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Laponian Area

Laponian Area

The Arctic Circle region of northern Sweden is the home of the Saami, or Lapp people. It is the largest area in the world (and one of the last) with an ancestral way of life based on the seasonal movement of livestock. Every summer, the Saami lead their huge herds of reindeer towards the mountains through a natural landscape hitherto preserved, but now threatened by the advent of motor vehicles. Historical and ongoing geological processes can be seen in the glacial moraines and changing water courses.

Région de Laponie

Dans cette région circumpolaire du nord de la Suède vivent les Saamis, ou Lapons. Elle constitue le plus vaste et l'un des derniers espaces où se pratique encore leur mode de vie ancestral fondé sur la transhumance. Chaque été, les Saamis conduisent leurs immenses troupeaux de rennes vers les montagnes dans un paysage naturel jusqu'ici préservé mais désormais menacé par l'arrivée des véhicules à moteur. Les moraines et grands cours d'eau glaciaires erratiques que l'on peut voir représentent des processus géologiques historiques et en cours.

منطقة لابوني (لابلاند)

تشكل هذه المنطقة المحيطة بالقطب شمال السويد موطناً لشعوب السامي وهي المساحة الكبرى والأخيرة بين التي يمارس فيها هؤلاء القوم نمط حياتهم كما توارثوه من الأجداد والقائم على الانتجاع، حيث يعمدون كل صيف الى قيادة قطعان الرنات الكبيرة الى الجبال في منظر طبيعي لا يزال حياً ولكنه مهدد بالخطر نتنيجة وصول الآليات المزوّدة بالمحركات. اما الجرافات ومجاري المياه الجليدية التائهة الكبيرة التي يمكن مشاهدتها، فتعكس تطوراً جيولوجياً تاريخياً وحالياً.

source: UNESCO/ERI

拉普人区域

瑞典北部北极圈地区是萨米人或拉普人的家园。这里是最大的也是最后一个人们按照祖传方式进行生活的地区,这种生活以牲畜周期性的迁移为基础。每年夏天,萨米人赶着他们的驯鹿群穿越自然风景区走向大山,这些风景区至今还保存着,如今却受到汽车的威胁。我们可以从冰碛和水流路线的改变中看到历史和现今的地质作用。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Лапландия

Этот район северной Швеции, расположенный близ Полярного круга, населен народом саами, или лаппами. Это самая крупная (а также – практически последняя) область в мире, где еще сохранился традиционный кочевой уклад жизни этого народа, основанный на сезонной смене пастбищных угодий. Каждое лето лаппы гонят огромные стада северных оленей в горы, однако природным комплексам этих мест, долгое время остававшихся нетронутыми, в настоящее время угрожает появление автотранспорта. Здесь хорошо прослеживаются следы деятельности как древних, так и современных геологических процессов, которые нашли свое отражение в ледниковых моренах и замысловатой конфигурации речной сети.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Región de Laponia

Habitada por los saami, o lapones, la región circumpolar del norte de Suecia es la más vasta y una de las últimas del mundo en la que predomina todavía un modo de vida ancestral basado en la trashumancia estacional. Cada verano, los lapones conducen sus inmensos rebaños de renos hacia las montañas a través de un paisaje natural hasta hoy preservado, aunque amenazado por la llegada de los vehículos de motor. Las morrenas y los vastos y cambiantes cursos de agua glaciares de esta región son ilustrativos de procesos geológicos antiguos y contemporáneos.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ラポニアン・エリア

source: NFUAJ

Laponia gebied

De poolcirkelregio van Noord-Zweden is het woongebied van de Sami, ook wel bekend onder de naam Lappen. Het is het grootste gebied ter wereld (en een van de laatste) met een voorouderlijke manier van leven op basis van de seizoensgebonden verplaatsing van vee. Elke zomer leiden de Sami hun zeer grote kuddes rendieren in de richting van de bergen door een natuurlandschap. Dit landschap wordt vandaag de dag bedreigd door de komst van motorvoertuigen. Het Laponia gebied getuigt van historische en altijd doorgaande geologische processen, te zien in de gletsjermorenen en veranderende waterlopen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Justification for Inscription

The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of natural criteria (vii), (viii) and (ix) and cultural criteria (iii) and (v). The Committee considered that the site is of outstanding universal value as it contains examples of ongoing geological, biological and ecological processes, a great variety of natural phenomena of exceptional beauty and significant biological diversity including a population of brown bear and alpine flora. It was noted that the site meets all conditions of integrity. The site has been occupied continuously by the Saami people since prehistoric times, is one of the last and unquestionably largest and best preserved examples of an area of transhumance, involving summer grazing by large reindeer herds, a practice that was widespread at one time and which dates back to an early stage in human economic and social development.

Long Description

This area has been occupied continuously by the Saami people since prehistoric times, and is one of the last and unquestionably the largest and best preserved area of transhumance, involving summer grazing by large reindeer herds, a practice that was widespread at one time and which dates back to an early stage in human economic and social development. It contains all the processes associated with glacial activity, such as monad nocks, kursu valleys, sandurs, boulder hollows, U-shaped valleys, glacial cirques and moraines, talus slopes, drumlins, presence of large erratic and rapidly flowing glacial streams, as well as a record of humans being part of these ecosystems as far as 7000 BP.

The site lies close to the Arctic Circle in northern Sweden. It consists of two landscape types: an eastern taiga area of Archaean geological origin and a western mountainous landscape covering two-thirds of the area, formed more recently and comprising part of the Swedish-Norwegian Scandes, with a thinly vegetated mountainous landscape, steep valleys and powerful rivers. Birch, low heath and alpine meadows, are found below boulder fields, permanent snowfields and glaciers. The area in northern Fennoscandia was first occupied in the Palaeolithic period, towards the end of the last Ice Age, about 10,000 years BP. The settlers were nomadic hunter-gatherers, subsisting principally on wild reindeer, and other of their occupation is found in the form of hearths and house-foundations. The region includes the four national parks Padjelanta, Sarek, Stora Sjofallet and Muddus, and the nature reserves Sjaunja and Stubba. The archaeological record shows remains of human settlement over wide areas of the site indicating hunting and fishing culture between 3500 BC and 2000 BC. Extensive reindeer domestication and nomadic life based on herding of tame reindeer did not develop until the 17th and 18th centuries.

The Lapps or Saami in the area still live, for 4,000-5,000 years, in the mountains during the summer, especially in the western part near some of the large lakes. Family groups occupy small cabins, which have replaced the traditional dwellings made from goat-skins. There are no summer camps in the eastern part: the reindeer owners there live in the neighbouring villages and municipalities. There are no permanent settlements occupied throughout the year anywhere in this area. The Saami have progressively substituted reindeer hunting for reindeer herding from the 16th century onwards. At the same time other peoples arrived in the region from the south, settling along rivers and lake-shores. This people practised a form of transhumance, spending the summer in the mountains and the winters in the coniferous forests to the east. The Saami people have the right to fish in the large lakes in Padjelanta commercially, but as a sideline during the summer while there with reindeer herding. The crucial factor in terms of the area's integrity is the impact of reindeer husbandry which, by Swedish law, is a right guaranteed to the Saami people.

Researchers working on large mammal predators and white-tailed eagle indicated that all populations seem to be healthy with the exception of wolverine which occurs in low numbers. Also there are more than 150 bird species and 100 bears, including wanderers use the area. Regarding the wolf, the mission was advised that it is not politically feasible to reintroduce it because of the reindeer herding activity.

The Swami retain their traditional rights relating to pasturage, felling, fishing, and hunting and to the introduction of dogs into the protected areas. The practice of pastoral transhumance has been rendered obsolete or been abandoned in many parts of the world, but this area is one of the last and the best preserved of those that survive.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The nominated area in northern Fennoscandia was first occupied in the Palaeolithic period, towards the end of the last Ice Age, about 10,000 Years BP. The settlers were nomadic hunter-gatherers, subsisting principally on wild reindeer, and traces of their occupation is found in the form of hearths and house-foundations.

The present-day peoples of the area, the Lapps or Saami, as they call themselves, who speak a Finno-Ugrian language, arrived from the east 4000-5000 years ago. At the same time other peoples arrived in the region from the south, settling along rivers and lake-shores. The Saami began hunting wild reindeer, like their predecessors, but slowly replaced them by domesticated herds, with which they migrated during the year. They practised a form of transhumance, spending the summer in the mountains and the winters in the coniferous forests to the east.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation