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Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta

Pakistan
Factors affecting the property in 2013*
  • Erosion and siltation/ deposition
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other climate change impacts
  • Other Threats:

    Stability of the foundations (earth mechanics) of the Jam Nizamuddin tomb

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Significant decay of the property caused by local climatic conditions and alluvial erosion;
  • Stability of the foundations (earth mechanics) of the Jam Nizamuddin tomb;
  • Lack of definition of boundaries of the property and buffer zone of the necropolis;
  • Lack of monitoring.
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2013

Total amount granted: USD 30,000 from UNESCO Regular Programme Funds for condition survey of Jam Nizzammuddin tomb (2011).

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2013
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved : 0 USD
Missions to the property until 2013**

November-December 2006: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive mission; October 2010: World Heritage Centre fact-finding mission to the property following the major flood that devastated the area in August 2010; May 2012: joint UNESCO/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2013

On 22 February 2013, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session (Saint Petersburg, 2012).

a)   Conservation actions

The Culture Department, Government of Sindh, has prepared a project proposal (called “PC-I”) to the Planning Commission of Pakistan for the Protection, Preservation, Promotion and Development of the World Heritage property of the Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta, with an implementation cost of approximately USD 4,810,000. The major components include: detailed survey of the site, including baseline data, condition surveys, documentation and topographic surveys; preparation of a master plan (outsourced to a consultancy firm in December 2012), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), International Seminar on Makli; capacity building for technical staff; implementation of interpretation measures (signage, brochures, leaflets); water supply; construction of visitor pathways; and conservation of monuments in the short, medium and long term. Although it is reported that condition surveys have commenced, no specific information has been provided on whether the funds have been secured for the full implementation of the “PC-I” nor on the timeframe for its completion.

Annexed to the state of conservation report is a condition report providing an analysis of the general factors impacting the conservation and protection of property together with future actions proposed to address the issues. This document is similar to the one provided in the state of conservation report for the property in 2012 and there are no indications on the status of implementation of the provisions made. In addition, it is not clear what the timeframe for implementation is or whether resources have been allocated for it.

The State Party also reports that a strategy has been developed to prevent Internally Displaced People (IDP) to take shelter within the property. Recent heavy rain falls in lower Sindh have led to the displacement of people but they have been accommodated outside the property. In terms of security, it is proposed to erect boundary pillars and protection walls to ensure that no encroachment occurs. Additional guards shall be assigned to ensure monitoring of vulnerable entry points. 

b)   Preparation of the Comprehensive Master Plan

The State Party reports that this action is included in the “PC-I” developed for the property. The planning process is underway and expected to be completed by March 2013 for subsequent approval by the authorities. The report includes the objectives of the Master Plan and the scope of activities to be undertaken by the consultancy firm.

c)   Boundaries of the property

As part of the planning process, the boundaries of the inscribed property and its buffer zone will be identified and adequate regulatory measures defined to ensure the adequate protection and management of the property. The State Party report includes the preliminary map developed by the Heritage Foundation, taking into account guidelines and comments made by the May 2012 reactive monitoring mission that has yet to be revised.

d)   Conservation of Tomb of Jam Nizamuddin

Work has continued at the Tomb in collaboration with the Heritage Foundation of Pakistan, including the undertaking of geo-technical studies. No additional information has been provided on additional research to assess stability problems, the installation of a crack monitoring system, or whether or not the preliminary assessment has been updated. No technical specifications have been provided on specific conservation measures implemented to date.

e)   Management of the property

 

The State Party reports that the Directorate of Archaeology and Museums Sindh has allocated a regular budget for the conservation, preservation and maintenance of the monuments. There are eight Conservation Schemes identified for some of the monuments as well as provisions made in the Master Plan. It is noted that staff will need to be increased for the optimal implementation. The May 2012 mission considered that the present capacity of the Directorate is insufficient and needs further strengthening, being the custodian of over more than 1200 monuments in the Province. 

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2013

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies note the commitment made by the State Party in supporting the implementation of measures to address the factors that constitute a serious threat to the property. They further note that serious problems are still facing the property and that sustained measures will be required. The lack of an effective management system, capacity building, risk preparedness and clarification of the boundaries are a matter of concern.

 

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies suggest that the Committee may wish to encourage the State Party to invite an ICOMOS/ICCROM advisory mission to the property to assist in: a) developing a comprehensive programme for conservation and stabilisation of the most threatened monuments; b) defining the boundaries of the property and its buffer zones; c) defining the objectives of a Management Plan for the property to address its critical issues, including disaster risk management and public use; d) developing a capacity building strategy with a view to reinforcing national capacity in the field of heritage conservation and management. 

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2013
37 COM 7B.66
Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta (Pakistan) (C 143)

The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/7B,

2.  Recalling Decision 36 COM 7B.66, adopted at its 36th session (Saint-Petersburg, 2012),

3.  Acknowledges the efforts made by the State Party in addressing the conservation issues of the property but expresses its concerns that significant threats to the Outstanding Universal Value of the property have yet to be fully addressed;

4.  Encourages the State Party to invite an ICOMOS/ICCROM advisory mission to the property to assist in the following:

a)  Develop a comprehensive programme for conservation and stabilisation of the most threatened monuments,

b)  Finalise the boundaries of the property and its buffer zones,

c)  Define the objectives of a Management Plan for the property to address critical issues, including disaster risk management and public use,

d)  Elaborate a capacity building strategy with a view to reinforcing national capacity in the field of heritage conservation and management;

5.  Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2015 , an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 39th session in 2015.

37 COM 8E
Adoption of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value
The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Documents WHC-13/37.COM/8E and WHC-13/37.COM/8E.Add,

2.  Congratulates States Parties for the excellent work accomplished in the elaboration of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value for World Heritage properties in their territories;

3.  Adopts the retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value, as presented in the Annex of Document WHC-13/37.COM/8E, for the following World Heritage properties:

  • Andorra: Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley;
  • Argentina: Cueva de las Manos, Río Pinturas; Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba; Quebrada de Humahuaca; Iguazu National Park;
  • Australia: Shark Bay, Western Australia; Greater Blue Mountains Area; Royal Exhibition Building and Carlton Gardens; Willandra Lakes Region; Kakadu National Park;
  • Austria / Hungary: Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape;
  • Bangladesh: The Sundarbans; Ruins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur;
  • Belgium : La Grand-Place, Brussels;
  • Belgium / France: Belfries of Belgium and France;
  • Bolivia: Fuerte de Samaipata; Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture; Historic City of Sucre; Jesuit Missions of the Chiquitos;
  • Brazil: Serra da Capivara National Park;
  • Chile: Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works; Rapa Nui National Park; Churches of Chiloé; Sewell Mining Town; Historic quarter of the Seaport City of Valparaiso;
  • China: Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area; Mount Huangshan; Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde; Ancient City of Ping Yao; Classical Gardens of Suzhou; Summer Palace, an Imperial Garden in Beijing; Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui – Xidi and Hongcun; Longmen Grottoes; Yungang Grottoes; Yin Xu; Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties; Historic center of Macao; Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor;
  • Colombia: Port, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena; Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox; San Agustín Archaeological Park; National Archeological Park of Tierradentro;
  • Costa Rica: Area de Conservación Guanacaste;
  • Cuba: Trinidad and the Valley de los Ingenios; Desembarco del Granma National Park; Alejandro de Humboldt National Park; Old Havana;
  • Cyprus: Choirokoitia; Painted Churches in the Troodos Region;
  • Denmark: Kronborg Castle;
  • Ecuador: City of Quito; Historic Centre of Santa Ana de los Ríos de Cuenca; Galápagos Islands;
  • El Salvador: Joya de Cerén Archaeological Site;
  • Ethiopia: Aksum; Fasil Ghebbi;
  • Finland / Sweden: High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago;
  • Guatemala: Archeological Park and Ruins of Quirigua; Antigua Guatemala;
  • Germany: Classical Weimar; Messel Pit Fossil Site; Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier; Aachen Cathedral; Cologne Cathedral; Hanseatic City of Lübeck; Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar; Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin; Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof; Speyer Cathedral; Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen; Town of Bamberg;
  • Greece: Mount Athos;
  • Honduras: Maya Site of Copan;
  • Hungary: Old Village of Hollókő and its Surroundings; Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment; Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae); Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape; Hortobágy National Park - the Puszta; Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue;
  • Hungary / Slovakia: Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst;
  • India: Sun Temple, Konârak; Group of Monuments at Hampi; Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya; Elephanta Caves; Great Living Chola Temples; Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus); Mountain Railways of India;
  • Indonesia: Ujung Kulon National Park; Komodo National Park; Lorentz National Park; Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra; Sangiran Early Man Site;
  • Iran (Islamic Republic of): Pasargadae; Takht-e Soleyman;
  • Ireland: Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne;
  • Italy: Venice and its Lagoon;
  • Japan: Yakushima; Shirakami-Sanchi; Buddhist Monuments in the Horyu-ji Area; Shiretoko; Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities); Shrines and Temples of Nikko; Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range; Itsukushima Shinto Shrine; Himeji-jo;
  • Latvia: Historic Centre of Riga;
  • Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Town of Luang Prabang;
  • Lithuania: Vilnius Historic Centre;
  • Luxembourg: City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications;
  • Malaysia: Kinabalu Park;
  • Mauritius: Aapravasi Ghat;
  • Mexico: Pre-Hispanic City of Teotihuacan; Historic Centre of Morelia; Earliest 16th-Century Monasteries on the Slopes of Popocatepetl; Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro; Historic Fortified Town of Campeche; Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro; Agave Landscape and the Ancient Industrial Facilities of Tequila; Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino; Ancient Maya City of Calakmul, Campeche; Archaeological Monuments Zone of Xochicalco; Historic Monuments Zone of Tlacotalpan; Pre-Hispanic City of Chichen-Itza; Historic Centre of Zacatecas; Historic Centre of Oaxaca and Archaeological Site of Monte Albán; Sian Ka’an; Luis Barragán House and Studio; Rock Paintings of the Sierra de San Francisco; Archaeological Zone of Paquimé, Casas Grandes; Historic Centre of Puebla; Historic Town of Guanajuato and Adjacent Mines; Pre-hispanic town of Uxmal; Hospicio Cabañas, Guadalajara; Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California; Historic Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco; Pre-Hispanic City and National Park of Palenque; El Tajin, Pre-Hispanic City;
  • Netherlands: Ir.D.F. Woudagemaal (D.F. Wouda Steam Pumping Station); Schokland and Surroundings; Droogmakerij de Beemster (Beemster Polder); Rietveld Schröderhuis (Rietveld Schröder House);
  • Nicaragua: Ruins of León Viejo;
  • Nigeria: Sukur Cultural Landscape;
  • Norway: Rock Art of Alta; Urnes Stave Church; Bryggen;
  • Oman: Archaeological Sites of Bat, Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn;
  • Pakistan: Taxila; Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta; Rohtas Fort; Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol;
  • Panama: Darien National Park; Archaeological Site of Panamá Viejo and Historic District of Panamá;
  • Paraguay: Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue;
  • Peru: City of Cuzco; Chavin (Archaeological Site); Historic Centre of Lima; Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu;
  • Philippines: Historic town of Vigan;
  • South Africa: uKhahlamba / Drakensberg Park;
  • Switzerland: Abbey of St Gall; Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair; Old City of Berne; Three Castles, Defensive Wall and Ramparts of the Market-Town of Bellinzona;
  • Thailand: Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex; Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries; Historic Town of Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns; Ban Chiang Archaeological Site;
  • Turkey: Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia; Nemrut Dağ; Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği; Hierapolis-Pamukkale;
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Blaenavon Industrial Landscape; Blenheim Palace; Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church; Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd; City of Bath; Durham Castle and Cathedral; Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast; Heart of Neolithic Orkney; Ironbridge Gorge; Maritime Greenwich; New Lanark; Old and New Towns of Edinburgh; Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites; Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey; Tower of London; St Kilda; Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church;
  • Uruguay: Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento;
  • Uzbekistan: Itchan Kala;
  • Venezuela : Coro and its Port; Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas;

4.  Decides that retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value for World Heritage properties in Danger will be reviewed by the Advisory Bodies in priority;

5.  Further decides that, considering the high number of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value to be examined, the order in which they will be reviewed by the Advisory Bodies will follow the Second Cycle of Periodic Reporting, namely:

  • World Heritage properties in the Arab States;
  • World Heritage properties in Africa;
  • World Heritage properties in Asia and the Pacific;
  • World Heritage properties in Latin America and the Caribbean;
  • World Heritage properties in Europe and North America;

6.  Requests the World Heritage Centre to harmonise all sub-headings in the adopted Statements of Outstanding Universal Value where appropriate and when resources and staff time allow to carry out this work;

7.  Also requests the State Parties, Advisory Bodies and World Heritage Centre to ensure the use of gender-neutral language in the Statements proposed for adoption to the World Heritage Committee;

8.  Further requests the World Heritage Centre to keep the adopted Statements in line with subsequent decisions by the World Heritage Committee concerning name changes of World Heritage properties, and to reflect them throughout the text of the Statements, in consultation with States Parties and Advisory Bodies;

9.  Finally requests the States Parties to provide support to the World Heritage Centre for translation of the adopted Statements of Outstanding Universal Value into English or French respectively, and finally requests the Centre to upload these onto its web-pages.

Draft Decision:  37 COM 7B.66

The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/7B,

2.  Recalling Decision 36 COM 7B.66, adopted at its 36th session (SaintPetersburg, 2012),

3.  Acknowledges the efforts made by the State Party in addressing the conservation issues of the property but expresses its concerns that significant threats to the Outstanding Universal Value of the property have yet to be fully addressed;

4.  Encourages the State Party to invite an ICOMOS/ICCROM advisory mission to the property to assist in the following:

a)  Develop a comprehensive programme for conservation and stabilisation of the most threatened monuments,

b)  Finalise the boundaries of the property and its buffer zones,

c)  Define the objectives of a Management Plan for the property to address critical issues, including disaster risk management and public use,

d)  Elaborate a capacity building strategy with a view to reinforcing national capacity in the field of heritage conservation and management;

5.  Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2015, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 39th session in 2015.

 

Report year: 2013
Pakistan
Date of Inscription: 1981
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (iii)
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 37COM (2013)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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