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Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta

Pakistan
Factors affecting the property in 2016*
  • Erosion and siltation/ deposition
  • Management activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other climate change impacts
  • Solid waste
  • Other Threats:

    Stability of the foundations (earth mechanics) of the Jam Nizamuddin tomb

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Significant decay of the property caused by local climatic conditions and alluvial erosion
  • Stability of the foundations (earth mechanics) of the Jam Nizamuddin tomb
  • Lack of definition of boundaries of the property and buffer zone of the necropolis
  • Lack of monitoring
  • Lack of a Comprehensive Master Plan and a management plan
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2016

Total amount grantedUSD 30,000 from UNESCO Regular Programme Funds for condition survey of Jam Nizamuddin tomb (2011); USD 33,000 from Netherlands Funds-In-Trust: Emergency assessment and immediate response to damages caused by the floods (2012)

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2016
Requests approved: 0 (from 2014-2014)
Total amount approved : 0 USD
Missions to the property until 2016**

November-December 2006: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; October 2010: World Heritage Centre fact-finding mission to the property following the major flood that devastated the area in August 2010; May 2012: joint UNESCO/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; April 2016: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2016

The State Party did not submit the state of conservation report which was requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 39th session (Bonn, 2015). Therefore, the present report relies on the report of the joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission, carried out from 19-22 April 2016, whose report is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/143/documents/.

The property has endured a long period of neglect and lack of adequate maintenance. There has been no regular or systematic monitoring of the state of conservation of the property nor of individual monuments. Among others, the unregulated use of the property for purposes such as contemporary burials represents a serious threat. Evidence of a recent fire in the immediate vicinity of the historic monuments and the presence of garbage throughout the site indicate a lack of security and maintenance.

The Mausoleum of Jam Nizzamuddin remains in a perilous state. The installation of crack monitors, a weather station, and the soil investigation, which were recommended by the Reactive Monitoring missions of 2006 and 2012, have not occurred. Many structures that are of high relevance for the architectural history of the region are in severe danger of collapse and show signs of bacterial activity that is damaging to the buildings’ fabric. Furthermore, there is no work plan for emergency stabilisation. Previous stabilisation work dating back to the 1970s–1990s remains, but there has been no subsequent programme for long-term solutions to prevent further movement or collapse. Displaced elements of the original building fabric, including original glazed elements, litters the site.

No major conservation work has been carried out for at least a decade. Conservation projects have occurred at the mausolea of Jan Baba and Sultan Ibrahim, carried out by a Karachi-based NGO, but work at the mausoleum of Sultan Ibrahim has stopped. Two examples of recent work undertaken in 2015 by the Department of Archaeology of the Government of Sindh are noteworthy: the restoration of a series of gravesites near Sultan Ibrahim mausoleum and partial masonry repair/infill within Lali Masjid. In both cases, the work was highly inappropriate: individual tombs were reconstructed and plastered with stark white lime without any indication of new interventions versus historic fabric. At Lali Masjid, the infill masonry incorporated was visually incompatible and the work was only carried out on one portion of the structure, despite the fact that a number of areas show basal masonry loss in need of stabilization.

The boundary and the buffer zone for the property were established in 2013, but the wall which demarcates the buffer zone along the west side of the property is only partially completed. The Master Plan for the property is reported to be in its final phase of development, but will then need to be officially approved and the substantial resources required for its implementation will need to be allocated. At present, the draft Master Plan lacks an adequate management plan including risk management and emergency response elements to ensure the safety of the site, its monuments and its visitors in case of disaster.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2016

The April 2016 joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission reports that the property is in a deteriorated state and shows significant loss of integrity. The identification of the property and its buffer zone and the documentation of structures within the property seem to be the only activities undertaken since 2006. Very few of the recommendations made by the 2006 and 2012 missions have been implemented.

There has apparently been no monitoring of the site’s condition and its security, nor any visitor supervision or general maintenance. As there are no site security measures, the property suffers from serious encroachment by new burials and damage from vandalism, graffiti, and waste dumping. Many of the historic monuments that were listed as strongly contributing to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property at the time of inscription, in 1981, have lost important structural and decorative components, such as portions of domes or their glazed tiles. The architectural style and decoration represent one of the principal attributes of the property’s OUV, which is consequently threatened.

Although progress was made in the finalization of the Master Plan, the integrity of the property has diminished, and unless urgent mitigation measures are put in place immediately, the OUV of the property will remain at risk. Besides urgent conservation work, there are a range of additional matters that should be addressed on an urgent basis, including risk management and emergency response provisions, actions to address encroachment of new burials as part of the living tradition of the local community, and various other unregulated uses of the property. The lack of progress with the monitoring, analysis and repair of the Mausoleum of Jam Nizzamuddin, despite the recommendations of previous missions, is regrettable, as is the cessation of conservation works at the mausoleum of Sultan Ibrahim. The stabilisation and long-term conservation of these and other major monuments is crucial to retain important attributes of the OUV of the property.

For several years, the State Party has not addressed either long- or short-term conservation imperatives at the property. The property is in a perilous state of conservation, reflecting neglect and inadequate maintenance and protection, which result in the deterioration of important elements and attributes, threatens the integrity and have a direct negative impact on the OUV of the property. Additionally, recommendations from previous missions have not been fully implemented. It is thus recommended that the Committee strongly urge the State Party to implement all of the recommendations of the 2016 Reactive Monitoring mission to mitigate the current situation, which greatly threatens the OUV of the property.

OPTION A

Should the State Party fail to endorse and implement the relevant measures in order to prevent any potential threat to the attributes that sustain the OUV of the property, it is recommended that the Committee consider the inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger at its 42nd session in 2018.

OPTION B

The attributes that sustain the OUV of the property are subject to potential and ascertained threat, sufficient to warrant the immediate inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2016
40 COM 7B.44
Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta (Pakistan) (C 143)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/16/40.COM/7B.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 39 COM 7B.70, adopted at its 39th session (Bonn, 2015),
  3. Regrets that the State Party has not submitted a state of conservation report, as requested by the World Heritage Committee;
  4. Expresses its concern that only few of the recommendations made by the Reactive Monitoring missions of 2006 and 2012 have been implemented so far, including structural monitoring and soil investigation for the Jam Nizzamuddin Mausoleum and its emergency stabilisation work;
  5. Also expresses its deep concern at the severely deteriorated state of conservation of the property, noting that encroachment, vandalism, and deteriorated monuments are affecting its integrity and pose significant threats to its Outstanding Universal Value (OUV);
  6. Endorses the recommendations made by the 2016 Reactive Monitoring mission in order to address the pressing issues of site management and monument conservation at the property, and requests the State Party to fully implement, as a matter of urgency, these recommendations, and particularly:
    1. to establish a regular trash removal system and remove the graffiti,
    2. to establish regular inspections of the property, including overnight, in order to prevent inappropriate uses and unsanctioned vehicular access, and to record and report on all activities on site,
    3. to complete the remaining stretch of the barrier wall marking the boundaries of the World Heritage property;
  7. Also requests the State Party to:
    1. Install, as a matter of urgency, at least 3 weather stations within the property (one of each monument group of the Samma, Akhund/Tarkhan, and Mughal periods),
    2. Install crack monitors on cracks that cause structural concerns in the principal monuments. All locations should be photographed before and after the installation of the monitor and a regimen of monitoring should be implemented, beginning aggressively (every three months) and slowing down (to annual monitoring) if no change is recorded. If change is noted, more frequent (monthly) monitoring should be undertaken,
    3. Undertake a soil investigation/geo-physical survey on the surroundings of the Mausolem of Jam Nizzamuddin, on the basis of which an intervention plan should be elaborated, also using data from crack monitors,
    4. Stabilize all the elements that are about to fall, including Jamia Majid, Jam Nizzamuddin and a number of other monument groups. Prior to commencing work on each monument, the State Party should develop:
      1. detailed condition mapping and documentation,
      2. a characterization of original building fabric (e.g. stone and brick masonry, mortar, plaster, tile and glaze),
      3. a history of interventions to understand the series of subsequent work on each building and how these may affect the development of successful interventions,
      4. a list of compatible intervention materials, which must be informed by analysis of original fabric mentioned above,
      5. specifications for interventions that include instructions for fabrication of intervention materials and their application and implementation,
      6. a monitoring and maintenance plan to be implemented once the interventions are complete,
    5. Establish a procedure to document fallen original fabric and store it carefully in appropriate storehouses. This procedure should include the following steps:
      1. photograph materials as found in situ,
      2. label and photograph individual elements,
      3. store materials in a dedicated storehouse/magazine,
      4. create and maintain an inventory of all collected items,
    6. Document, as a matter of emergency, the existing architectural surface decoration—such as the remaining glazed tiles—which constitute an important part of the attributes of OUV, yet are for the most part already lost, and establish a condition report to be accompanied of damage assessment,
    7. Resume the conservation work at the Sultan Ibrahim mausoleum, taking into account its critical state both at the structural and surface level, especially with regard to the domes and architectural surface decoration,
    8. Immediately establish a Management Plan, including a systematic monitoring system and a plan for capacity building of the staff of the Government of Sindh’s Department of Archaeology, without waiting for the finalization of the Master Plan;
  8. Further requests the State Party to finalize the Master Plan for the property and to submit it to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2017, for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  9. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2017, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 41st session in 2017, with a view to considering, in the case of confirmation of the ascertained or potential danger to the Outstanding Universal Value, the possible inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Draft Decision: 40 COM 7B.44

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/16/40.COM/7B.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 39 COM 7B.70, adopted at its 39th session (Bonn, 2015),
  3. Regrets that the State Party has not submitted a state of conservation report, as requested by the World Heritage Committee;
  4. Expresses its concern that only few of the recommendations made by the Reactive Monitoring missions of 2006 and 2012 have been implemented so far, including structural monitoring and soil investigation for the Jam Nizzamuddin Mausoleum and its emergency stabilisation work;
  5. Also expresses its deep concern at the severely deteriorated state of conservation of the property, noting that encroachment, vandalism, and deteriorated monuments are affecting its integrity and pose significant threats to its Outstanding Universal Value (OUV);
  6. Endorses the recommendations made by the 2016 Reactive Monitoring mission in order to address the pressing issues of site management and monument conservation at the property, and requests the State Party to fully implement, as a matter of urgency, these recommendations, and particularly:
    1. to establish a regular trash removal system and remove the graffiti,
    2. to establish regular inspections of the property, including overnight, in order to prevent inappropriate uses and unsanctioned vehicular access, and to record and report on all activities on site,
    3. to complete the remaining stretch of the barrier wall marking the boundaries of the World Heritage property;
  7. Also requests the State Party to:
    1. Install, as a matter of urgency, at least 3 weather stations within the property (one of each monument group of the Samma, Akhund/Tarkhan, and Mughal periods);
    2. Install crack monitors on cracks that cause structural concerns in the principal monuments. All locations should be photographed before and after the installation of the monitor and a regimen of monitoring should be implemented, beginning aggressively (every three months) and slowing down (to annual monitoring) if no change is recorded. If change is noted, more frequent (monthly) monitoring should be undertaken;
    3. Undertake a soil investigation/geo-physical survey on the surroundings of the Mausolem of Jam Nizzamuddin, on the basis of which an intervention plan should be elaborated, also using data from crack monitors;
    4. Stabilize all the elements that are about to fall, including Jamia Majid, Jam Nizzamuddin and a number of other monument groups. Prior to commencing work on each monument, the State Party should develop:
      1. detailed condition mapping and documentation,
      2. a characterization of original building fabric (e.g. stone and brick masonry, mortar, plaster, tile and glaze),
      3. a history of interventions to understand the series of subsequent work on each building and how these may affect the development of successful interventions,
      4. a list of compatible intervention materials, which must be informed by analysis of original fabric mentioned above,
      5. specifications for interventions that include instructions for fabrication of intervention materials and their application and implementation,
      6. a monitoring and maintenance plan to be implemented once the interventions are complete,
    5. Establish a procedure to document fallen original fabric and store it carefully in appropriate storehouses. This procedure should include the following steps:
      1. photograph materials as found in situ,
      2. label and photograph individual elements,
      3. store materials in a dedicated storehouse/magazine,
      4. create and maintain an inventory of all collected items,
    6. Document, as a matter of emergency, the existing architectural surface decoration—such as the remaining glazed tiles—which constitute an important part of the attributes of OUV, yet are for the most part already lost, and establish a condition report to be accompanied of damage assessment,
    7. Resume the conservation work at the Sultan Ibrahim mausoleum, taking into account its critical state both at the structural and surface level, especially with regard to the domes and architectural surface decoration,
    8. Immediately establish a Management Plan, including a systematic monitoring system and a plan for capacity building of the staff of the Government of Sindh’s Department of Archaeology, without waiting for the finalization of the Master Plan;
  8. Further requests the State Party to finalize the Master Plan for the property and to submit it to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2017, for review by the Advisory Bodies;

OPTION A
9. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2017, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018, with a view to considering, in the case of confirmation of the ascertained or potential danger to the Outstanding Universal Value, the possible inscription of the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger. 

OPTION B
9. Regrets that the State Party has not complied with the requests expressed by the Committee in Decision 38 COM 7B.55, in particular related to the lack of significant progress in addressing the serious deterioration of significant monuments;
10. Considers that the serious condition of the property and the lack of effective management and adequate governance, pose serious and specific threats to the OUV of the property, such that the property is in danger, in accordance with Paragraph 179 of the Operational Guidelines and decidesto inscribe the Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta (Pakistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger;
11. Requests moreover the State Party, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, to develop a set of corrective measures, a timeframe for their implementation, and a Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR), for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 41st session in 2017;
12. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2017, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 41st session in 2017.

Report year: 2016
Pakistan
Date of Inscription: 1981
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (iii)
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 40COM (2016)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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