numbers of Cyrtobagus salvinae are bred and released into Salvinia infested areas. The Bureau requested the Centre and IUCN to co-operate with the State Party and other international partners such as FAO and EU working with the State Party to establish a regime, including the identification of financial mechanisms, for monitoring the outcome of programmes to control and eradicate Salvinia. The monitoring regime needs to include measurable benchmarks and indicators that could signal to the Committee when it could consider that the control of Salvinia infestation in Djoudj and nearby areas is both effective and sustainable and hence would allow removing the site from the List of World Heritage in Danger.  The Bureau also noted with satisfaction the positive response from donors.

The Committee may wish to adopt the following:

"The Committee reiterates the recommendations of the twenty-fifth session of the Bureau held in June 2001 and requests that the Centre and IUCN collaborate with the State Party, the Ramsar Convention Secretariat, FAO and other partners to further efforts to control and eradicate Salvinia molesta from the Djoudj wetlands. The Committee decides to retain this site on the List of World Heritage in Danger".

Report year: 2001
Senegal
Date of Inscription: 1981
Category: Natural
Criteria: (vii)(x)
Danger List (dates): 1984-1988, 2000-2006
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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