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Reconstruction of the destroyed mausoleums of Timbuktu (Mali)

After armed conflict resulted in the destruction of several historical mausoleums, these were reconstructed using traditional knowledge systems as part of an international cooperation campaign. The reconstruction of the Timbuktu mausoleums was one of first cases where destruction of heritage was prosecuted as crime of war, recognising cultural heritage protection as an integral part of peacekeeping efforts.

About Timbuktu

Timbuktu was inscribed on the World Heritage list in 1988 under criteria (ii), (iv) and (v) due to its outstanding universal value as an African intellectual and spiritual capital in the 15th and 16th centuries. Its three great mosques, Djingareyber, Sankore and Sidi Yahia, recall Timbuktu's golden age. Although continuously restored, these monuments are today under threat from desertification, management issues, especially concerning the involvement of the local communities, and lack of resources for site management and maintenance.

The site was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger between 1990 and 2005, and once again in 2012, when the site was occupied by armed groups. The 2019 State of Conservation Report highlighted that the property is affected by deliberate destruction of heritage, lack of functioning management systems and war.

In 2012, several buildings in Timbuktu, including 14 of the 16 mausoleums which form part of the World Heritage site, were destroyed within the context of armed conflict and civil unrest. Attacks also targeted the Al Farouk monument, which was completely destroyed. An estimated 4,203 manuscripts from the Institute of Higher Islamic Studies and Research Ahmed Baba (IHERI-ABT) were burnt or stolen by armed groups. In 2016, the International Criminal Court convicted Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi for directing the attacks that destroyed the monuments.


Reconstruction and restoration of the Timbuktu mausoleums

In the immediate aftermath of the destruction of the monuments, and upon request from the Malian government, UNESCO and France defined an action plan to rehabilitate the city’s damaged cultural heritage and ancient manuscripts. A team of local and international UNESCO experts worked in cooperation with community and religious leaders, national and military authorities, as well as the local population responsible for the safekeeping of cultural heritage in Timbuktu. The reconstruction was carried out by the local corporation of traditional masons under the supervision of the Cultural Mission, the management office of the site, the National Directorate for Cultural Heritage, the mausoleums’ managers and the Management Committees of the mosques of Djingareyber, Sidi Yahia and Sankoré. The project was funded by the Government of Mali and UNESCO with contributions from the European Union, Switzerland, Andorra, the Kingdom of Bahrain, Croatia and Mauritius, as well as logistical support from the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA).

Following the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2100 (2013), the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) collaborated with UNESCO to ensure the protection of Mali’s cultural heritage sites. The Resolution recognised, for the first time, cultural heritage protection as an integral part of peacekeeping efforts. Consequently, UNESCO trained MINUSMA peacekeeping personnel from Africa and Europe in recognising cultural heritage and applying relevant international laws. With the support of numerous technical and financial partners, the programme implemented by UNESCO succeeded in rebuilding the mausoleums through a communal effort, reopening them to the public three years after their destruction.

© El-Boukhari Ben Essayouti

The project adopted a holistic approach that considered both the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of Timbuktu. First, the reconstruction process was understood as an opportunity to document the earthen architecture of Timbuktu. Materials, construction systems and maintenance requirements of traditional earthen architecture have been studied and documented, forming an important asset for the future. Second, the project has been able to document oral traditions, beliefs and practices associated with this heritage. Finally, the reconstruction project has resulted in the training of about 40 younger masons in traditional construction techniques. They are now equipped with the necessary skills to build and maintain the invaluable earthen architecture of the city, including mausoleums, mosques and other historic buildings.

© El-Boukhari Ben Essayouti
© El-Boukhari Ben Essayouti

The reconstruction and restoration of the earthen architectural heritage of Timbuktu highlighted the potential of cultural heritage as a peace-building tool and to increase resilience. In addition, the project highlighted the major role played by local artisans and traditional masons in cultural heritage preservation and provided a chance to assess the threat posed to these professions. Following reconstruction, the next steps will require the consolidation of the achievements by ensuring that necessary means for conservation and maintenance are allocated by national and local authorities, making a judicious use of this experience.  


Sources:

Contribution towards the implementation of the 2011 Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape

The project is a landmark example of restoration of cultural heritage as a peace-building tool achieved through international cooperation. While its implementation is not directly linked to the Historic Urban Landscape Recommendation, it contributes to the implementation of the HUL approach thanks to its:

  • Conservation of the world’s cultural heritage
  • Establishment of multi-stakeholder, multi-level partnerships to promote heritage conservation and sustainable development
  • Development of a community-centred approach which takes into consideration the local population and traditional customs

Historic Urban Landscape Tools

Civic engagement tools Regulatory systems Financial tools

Contribution towards Sustainable Development

If fully implemented in accordance with the described plans, the initiative could contribute towards Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals.

Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.

  • Target 4.4: the initiative aimed to increase the number of youth and adults with relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, by training 40 young masons who can now be mobilised for construction and maintenance of the mausoleums, mosques, and historic city fabric.

Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

  • Target 11.4: the initiative contributes to the protection and safeguarding the world’s cultural heritage.

Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

  • Target 17.3: the initiative mobilised additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources, including international organisations and third countries.
  • Target 17.16: the initiative enhanced the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilise and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources.
  • Target 17.17: the initiative encouraged and promoted effective public and civil society partnerships between multiple stakeholders and partners, including local international organisations, national government, local government, and community leaders. 

Note: the described potential impacts of the projects are only indicative and based on submitted and available information. UNESCO does not endorse the specific initiatives nor ratifies their positive impact.

To learn more
Contact

UNESCO National Office for Mali. unesco.org/fieldoffice/bamako


Note: The cases shared in this platform address heritage protection practices in World Heritage sites and beyond. Items being showcased in this website do not entail any type of recognition or inclusion in the World Heritage list or any of its thematic programmes. The practices shared are not assessed in any way by the World Heritage Centre or presented here as model practices nor do they represent complete solutions to heritage management problems. The views expressed by experts and site managers are their own and do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Heritage Centre. The practices and views shared here are included as a way to provide insights and expand the dialogue on heritage conservation with a view to further urban heritage management practice in general.

Decisions / Resolutions (9)
Code: 43COM 8C.2

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/19/43.COM/7A, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.3 and WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.3.Corr),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 43 COM 7A.41)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision43 COM 7A.42)
  • Austria, Historic Centre of Vienna (Decision 43 COM 7A.45)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 43 COM 7A.48)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.5)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.6)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.7)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.8)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.9)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.10)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.11)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 43 COM 7A.17)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.4)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 43 COM 7A.1)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 43 COM 7A.18)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 43 COM 7A.19)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 43 COM 7A.20)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 43 COM 7A.22)
  • Kenya, Lake Turkana National Parks (Decision 43 COM 7A.12)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 43 COM 7A.23)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 43 COM 7A.24)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 43 COM 7A.25)
  • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 43 COM 7A.26)
  • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 43 COM 7A.27)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 43 COM 7A.13)
  • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 43 COM 7A.53)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 43 COM 7A.54)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 43 COM 7A.55)
  • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 43 COM 7A.43)
  • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 43 COM 7A.14)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 43 COM 7A.30)
  • Palestine, Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town (Decision 43 COM 7A.29)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 43 COM 7A.50)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 43 COM 7A.51)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.15)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 43 COM 7A.46)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 43 COM 7A.2)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 43 COM 7A.31)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 43 COM 7A.32)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 43 COM 7A.33)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 43 COM 7A.34)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 43 COM 7A.35)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 43 COM 7A.36)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 43 COM 7A.56)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 43 COM 7A.47)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.16)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.3)
  • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 43 COM 7A.44)
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 43 COM 7A.52)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 43 COM 7A.38)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 43 COM 7A.39)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 43 COM 7A.40)

Read more about the decision
Code: 43COM 7A.54

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/19/43.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 42 COM 7A.29, adopted at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018),
  3. Notes with satisfaction the continued progress accomplished by the State Party in the rehabilitation, conservation and management of the property and in the implementation of the corrective measures adopted by the Committee (Decision 40 COM 7A.6);
  4. Commends the support of the principal partners, notably the European Union (EU) and the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), in the implementation of Phase II of the Action Plan for the rehabilitation of cultural heritage and the safeguarding of the ancient manuscripts of Mali, enabling the intervention, among others, of the Al Farouk monument, the Sidi Yahia and Sankoré Mosques, the cemeteries containing mausoleums of the saints, the local museums and the safeguarding of the ancient manuscripts;
  5. Notes with satisfaction the organization of consultation and awareness-raising meetings with the town authorities, district chiefs, Prefect and the Governor of the region and civil society, but expresses its concern as regards the lack of synergy of action of all the concerned and necessary actors;
  6. Is concerned about the lack of sufficient staff, operating budget and office equipment of the Cultural Mission that curbs the efficient management of the property, in particular the implementation of the 2018-2022 Management and Conservation Plan, and reiterates its encouragements to the State Party to increase financial, logistical and human resources of the Cultural Mission, to enable the strengthening of awareness-raising and consultation actions to revitalize interest, interaction and coordination of the actors at all institutional levels;
  7. Is concerned by the state of conservation of some components of the property, such as the Djingareyber Mosque and the mausoleums which have not benefited from conservation work due to heavy rains during the winter, as well as vibrations caused by the passage of heavy military vehicles, particularly threatening the Djingareyber Mosque, and reiterates its request to the State Party to study, in consultation with the MINUSMA, options to redirect traffic in the vicinity of the buildings concerned to mitigate these effects;
  8. Urges the State Party to undertake adequate measures, in close cooperation with all the municipal and regional authorities, to prevent the illegal installation of containers or sheet metal constructions, and to combat the pollution by rubbish of the ancient fabric of the town and the cemeteries, constituting a possible negative visual and environmental impact and thus threatening the property and preventing access to the mosques and mausoleums in the event of an emergency;
  9. In respect of the necessary conservation, awareness-raising and enhancement actions, renews its appeal to the whole international community to support the efforts of the State Party and contribute to the implementation of Phase II of the Action Plan for the rehabilitation of the cultural heritage and the safeguarding of the ancient manuscripts;
  10. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020;
  11. Decides to pursue the application of the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism for the property;
  12. Also decides to retain Timbuktu (Mali) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

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Code: 42COM 7A.14

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 41 COM 7A.29, adopted at its 41st session (Krakow, 2017),
  3. Notes with satisfaction the progress achieved in the implementation by the State Party of the corrective measures adopted at its 40th session, in a continuingly difficult context in northern Mali, notably the rehabilitation and safeguarding work of the three mosques, the private libraries and the museums, the El-Farouk monument and the development of Independence Square, and also the extension of the HERI-AB;
  4. Congratulates the State Party for the preparation of the new 2018-2022 Management and Conservation Plan, and the increased involvement of the local community in activities carried out for the benefit of the property;
  5. Warmly welcomes the interventions foreseen for the security of two cemeteries, and recommends the State Party to broaden the scope of its efforts to include all the cemeteries containing the mausoleums of saints through additional measures, in particular the recruitment and training of guards for each cemetery, as well as public lighting;
  6. Expresses its concern as regards the continuing unstable security situation and notably certain impacts due to military presence, such as the potentially negative effects of vibrations caused by military vehicles to the listed buildings, and also recommends that the State Party study, in consultation with the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), reorganization options for traffic adjacent to the concerned buildings to reduce these effects;
  7. Encourages the State Party to increase the financial, logistical and human resources of the Timbuktu Cultural Mission, to enable an improved fulfilment of its central function and ensure the implementation of the new Management and Conservation Plan;
  8. Launches an appeal to the international community to provide support to the efforts of the State Party and contribute towards the implementation of the second phase of the Rehabilitation Programme for Cultural Heritage and the safeguarding of the ancient manuscripts of Mali;
  9. Also encourages the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies to explore the possibility of setting up a short-term distance support programme, in order to allow dialogue on capacity building and on drafting the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR);
  10. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above points, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 43rd session in 2019;
  11. Decides to pursue the application of the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism for the property;
  12. Also decides to retain Timbuktu (Mali) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Read more about the decision
Code: 41COM 7A.29

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/17/41.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 40 COM 7A.6, adopted at its 40th session (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016),
  3. Commends the State Party for the progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures adopted at its 40th session in a difficult security context in northern Mali and encourages it to continue with the support of its partners;
  4. Expresses its concern at the fragility of the security situation in Timbuktu which prevented the joint UNESCO/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission from being carried out in order to assess the general state of conservation of the property;
  5. Requests the State Party to update and implement the urban regulations within the inscribed perimeter, the ancient fabric and the buffer zones of the property, as soon as possible;
  6. Calls upon the international community to continue to provide support to the State Party, in cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, in all possible ways, for the conservation and protection of the property;
  7. Reiterates its request to the State Party to invite, when the situation in the northern region of Mali is stabilized, a joint UNESCO/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission to assess the overall state of conservation of the property and progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures;
  8. Also reiterates its request to the State Party to finalize, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM, the proposal for the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) and a precise timetable for implementation, and to submit them to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2018 for adoption by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018;
  9. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2018, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018;
  10. Decides to pursue the application of the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism for the property;
  11. Also decides to retain Timbuktu (Mali) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

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Code: 40COM 7A.6

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/16/40.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 39 COM 7A.21, adopted at its 39th session (Bonn, 2015),
  3. Regrets that the State Party was unable to submit a state of conservation report of the property, as requested by the Committee;
  4. Congratulates the State Party for the significant work undertaken in the reconstruction of the 14 Saint mausoleums destroyed during the occupation period of Timbuktu in 2012 and thanks the partners who provided support in the framework of the Mali Rehabilitation of Cultural Heritage project and requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre the reconstruction strategy that guided this work and the architectural and archaeological studies carried out, so that the principles underpinning this reconstruction work are clearly documented and the role of the Corporation of Masons fully appreciated;
  5. Expresses its concern regarding the fragility of the security situation at Timbuktu preventing the State Party from inviting the requested joint UNESCO/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission to evaluate the general state of conservation of the property;
  6. Notes with satisfaction the organization in Bamako of an evaluation meeting on the state of conservation of the property based on all the technical missions, studies and activity reports carried out, as well as observations and comments of the site managers and representatives of local communities, enabling the preparation of corrective measures and the preparation of a Desired State of Conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR);
  7. Adopts the following corrective measures to ensure the conditions of integrity and authenticity of the property:
    1. For the conservation of the physical components of the property:
      1. Carry out the restoration/rehabilitation work for the two mosques of Sankoré and Sidi Yahia to strengthen their stability and safeguarding, and establish a participatory management mechanism closely involving the Imams,
      2. Establish and implement control measures concerning the silting up of the physical components of the property,
      3. Rehabilitate fencing around the cemeteries where the World Heritage mausoleums are located in order to strengthen security,
    2. For the protection and management of the property:
      1. Revise and implement the management and conservation plan for the property and the buffer zones, taking into account risk management, threats concerning the Outstanding Universal Value of the property and a plan for preventive and remedial conservation activities for the components of the property,
      2. Identify short- middle- and long-term funding sources to guarantee the implementation of the management plan,
      3. Prepare a geo-referenced map indicating the boundaries of the buffer zones for each of the components,
      4. Update and implement urban regulations in the periphery of the inscribed property, the ancient fabric and buffer zones and evaluate their efficiency,
      5. Prepare a maintenance manual and conservation plan for the reconstructed mausoleums,
      6. Re-energize the Management Committee for all components of the property involving the municipal authorities concerned,
      7. Strengthen the institutional and technical capacities of the actors and professionals involved in the management and conservation of the property,
      8. Strengthen the operational capacities of the management structure of the property: allocation of necessary budget for urgent conservation activities,
      9. Improve the security situation at the mosques and mausoleums and more generally throughout the entire town;
  8. Calls upon the international community to support the State Party, in co-operation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, in any way possible for priority conservation and management measures, and capacity building programmes;
  9. Requests the State Party to invite a joint UNESCO/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission to evaluate the general state of conservation of the property and progress achieved in the implementation of the corrective measures, once the situation in northern Mali is stabilized;
  10. Also requests the State Party to finalize, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM, the DSOCR proposal and a precise timetable for implementation, and to submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2017, as far as is possible, for adoption by the World Heritage Committee at its 41st session in 2017;
  11. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2017, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above-mentioned points, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 41st session in 2017;
  12. Decides to continue the application of the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism for the property;
  13. Also decides to retain Timbuktu (Mali) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Read more about the decision
Code: 40COM 8C.2

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/16/40.COM/7A, WHC/16/40.COM/7A.Add and WHC/16/40.COM/7A.Add.2),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 40 COM 7A.26)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 40 COM 7A.27)
  • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 40 COM 7A.32)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 40 COM 7A.1)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.34)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 40 COM 7A.2)
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.35)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 40 COM 7A.36)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.37)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.38)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 40 COM 7A.39)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.40)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.41)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 40 COM 7A.9)
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.43)
  • Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (Decision 40 COM 7A.28)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 40 COM 7A.33)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 40 COM 7A.48)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 40 COM 7A.10)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 40 COM 7A.11)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 40 COM 7A.12)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 40 COM 7A.13)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 40 COM 7A.44)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 40 COM 7A.6)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 40 COM 7A.7)
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 40 COM 7A.45)
  • Palestine, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Decision 40 COM 7A.14)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 40 COM 7A.15)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 40 COM 7A.3)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 40 COM 7A.4)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.46)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 40 COM 7A. 30)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 40 COM 7A.49)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 40 COM 7A.16)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 40 COM 7A.17)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 40 COM 7A.18)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 40 COM 7A.19)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 40 COM 7A.20)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 40 COM 7A.21)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 40 COM 7A.8)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 40 COM 7A.31)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 40 COM 7A.47)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.50)
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 40 COM 7A.5)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 40 COM 7A.23)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 40 COM 7A.24)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 40 COM 7A.25).

Read more about the decision
Code: 38COM 7A.24

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC-14/38.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 37 COM 7A.19, adopted at its 37th session (Phnom Penh, 2013,)
  3. Congratulates the State Party for having accomplished significant progress enabling the commencement of the reconstruction of the mausoleums on 14 March 2014;
  4. Notes with satisfaction the preparation of a restoration and reconstruction strategy for damaged cultural heritage in northern Mali detailing the reconstruction method for the destroyed mausoleums, and appreciates the place accorded to the role of the communities, the responsible families and the corporation of masons in this process;
  5. Warmly welcomes the reconstruction of the two mausoleums alongside the outer west wall of the Djingareyber Mosque (Sheik Babadjer and Amadou Fulani), as well as the daily documentation work undertake throughout this reconstruction so as to better understand the organization of the work, the working relations between the masons and the owner families and planning the reconstruction of the remaining mausoleums;
  6. Recalls the importance of the work concerning the constitution of documentation provided for each of the mausoleums, taking into account the character and unique specificity of each of them, and encourages the State Party to accomplish the documentation work, begun in June 2013, as well as all the studies and diagnostics that are still required to define the different technical reconstruction solutions, and the physical state to which each of the mausoleums should be restored and to submit the results for examination;
  7. Thanks all the countries and institutions that have contributed financially to the UNESCO and Mali Action Plan, adopted on 18 February 2013 in Paris, and more particularly Switzerland, the European Union, the International Association of Francophone Mayors (AIMF), Norway, The Netherlands, the Kingdom of Bahrain, African World Heritage Fund (AWHF), Croatia, Andorra and Mauritius;
  8. Requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre/ ICOMOS/ICCROM mission to evaluate the general state of conservation of the property and progress achieved in the reconstruction of the mausoleums and the restoration of the mosques, and prepare all the corrective measures as well as a Desired State of Conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;
  9. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2015, a report, including a 1-page executive summary, on the state of conservation of the property and progress in the implementation of the above-mentioned points, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 39th session in 2015;
  10. Decides to continue the application of the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism of the property;
  11. Decides to retain Timbuktu (Mali) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

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Code: 14COM VIIC

Timbuktu

119Rev

Mali

The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the List of World Heritage in Danger due to the threat of sand encroachment. A programme to safeguard the property has been set up in order to combat the most pressing dangers, including the consolidation of the Djingareiber Mosque and improvement of terrace rainwater drainage systems.

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Code: 12COM XIVA

Wet Tropics of Queensland

486

Australia 

N(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)

In accordance with the wishes of the Bureau at its last meeting in June 1988, the Committee noted that the Bureau had re-examined this nomination taking into account the revised evaluation of IUCN and additional information provided by Australia, as requested by the Bureau. Following this re-examination, the Committee decided to inscribe this property on the World Heritage List. It recommended that an appropriate management regime be established. The Committee furthermore recommended that IUCN continue to monitor the status of conservation of this property and report back to the Committee in the next 2 to 3 years.

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