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Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve

Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea
Factors affecting the property in 2021*
  • Financial resources
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Human resources
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Illegal activities
  • Land conversion
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Mining
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Mining
  • Influx of refugees
  • Agricultural encroachment
  • Deforestation
  • Poaching
  • Weak management capacity
  • Lack of resources
  • Unsatisfactory transboundary cooperation
  • Road construction
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Iron-ore mining concession inside the property in Guinea
  • Arrival of large numbers of refugees from Liberia to areas in and around the Reserve
  • Insufficient institutional structure 
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

In progress

Corrective Measures for the property
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

In progress

UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2021

Total amount granted:  USD 25,282 from the Rapid Response Facility in January 2012 (see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/news/830/), USD 31,214 from the Government of China Funds for Capacity Building and cooperation for World Heritage in Africa (https://whc.unesco.org/en/280/?id=1058&&&)

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2021
Requests approved: 22 (from 1981-2019)
Total amount approved : 540,649 USD
2019 Elaboration de cartes à haute résolution à partir des ... (Approved)   28,061 USD
2015 Appui à la capitalisation des acquis du programme de ... (Approved)   27,000 USD
2014 Protection de la biodiversité de la Réserve naturelle ... (Approved)   20,366 USD
2010 Atelier international bipartite sur la gestion durable ... (Approved)   30,000 USD
2002 Mount Nimba Biodiversity Conservation project (Approved)   30,000 USD
2001 Training workshop for awarenes raising on the Mount ... (Approved)   10,000 USD
2001 Réunion tripartite Guinée-Côte d'Ivoire-Libéria sur les ... (Approved)   20,000 USD
2000 Evaluation mission to mount Nimba World Heritage site ... (Approved)   30,000 USD
1997 Purchase of hydrological and meteorological equipment ... (Approved)   19,840 USD
1995 Establishment of an administrative centre for Mount ... (Approved)   18,000 USD
1993 Equipment and experts service for Mount Nimba (Approved)   45,000 USD
1993 Financial contribution for consultancies and other ... (Approved)   30,000 USD
1993 Consultancies and other services necessary for setting ... (Approved)   30,000 USD
1992 Organization of an interdisciplinary mission to ... (Approved)   35,000 USD
1992 Organization of a technical meeting for authorities of ... (Approved)   19,500 USD
1989 Purchase of an all terrain vehicle for Mount Nimba (Approved)   20,000 USD
1988 Consultancy mission and meeting for preparing ... (Approved)   15,000 USD
1986 Equipment for Mount Nimba Reserve (Approved)   6,500 USD
1983 Financial contribution to a seminar/workshop on the ... (Approved)   22,000 USD
1983 Consultant services to prepare requests for technical ... (Approved)   6,082 USD
1982 Financial contribution to a tripartite meeting (Guinea, ... (Approved)   8,000 USD
1981 Equipment for Mount Nimba (Approved)   70,300 USD
Missions to the property until 2021**

October/November 1988: World Heritage Centre mission; 1993: Joint World Heritage Centre / IUCN mission; 1994: IUCN mission; 2000: World Heritage Centre mission; 2007: Joint World Heritage Centre / IUCN mission to Guinea; 2008: Joint World Heritage Centre / IUCN mission to Côte d’Ivoire; 2013: Joint World Heritage Centre / IUCN mission; January 2019: Joint World Heritage Centre / IUCN Reactive Monitoring mission to Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2021

On 1 February 2020, the States Parties of Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea submitted a joint report on the state of conservation of the property and on 30 January 2021 they submitted additional information, all of which is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/155/documents and provides the following information:

  • The process of developing the updated high-resolution map of the boundaries of the property in Côte d'Ivoire began in mid-2020;
  • As from January 2021 the Support Programme for the Preservation of Forest Ecosystems of Mount Nimba (PAPFor) financed by the European Commission will contribute to strengthening the operational capacities of the Ivorian Office for Parks and Reserves (OIPR) and the Centre for Environmental Management of Mounts Nimba and Simandou (CEGENS) while ensuring the involvement of the neighbouring communities in the management of the property;
  • As the creation of a buffer zone was not clearly defined by Ivorian legislation, a peripheral zone composed of community forests was established and is being monitored by OIPR;
  • An ecological monitoring system developed and harmonized on the scale of the property has been implemented since December 2019 to ensure the monitoring of the species characteristic of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV). In Guinea, support from the German Commission for UNESCO enabled ecological monitoring and surveillance activities to continue during the Covid-19 pandemic;
  • Joint surveillance patrols were organized by the two States Parties. Poachers have been apprehended in Guinea, their hunting weapons have been seized, and poaching camps have been destroyed;
  • A first version of the development and management plan for the property is available only in Côte d'Ivoire but is pending validation;
  • In Guinea, the occupants of the Déré forest were evacuated and ecological restoration activities in degraded areas as well as awareness-raising sessions were organized;
  • In parallel with the discussions underway within the framework of PAPFor for the sustainable financing of the property, Côte d'Ivoire has initiated actions for the creation of a window of opportunity at the level of the Foundation for Parks and Reserves of Côte d'Ivoire (FPRCI);
  • The indicators for a proposed Desired State of Conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) were defined by the State Parties following a workshop organized by the World Heritage Centre in January 2021 with the Government of China Fund for the safeguarding of World Heritage in Africa. Significant progress was made in the implementation of corrective measures.

In September 2019, the mining project of the Société des mines de fer de Guinée (SMFG) to exploit the Mount Nimba iron deposit was taken over by High Power Exploration (HPX), which set an ambitious timetable to develop the project. An Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) of the project is currently underway. Following a request from the SMFG and the CEGENS to the World Heritage Centre and the IUCN for technical advice on carrying out the ESIA, an independent expert has been suggested by IUCN to provide said advice on the process, and an independent technical review of the ESIA will be undertaken.

On 2 September 2019, the World Heritage Centre sent a communication to the State Party of Guinea concerning the granting of a new mining exploration permit to the company Gui-Appro authorizing operations in the areas of Lola and N'zérékoré near the property. No response has been received to date. On 16 April 2020, the World Heritage Centre received the terms of reference to update of the ESIA of the iron-ore mining project of the Zali Mining Company to which it provided, with IUCN, technical recommendations.

The discovery of a new endemic bat species, Myotis nimbaensis, was announced in January 2021. Another endemic bat species, Hipposideros lamottei, was already known within the property.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2021

The strengthening of transboundary cooperation between the two countries, resulting in the organization of joint surveillance patrols and the harmonization of the ecological monitoring system on the scale of the property, is welcomed. At this stage, the data from this joint ecological monitoring are partially available, and efforts to improve the monitoring of species characteristic of the OUV must be continued. Also, with the persistence of poaching, it is recommended to strengthen this cooperation to reduce the threats to the property. The discovery of a new endemic bat species is further evidence of the exceptional biodiversity of Mount Nimba, which is characterized by a pronounced endemism.

The submission of a proposed DSOCR is positive and IUCN will review the submission in collaboration with the World Heritage Centre for consideration by the Committee at its 45th session. In this context, the launch of the PAPFor will contribute to improving the effectiveness of the management of the property and it is recommended that the Committee request States Parties to ensure that this programme prioritizes the achievement of the DSOCR indicators and the further implementation of corrective measures.

The development of the management plan for the Guinean component is encouraging, and all management plans should be finalized. The lack of a buffer zone in Côte d'Ivoire remains worrying. However, the alternatives considered by OIPR are welcomed and it is recommended that the forests in the vicinity of the property be officially designated as a buffer zone following the procedure of minor boundary modifications with reference to paragraphs 107 and 164 of the Operational Guidelines. In addition, the monitoring of community forests must be strengthened so that their management objectives are compatible with the management of the property. Therefore, the updated high-resolution map of the boundaries of the property should be finalized and submitted to the World Heritage Centre as soon as possible.

It is regrettable that no information has been provided on the measures to mitigate the impacts of the asphalting project of the Danané - Lola road which crosses the buffer zone of the property in its Guinean portion. It is recommended that the Committee request Guinea to implement all the provisions of the environmental and social management plan regarding the impacts on the project.

The World Heritage Centre and IUCN remain deeply concerned about the potential individual and cumulative impacts of mining projects in Guinea. It is regrettable that no follow-up was given to the correspondence of 2 September 2019 concerning the granting of a new exploration mining permit near the property, and that the ESIA of the SAMA Resources company has not been submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by IUCN. Also, the report also does not provide any information on the current state of the Zali Mining concession and the environmental certificate obtained by this company, although during the meeting in August 2019, the State Party of Guinea mentioned that the certificate would no longer be valid. With regard to the update of the ESIA for the Zali Mining project, it is recommended that the terms of reference be revised to ensure that the ESIA is carried out in accordance with the IUCN advice note on Environmental Assessment. Furthermore, the process of developing the ESIA for the SMFG mining project is noted. Considering the potential impact of this project on the OUV of the property, it is important that the ESIA be carried out according to the highest international standards and that the Committee reiterates its request for an independent evaluation of the ESIA as soon as it becomes available before any decision to approve the project, including the issuance of an environmental compliance certificate to the SMFG.

The proliferation of mining permits around the property remains very worrying and it is recommended that no new permits for mining exploration or exploitation near the property be granted without a Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment being carried out in order to assess the impacts on the OUV of the property, including the cumulative effects of these projects.

Finally, it is recommended that the Committee retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2021
44 COM 7A.40
Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Côte d’Ivoire/Guinea) (N 155bis)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7A.6 adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Commends the States Parties for their efforts in strengthening transboundary cooperation which has resulted in the establishment of a joint ecological monitoring system and the organization of joint surveillance patrols, and encourages them to strengthen this cooperation to reduce the current threats to the property and continue efforts to improve the monitoring of species characteristic of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) and to finalize a management plan for the entire property;
  4. Welcomes the discovery in 2021 of a new endemic species of bat, Myotis nimbaensis, thus demonstrating the strong endemism of the site;
  5. Appreciates the support of donors, in particular the European Commission, the Government of China Funds for the safeguarding of World Heritage in Africa, the German Commission for UNESCO and technical partners for their support for the conservation of the property, and requests the States Parties of Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea to ensure that these various projects / programmes prioritize the implementation of corrective measures;
  6. Recalls the importance of having a functional buffer zone (or an equivalent measure) around the property in Côte d’Ivoire, and also requests the State Party of Côte d’Ivoire to designate such an area following the Guidelines procedures, and to strengthen the monitoring of community forests around the property, while ensuring that their management objectives are compatible with the management of the property, and to submit as soon as possible the updated high resolution map of the boundaries of the property to the World Heritage Centre;
  7. Further requests the State Party of Guinea to provide detailed information on the measures taken to mitigate the impacts caused by the asphalting of the Danané-Lola road, which crosses the buffer zone of the property in its Guinean area in accordance with provisions of the environmental and social management plan on the impacts of the project;
  8. Takes note of the resumption of the activities of the proposed mining project of the iron deposit of Mount Nimba by the Société des mines de fer de Guinée (SMFG), as well as of its willingness to carry out an environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) of the proposed project in accordance with the IUCN Advice Note on World Heritage and submit it to an independent technical review, and reiterates its request to the State Party to ensure that:
    1. The ESIA will be carried out in accordance with the highest international standards, subject to independent and expert assessment, and in close consultation with all key stakeholders,
    2. The ESIA qualifies and quantifies the potential effects of the project on the OUV of the property, at each phase of its cycle, including construction and operation, taking into account the synergistic and collateral impacts also linked to on-site transformation of the ore and its transport, as well as the socio-economic changes to be expected,
    3. The ESIA should be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by IUCN before any decision to approve the project and the issuance of a certificate of environmental compliance to the Company;
  9. Reiterates its deep concern regarding the issuance of an environmental compliance certificate and an operating permit to Zali Mining SA (ex West Africa Exploration) for the mining block immediately adjacent to the property, in the absence of appropriate ESIA, and urges the State Party of Guinea to confirm the cancellation of this environmental compliance certificate and the granted operating permit, and that the ESIA will be undertaken in accordance with the IUCN Advice Note on World Heritage before any decision to approve the project;
  10. Expressing its deepest concern about the proliferation of mining permits around the property, in particular the granting of a new exploration mining permit to the company Gui-Appro, and the potential cumulative impacts of mining on the OUV of the property, requests furthermore the State Party of Guinea to not grant any new exploration or mining permits around the property without carrying out a Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment and submitting it for prior consideration to the World Heritage Centre and for examination by IUCN in order to assess the impacts, including synergistic ones, of these projects;
  11. Reiterates its position that mining exploration or exploitation is incompatible with World Heritage status, a policy supported by the position statement of the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) not to undertake such activities in World Heritage properties;
  12. Takes note of the submission by States Parties of a proposal for a Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) developed during the 2019 mission and updated in 2021, and further notes that this document will be reviewed by IUCN in collaboration with the World Heritage Centre for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session;
  13. Finally requests the States Parties to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated joint report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session;
  14. Decides to retain the Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
44 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/21/44.COM/7A, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add.2.Add),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 44 COM 7A.28)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 44 COM 7A.29)
  • Austria, Historic Centre of Vienna (Decision 44 COM 7A.32)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 44 COM 7A.35)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.39)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.40)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.41)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.42)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.43)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.45)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 44 COM 7A.5)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.55)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 44 COM 7A.52)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 44 COM 7A.6)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 44 COM 7A.7)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 44 COM 7A.8)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 44 COM 7A.10)
  • Kenya, Lake Turkana National Parks (Decision 44 COM 7A.47)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 44 COM 7A.11)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 44 COM 7A.12)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 44 COM 7A.13)
  • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 44 COM 7A.14)
  • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 44 COM 7A.15)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 44 COM 7A.48)
  • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 44 COM 7A.1)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 44 COM 7A.2)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 44 COM 7A.3)
  • Mexico, Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California (Decision 44 COM 7B.56)
  • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 44 COM 7A.30)
  • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 44 COM 7A.49)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 44 COM 7A.17)
  • Palestine, Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town (Decision 44 COM 7A.16)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 44 COM 7A.36)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 44 COM 7A.37)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.50)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 44 COM 7A.33)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 44 COM 7A.53)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 44 COM 7A.18)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 44 COM 7A.19)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 44 COM 7A.20)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 44 COM 7A.21)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 44 COM 7A.22)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 44 COM 7A.23)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 44 COM 7A.4)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.51)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.54)
  • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 44 COM 7A.31)
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 44 COM 7A.38)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 44 COM 7A.25)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 44 COM 7A.26)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 44 COM 7A.27).
Draft Decision: 44 COM 7A.40

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7A.6 adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Commends the States Parties for their efforts in strengthening transboundary cooperation which has resulted in the establishment of a joint ecological monitoring system and the organization of joint surveillance patrols, and encourages them to strengthen this cooperation to reduce the current threats to the property and continue efforts to improve the monitoring of species characteristic of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) and to finalize a management plan for the entire property;
  4. Welcomes the discovery in 2021 of a new endemic species of bat, Myotis nimbaensis, thus demonstrating the strong endemism of the site;
  5. Appreciates the support of donors, in particular the European Commission, the Government of China Funds for the safeguarding of World Heritage in Africa, the German Commission for UNESCO and technical partners for their support for the conservation of the property, and requests the States Parties of Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea to ensure that these various projects / programmes prioritize the implementation of corrective measures;
  6. Recalls the importance of having a functional buffer zone (or an equivalent measure) around the property in Côte d’Ivoire, and also requests the State Party of Côte d’Ivoire to designate such an area following the Guidelines procedures, and to strengthen the monitoring of community forests around the property, while ensuring that their management objectives are compatible with the management of the property, and to submit as soon as possible the updated high resolution map of the boundaries of the property to the World Heritage Centre;
  7. Further requests the State Party of Guinea to provide detailed information on the measures taken to mitigate the impacts caused by the asphalting of the Danané-Lola road, which crosses the buffer zone of the property in its Guinean area in accordance with provisions of the environmental and social management plan on the impacts of the project;
  8. Takes note of the resumption of the activities of the proposed mining project of the iron deposit of Mount Nimba by the Société des mines de fer de Guinée (SMFG), as well as of its willingness to carry out an environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) of the proposed project in accordance with the IUCN Advice Note on World Heritage and submit it to an independent technical review, and reiterates its request to the State Party to ensure that:
    1. the ESIA will be carried out in accordance with the highest international standards, subject to independent and expert assessment, and in close consultation with all key stakeholders,
    2. the ESIA qualifies and quantifies the potential effects of the project on the OUV of the property, at each phase of its cycle, including construction and operation, taking into account the synergistic and collateral impacts also linked to on-site transformation of the ore and its transport, as well as the socio-economic changes to be expected,
    3. the ESIA should be submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by IUCN before any decision to approve the project and the issuance of a certificate of environmental compliance to the Company;
  9. Reiterates its deep concern regarding the issuance of an environmental compliance certificate and an operating permit to Zali Mining SA (ex West Africa Exploration) for the mining block immediately adjacent to the property, in the absence of appropriate ESIA, and urges the State Party of Guinea to confirm the cancellation of this environmental compliance certificate and the granted operating permit, and that the ESIA will be undertaken in accordance with the IUCN Advice Note on World Heritage before any decision to approve the project;
  10. Expressing its deepest concern about the proliferation of mining permits around the property, in particular the granting of a new exploration mining permit to the company Gui-Appro, and the potential cumulative impacts of mining on the OUV of the property, requests furthermore the State Party of Guinea to not grant any new exploration or mining permits around the property without carrying out a Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment and submitting it for prior consideration to the World Heritage Centre and for examination by IUCN in order to assess the impacts, including synergistic ones, of these projects;
  11. Reiterates its position that mining exploration or exploitation is incompatible with World Heritage status, a policy supported by the position statement of the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) not to undertake such activities in World Heritage properties;
  12. Takes note of the submission by States Parties of a proposal for a Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) developed during the 2019 mission and updated in 2021, and further notes that this document will be reviewed by IUCN in collaboration with the World Heritage Centre for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session in 2022;
  13. Finally requests the States Parties to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated joint report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session in 2022;
  14. Decides to retain the Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2021
Côte d'Ivoire Guinea
Date of Inscription: 1981
Category: Natural
Criteria: (ix)(x)
Danger List (dates): 1992-present
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2020) .pdf
Initialy proposed for examination in 2020
arrow_circle_right 44COM (2021)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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