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Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork

Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork

This 13th-century fortified monastery belonging to the Teutonic Order was substantially enlarged and embellished after 1309, when the seat of the Grand Master moved here from Venice. A particularly fine example of a medieval brick castle, it later fell into decay, but was meticulously restored in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Many of the conservation techniques now accepted as standard were evolved here. Following severe damage in the Second World War it was once again restored, using the detailed documentation prepared by earlier conservators.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Château de l’ordre Teutonique de Malbork

Ce monastère fortifié de l'ordre Teutonique datant du XIIIe siècle a été largement agrandi et embelli après 1309, quand le siège du grand maître de l'ordre a été transféré de Venise à Malbork. Exemple suprême du château médiéval en brique, il s'est ensuite délabré mais a été méticuleusement restauré au XIXe siècle et au début du XXe . C'est là qu'ont été élaborées nombre de techniques de conservation qui sont maintenant de règle. Après de graves dégâts subis lors de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, le château a été de nouveau restauré à partir de la documentation détaillée préparée par les précédents spécialistes de sa conservation.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

قصر مالبورك المبني وفقًا للنمط التوتوني

لقد تمّ توسيع هذا الدير المحصّن المبني على النمط التوتوني في القرن الثالث عشر، وتم تحسينه بعد العام 1309، حين تم نقل مقر سيد هذا النمط الأعظم من البندقية الى مالبورك. إنّه المثال الاسمى عن القصر القرميدي القروسطي. غير أنه هُدّم وأُعيد بناؤه بدقّةٍ كبيرة في القرن التاسع عشر وفي بداية القرن العشرين. من هنا تطوّر عدد من تقنيات الحفظ التي أصبحت اليوم قواعد رائجة. بعد الخسائر الجسيمة التي أحدثتها الحرب العالمية الثانية، رُمّم القصر من جديد استنادًا الى وثائق مفصّلة أعدّها الخبراء السابقون في حفظها.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

马尔堡的条顿骑士团城堡

这个13世纪带有堡垒防御功能的修道院属于当时的条顿骑士团,当国王的居所于1309年从威尼斯移到这里后,这个城堡也得以扩建和重修。它是中世纪砖制城堡的杰出代表。在以后的数年里,城堡日渐衰败,到19世纪和20世纪初期,细致地修复了原貌。当今作为标准被接受的许多文物保护技巧是从这里演变而来的。该城堡在二战时期又被严重毁坏,但是后人根据第一次修复时留下来的详细资料再次修复了这个文化遗产。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Замок Тевтонского Ордена в городе Мальборк

Этот укрепленный монастырь XIII в., принадлежавший Тевтонскому ордену, был значительно расширен и богато оформлен после 1309 г., когда сюда была перенесена из Венеции резиденция Великого Магистра. Являясь особенно ярким примером средневекового кирпичного замка, он позднее пришел в упадок, но был тщательно отреставрирован в XIX - начале XX вв. Многие методы консервации, вошедшие ныне в широкую практику, впервые были применены именно здесь. После жестоких разрушений во время Второй мировой войны замок был отреставрирован еще раз, с использованием детальной документации, подготовленной предыдущими реставраторами.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Castillo de la Orden Teutónica en Malbork

Ampliado y embellecido a partir de 1309, año en que la sede del Gran Maestre de la Orden Teutónica fue transferida de Venecia a Malbork, este antiguo monasterio fortificado del siglo XIII llegó a ser el ejemplo más acabado de castillo medieval construido en ladrillo. Deteriorado con el correr del tiempo, fue meticulosamente restaurado en el siglo XIX y a principios del XX con técnicas que hoy se han convertido en normas en materia de restauración. Tras los graves desperfectos sufridos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, se restauró de nuevo sobre la base de la detallada documentación elaborada por los especialistas en conservación que efectuaron la primera restauración.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

マルボルクのドイツ騎士団の城
ドイツ騎士団が当時のマリエンブルクへ遷ったとき、初期の城郭は拡大されより華麗なものとなった。それは中世の煉瓦積城郭の見事な例証である。のちに崩壊したが、19~20世紀初期に正確に修復された。この地においては多くの保存技術が開発され、第2次世界大戦による全壊後の修復も、以前の修復者による詳細な記録に基づく成果であった。

source: NFUAJ

Kasteel van de Teutoonse orde in Malbork

Dit 13e-eeuwse versterkte klooster behoort tot de Teutoonse orde. Het werd aanzienlijk uitgebreid en verfraaid na 1309 toen de zetel van de Grote Meester hierheen verhuisde vanuit Venetië. Het is een bijzonder mooi voorbeeld van een middeleeuws kasteel, gebouwd van baksteen. Het kasteel raakte later in verval, maar het werd zorgvuldig gerestaureerd in de 19e eeuw en het begin van de 20e eeuw. Veel van de conserveringstechnieken die nu standaard zijn, werden hier ontwikkeld. Na zware schade in de Tweede Wereldoorlog werd het kasteel opnieuw hersteld met behulp van gedetailleerde documentatie opgesteld door eerdere conservatoren.

Source: unesco.nl

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Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork (Poland) © Malbork Castle Museum
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Malbork Castle is located in the north of Poland, on the east bank of the River Nogat. It is the most complete and elaborate example of a Gothic brick-built castle complex in the characteristic and unique style of the Teutonic Order. The style exemplified here evolved independently from those which prevailed in contemporary castles in western Europe and the Near East. This spectacular fortress bears witness to the phenomenon of the Teutonic Order state in Prussia. The state was founded in the 13th century by German communities of military monks who carried out crusades against the pagan Prussians and Lithuanians living on the south Baltic coast, as well as against the Christian Kingdom of Poland. It reached its greatest influence in the 14th century. The castle-convent embodies the drama of late medieval Christianity, straining between extremes of sanctity and violence.

Since the second half of the 18th century, Malbork Castle has provided one of the major sources of fascination with European medieval history and its material remains. Its recent past also illustrates the tendency to treat history and its monuments as instruments in the service of political ideologies.

From the 19th century to the present day, Malbork Castle has been the subject of restoration work that has made an exceptional contribution to the development of research and conservation theory and practice in this part of the world. During the course of this work many forgotten medieval art and craft techniques have been rediscovered. Extensive conservation works were carried out in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Following the severe damage it incurred in the final stage of the Second World War, the castle was restored once again.

Apart from its legacy as a material remain, Malbork Castle is also deeply rooted in social consciousness as a significant and emotional symbol of the history of Central Europe.

Criterion (ii): Malbork Castle is an architectural work of unique character. Many of the methods used by its builders in handling technical and artistic problems greatly influenced not only subsequent castles of the Teutonic Order, but also other Gothic buildings in a wide region of north-eastern Europe. The castle also provides perfect evidence of the evolution of modern philosophy and practice in the field of restoration and conservation. It is a historic monument to conservation itself, both in its social aspect and as a scientific and artistic discipline.

Criterion (iii): Malbork Castle, a symbol of power and cultural tradition, is the most important monument to the monastic state of the Teutonic Order, a unique phenomenon in the history of Western civilization. The Castle is at the same time the major material manifestation of the Crusades in eastern Europe, the compulsory conversion to Christianity of the Baltic peoples, and the colonization of their tribal territories, which played a vital role in the history of Europe.

Criterion (iv): Malbork Castle is an outstanding example of the castles of the Teutonic Order, which evolved on the frontiers of medieval western Europe. It is a unique, perfectly planned architectural creation, with no equivalent in Gothic architecture. It was built utilizing a rich repertoire of medieval construction methods; these were applied on an exceptionally large scale and resulted in making a magnificent seat for the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order.

Integrity

The boundaries of the 18 ha Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork encompass all the elements necessary to sustain the Outstanding Universal Value of the monumental castle complex, characterised by a tripartite layout comprising the High Castle, the Middle Castle, and the Outer Bailey, each clearly delineated while at the same time integrally interconnected.

The distinctive western and eastern panoramas of the castle complex also remain intact.

Other equally important attributes of Malbork, illustrating its significance as the seat of the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order, are individual buildings of the castle complex. The most important among them are two masterpieces of Gothic architecture: the Grand Masters’ Palace and the Great Refectory in the Middle Castle. The functioning of the capital of the monastic state in Prussia is also superbly illustrated by the remaining parts of the Middle Castle, as well as the High Castle, which used to serve as the principal monastery of the Teutonic Convent in Prussia. The High Castle takes the form of a fully evolved, quadrilateral Teutonic stronghold complete with a conventual chapel (the Church of the Virgin Mary) and other monastic rooms. A unique architectural feature is the Dansker – a latrine tower first developed at Malbork and subsequently copied at other castles within the monastic state. Malbork’s castle complex has also retained a clearly demarcated Outer Bailey, delineated by a series of defensive walls and moats. The Outer Bailey features a number of extant buildings which were of significance for the functioning of the Order’s capital. These include the armoury known as the Karwan and the defensive towers, the most important of which are the Maślankowa and the Bridge towers.

Authenticity

The overall authenticity of the Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork in its present form is very high, particularly regarding its location and setting, forms and designs, and materials and substances. The fully preserved medieval features of the castle complex are its tripartite architectural and functional layout, the clearly delimited though interrelated units of High Castle, Middle Castle, and Outer Bailey, the spatial layouts of the High and Middle castles, and the grounds of the Outer Bailey, as well as two masterpieces of Gothic architecture: the Grand Masters’ Palace and the Great Refectory in the Middle Castle.

The remaining elements of the castle complex were largely reconstructed during works carried out at the turn of the 19th and early 20th centuries and after the Second World War.

Key examples of late 19th-century conservation methods include the interiors of the High Castle: the Chapter House (with its accurately reconstructed vaulted ceiling, into which medieval details have been impeccably fitted), the Grand Masters’ sepulchral chapel, the kitchen, the dignitaries’ chambers, the dormitories, the refectory, and the common room. Conservation feats of the early 20th century are principally demonstrated by buildings in the Middle Castle: St Catherine’s Chapel, St Bartholomew’s Chapel, the Grand Commander’s Chambers, and the infirmary, as well as by parts of the Outer Bailey, including St Lawrence’s Chapel, the towers on Plauen’s Bulwark and the New Gate. The post-Second-World-War reconstruction of Malbork Castle is characterised by the great care which was taken to use the extensive and detailed records of the castle’s conservation and restoration carried out in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Contemporary reconstruction projects have led to the reinstatement of features dating from that period, thus conferring an authenticity relating to the evolution of the precepts and practice of restoration and conservation.

Protection and management requirements

The Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork is subject to the highest level of legal protection at the national level in Poland (through its entry in the National Heritage Register and its status as a Monument of History), and by regulations pertaining to museums, implemented by the state monument protection services. Since 1961, the complex has been administrated by a national museum directly subordinate to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. The museum has at its disposal highly qualified conservation and education services and appropriate funds, making it possible to carry out suitable conservation tasks and to conduct educational and popularization events. The museum’s activity is controlled by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage and the national conservation services.

Sustaining the Outstanding Universal Value, authenticity, and integrity of the property over time requires continuing the policies of conservation implemented at the Malbork castle complex since the mid-19th century in order to preserve the spatial and functional layout of the fortress, its panoramas, and the historic architectural features of the castle. In order to safeguard the integrity of the castle complex with its surroundings, and to preserve the character of this property, it is necessary for all of the stakeholders involved to cooperate closely. This cooperation should secure the effective protection of the complex in local planning documents.