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Everglades National Park

United States of America
Factors affecting the property in 2013*
  • Ground water pollution
  • Housing
  • Invasive / alien freshwater species
  • Storms
  • Surface water pollution
  • Water infrastructure
  • Other Threats:

    Mercury contamination of fish and wildlife

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Quantity and quality of water entering the property;
  • Urban encroachment;
  • Agricultural fertiliser pollution;
  • Mercury contamination of fish and wildlife;
  • Lowered water levels due to flood control measures;
  • Damage from hurricanes;
  • Exotic invasive plant and animal species.
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

The property was re-inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, on the request of the State Party, due to concerns that the property's aquatic ecosystem continues to deteriorate, in particular as a result of:

  • Alterations of the hydrological regime (quantity, timing, and distribution of Shark Slough inflows);
  • Adjacent urban and agricultural growth (flood protection and water supply requirements that affect the property's resources by lowering water levels);
  • Increased nutrient pollution from upstream agricultural activities;
  • Protection and management of Florida Bay resulting in significant reduction of both marine and estuarine biodiverstiy.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4348

Corrective Measures for the property

Developed 2006 (IUCN technical workshop), see page: https://whc.unesco.org/archive/2006/whc06-30com-07Ae.pdf

Adopted (refinements have been suggested), see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4348

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4348
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2013
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved : 0 USD
Missions to the property until 2013**

April 2006: IUCN participation in a technical workshop to identify benchmarks and corrective measures; January 2011: joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN reactive monitoring mission

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2013

A comprehensive report on the state of conservation of the property was received from the State Party on 11 February 2013, detailing progress on corrective measures adopted in 2006 and 2010, as well as trends for the indicators of integrity identified during the 2011 reactive monitoring mission, and formalized as the Desired State of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger.

a)  Status of implementation of the corrective measures

The World Heritage Centre and IUCN note the technical nature of most of the corrective measures and have prepared a detailed summary of the progress in the implementation of each of these measures, which is available online at https://whc.unesco.org/en/sessions/37COM/documents. The main points are summarized briefly here.

The State Party reports significant progress in the land acquisitions, which is now 99% complete and expected to be completed by 2014. Many of the corrective measures foresee construction of infrastructure to increase the water flow into the property through 3 major projects: the Tamiami Trail, the Everglades Restoration Strategies, and the Central Everglades Planning Project . While some delays and challenges are noted, work is progressing. However, it needs to be noted that the ambitious programme of work is enormous and most infrastructure will only be completed in 5 years time, while for some it is expected that completion will take more than 10 years. In terms of the improvement of the water quality, the State of Florida and the US Environmental Protection Agency agreed on a Water Quality-Based Effluent Limit that, if achieved, will ensure that park waters meet the 10 ppb target. In terms of stakeholder involvement a Park Advisory Committee is to be created in order to maintain important links between park managers, representatives of other resource agencies, and the local public. The Advisory Committee should also assist in streamlining planning and decision processes not only for projects inside the park, but also for the ecosystem restoration projects that collectively make up the corrective measures. The finalization of the General Management Plan has been delayed and is now expected in 2014.

a)  Desired State of Conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

The Desired State of Conservation includes 13 indicators which are grouped around the characteristics that make up the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property. A detailed overview of the trends for each indicator is provided in the State Party report. Six of the indicators showed a slight positive improvement of condition, particularly those related to the volume, levels and distribution of water flow which are essential to the integrity of the property; 3 indicators show unchanged conditions and 4 indicators are deteriorating. The latter relate to invasive species, algal blooms in Florida Bay and freshwater fauna.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2013

The World Heritage Centre and IUCN consider that the State Party is moving forward with the implementation of the corrective measures. They also note the slight improvement of condition for several of the indicators for integrity of the property. They conclude that it is crucial for the State Party to focus effort, together with the necessary partnerns responsible for part of the impacts on the park, to substantially complete the three major projects cited above (the Tamiami Trail Next Steps, the Everglades Restoration Strategies, and the Central Everglades Planning Project) within the next 10 years. Such focus is central if a slowing of ecosystem degradation and tangible improvements to the property indicators of integrity are to be expected. They further note that the General Management Plan is still not completed, continues to be postponed and is now scheduled for 2014 (instead of the original 2011 target for finalization).

The World Heritage Centre and IUCN acknowledge the work done by the State Party to develop a comprehensive trend analysis for the indicators of the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger, and to connect them to the implementation of the 14 corrective measures so that progress can be measured comprehensively. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN note that significant work remains to be done to meet the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger. Therefore, they recommend that the World Heritage Committee retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

In view of the fact that the implementation of the corrective measures, while well underway, still will take at least 10 years to complete, the World Heritage Centre and IUCN propose to request the State Party to submit a progress report only in 2 years time.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2013
37 COM 7A.15
Everglades National Park (United States of America) (N 76)
The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/7A,

2.  Recalling Decision 36 COM 7A.14 , adopted at its 36th session (Saint-Petersburg, 2012),

3.  Welcomes the significant effort of the State Party to provide clear indication of the trends in conditions for the indicators developed for the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger and to connect them to the 14 corrective measures allowing a comprehensive report on progress;

4.  Notes with appreciation that the State Party is making progress on the implementation of the corrective measures, and requests the State Party to maintain this level of effort in particular toward completion of the three major projects including the Tamiami Trail Next Steps, the Everglades Restoration Strategies, and the Central Everglades Planning Project;

5.  Notes the continuous postponements in the finalization of the General Management Plan and urges the State Party to give priority to its finalization particularly in view of the importance to ensure an entire catchment scale approach to the planning and management of the property, and the cooperation among all partners toward protection of the Outstanding Universal Value as a consistent high priority;

6.  Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2015 , a detailed report on the state of conservation of the property, including progress achieved in implementing the corrective measures and in meeting the indicators developed for the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 39th session in 2015;

7.  Decides to retain Everglades National Park (United States of America) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

37 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (retained properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-13/37.COM/7A, WHC-13/37.COM/7A.Add and WHC-13/37.COM/7A.Add.
  2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 37 COM 7A.29 )
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 37 COM 7A.30 )
  • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 37 COM 7A.16 )
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.1)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 37 COM 7A.37 )
  • Colombia, Los Katíos National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.17 )
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.2 )
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 37 COM 7A.3 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.4 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.5 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.6 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.7 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 37 COM 7A.8 )
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 37 COM 7A.23 )
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.10 )
  • Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (Decision 37 COM 7A.32 )
  • Georgia, Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Decision 37 COM 7A.33 )
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 37 COM 7A.18 )
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 37 COM 7A.14 )
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 37 COM 7A.24 )
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 37 COM 7A.25 )
  • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 37 COM 7A.26 )
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 37 COM 7A.11 )
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 37 COM 7A.19 )
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 37 COM 7A.20 )
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 37 COM 7A.12 )
  • Palestine, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Decision 37 COM 7A.27 )
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 37 COM 7A.36 )
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 37 COM 7A.38 )
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.13 )
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 37 COM 7A.34 )
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 37 COM 7A.21 )
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 37 COM 7A.22 )
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 37 COM 7A.35 )
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.15 )
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 37 COM 7A.39 )
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 37 COM 7A.28 )
Draft Decision:        37 COM 7A.15

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/7A,

2.  Recalling Decision 36 COM 7A.14 , adopted at its 36th session (Saint-Petersburg, 2012),

3. Welcomes the significant effort of the State Party to provide clear indication of the trends in conditions for the indicators developed for the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger and to connect them to the 14 corrective measures allowing a comprehensive report on progress;

4. Notes with appreciation that the State Party is making progress on the implementation of the corrective measures, and requests the State Party to maintain this level of effort in particular toward completion of the three major projects including the Tamiami Trail Next Steps, the Everglades Restoration Strategies, and the Central Everglades Planning Project ;

5. Notes the continuous postponements in the finalization of the General Management Plan and urges the State Party to give priority to its finalization particularly in view of the importance to ensure an entire catchment scale approach to the planning and management of the property, and the cooperation among all partners toward protection of the Outstanding Universal Value as a consistent high priority ;

6. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2015 , a detailed report on the state of conservation of the property, including progress achieved in implementing the corrective measures and in meeting the indicators developed for the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 39th session in 2015;

7. Decides to retain Everglades National Park (United States of America) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.


* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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