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Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau

Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau

Between 1919 and 1933, the Bauhaus School, based first in Weimar and then in Dessau, revolutionized architectural and aesthetic concepts and practices. The buildings put up and decorated by the school's professors (Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and Wassily Kandinsky) launched the Modern Movement, which shaped much of the architecture of the 20th century.

Le Bauhaus et ses sites à Weimar et Dessau

Entre 1919 et 1933, l'école du Bauhaus, installée d'abord à Weimar puis à Dessau, a révolutionné l'ensemble des conceptions et des productions architecturales et esthétiques. Les bâtiments construits et décorés par les professeurs de l'école (Walter Gropius ou Hannes Meyer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy ou Vassily Kandinsky) ont inauguré le « mouvement moderne » qui a modelé l'aspect architectural de notre siècle.

الباوهاوس والمواقع في فايمار وديساو

بين العامين 1919 و1933، أحدثت مدرسة باوهاوس التي استقرت أولاً في فايمار ومن ثم في ديساو ثورةً في مجال مجمل المفاهيم والمنتجات الهندسية والتجميلية. وكانت المباني التي شيّدها وزيّنها اساتذة المدرسة (واتر غروبيوس أو هانس ماير ولازل موهولي- ناجي أو فاسيلي كادنسكي) فاتحة للحركة المعاصرة التي رسمت الطابع الهندسي المعماري في قرننا هذا.

source: UNESCO/ERI

魏玛和德绍的包豪斯建筑及其遗址

包豪斯学派(the Bauhaus School)首先兴起于魏玛(Weimar),然后扩展到了德绍(Dessau),于1919至1933年期间对当时的建筑和美学观念及实践产生了革命性影响。由该学派的教授们(沃尔特·格罗皮斯、汉斯·梅尔、拉斯罗·摩利那基和韦斯利·坎丁斯基)修建和装潢的一系列建筑代表了“现代运动”的兴起,同时也为20世纪建筑的发展奠定了基础。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Памятники архитектурной школы Баухаус в городах Веймар и Дессау

В период 1919-1933 гг. школа Баухаус, находившаяся сначала в Bеймаре, а затем в Дессау, революционно изменила архитектурно-эстетические концепции и практику. Здания, воздвигнутые и оформленные профессорами школы (Вальтер Гропиус, Ханнес Мейер, Ласло Мохоли-Надь и Василий Кандинский) положили начало «Современному движению» и сильно повлияли на архитектуру ХХ в.

source: UNESCO/ERI

La Bauhaus y sus sitios en Weimar y Dessau

Entre 1919 y 1933, la Escuela Bauhaus, que tuvo primero su sede en Weimar y luego en Dessau, revolucionó los conceptos y prácticas arquitectónicas y estéticas. Los edificios construidos y ornamentados por algunos de sus profesores (Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, Lazlo Moholy-Nagy y Wassily Kandinsky) señalaron los inicios del movimiento modernista que configuró gran parte de la arquitectura del siglo XX.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ヴァイマールとデッサウのバウハウスとその関連遺産群

source: NFUAJ

Bauhaus en zijn locaties in Weimar en Dessau

De Bauhaus School, eerst gevestigd in Weimar en later in Dessau, ontketende tussen 1919 en 1933 een revolutie in architectonische en esthetische concepten en praktijken. De gebouwen die opgetrokken en ingericht zijn door de professoren van de school – Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy en Wassily Kandinsky – waren de aanzet van de Moderne Beweging, die een groot deel van de architectuur van de 20e eeuw heeft gevormd. Het gebouw van de Bauhaus School in Weimar is representatief voor de progressieve architectonische concepten van de Jugendstil in de overgangsfase tussen historisme en het modernisme. Het gebouw werd in 1923 versierd met muurschilderingen van Herbert Beyer. In 1925 moest de school om politieke redenen sluiten. In Dessau vond Bauhaus nieuw onderdak en beleefde een korte maar zeer invloedrijke periode. In 1933 werd Bauhaus definitief gesloten.

Source: unesco.nl

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Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau
Justification for Inscription

The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural criteria (ii), (iv) and (vi) considering that the site is of outstanding universal value since these buildings are the seminal works of the Bauhaus architectural school, the foundation of the Modern Movement which was to revolutionize artistic and architectural thinking and practice in the twentieth century. The Committee also noted that this type of inscription testifies a better recognition of the 20th century heritage.

Long Description

The Bauhaus is an outstanding example of the Modern Movement, which revolutionized artistic and architectural thinking and practice in the 20th century, and in particular of the progressive architectural concepts of the Jugendstil.

In 1919 the Schools of Art and of Applied Arts of the Grand Duchy of Saxony were combined to form the State Bauhaus of Weimar. The building of the former had been constructed in two phases, in 1904 and 1911, to the designs of Henry van de Velde (1863-1957), replacing the original structure of 1860.

The new building is representative of the progressive architectural concepts of the Jugendstil, in the transitional phase between Historicism and Modernism. The building was decorated with murals painted by Herbert Beyer in 1923 following the internationally famous Bauhaus exhibition. Van de Velde was responsible for the design of the former School of Applied Arts (1905-6), also in the Jugendstil tradition. Oskar Schlemmer added wall sculptures in 1923, which had disappeared, but have been replaced by copies.

The Haus am Horn was built to a design by Georg Muche in 1923 as a model building and exhibit, the first practical statement of the New Building Style of the Bauhaus. Annexes (a gatehouse, more rooms, a verandah, and a terrace facing the garden) were made in 1925; however, the original appearance is unchanged. It is the only original Bauhaus building remaining in Weimar.

The Weimar Bauhaus was obliged to close in 1925 for political reasons. Walther Gropius found support for his cultural and political stance in Dessau, along with the opportunity to create a number of large-scale new buildings. These were situated on the outskirts of the town, and comprise the Bauhaus itself and the Masters' Houses (Meisterhäuser), all commissioned by the Municipality of Dessau and built in 1925-26. The latter were the residences of the successive directors of the Bauhaus and some of its distinguished teachers.

From 1928 then until 1932 the institution enjoyed its most influential period in its struggle for the renewal of artistic and industrial design. It attracted world-famous artists such as Feininger, Kandinsky and Moholy-Nagy to its teaching staff. The Bauhaus was closed down in 1933, the building itself being used for other purposes. The interior was completely destroyed in a 1943 air raid, and no renovation was carried out until 1956.

The former School of Art is an extended tripartite building with an east wing on four axes. The central portion is triaxial and there is an irregular triaxial West wing, as well as an extension to the south with a hall lit from above. The centrally oriented crown with an air dome on the ventilation system is structured as a ridge turret. The Van de Velde building (the former School of Applied Arts) is an angular structure with division created by plaster strips under a traditional attic, given rhythmic form by dormer windows. The south gable has a monumental quality resulting from its arches of natural stone and has window openings traversed by unmasked steel bearers. The Haus am Horn is a cubic building; set back on the flat roof is a raised structure covering the high central living room with skylights and only one window at eye-level, set in a niche.

The School building itself is composed of three cubes in an asymmetrical arrangement, with all the sides of equal significance. On the north are the technical teaching rooms, a municipal trade school not administratively related with the Bauhaus. The two school blocks were given distinctive appearances. On the east, connected with the workshop block by a cross-wing housing a canteen and auditorium, is the five-storey studio and residential building for students. The complex of Meisterhäuser consists of one detached house and three semi-detached, each of two units. Their external form is determined by their internal function.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

In 1919 the Schools of Art and of Applied Arts of the Grand Duchy of Saxony were combined to form the State Bauhaus of Weimar. The building of the former had been constructed in two phases, in 1904 and 1911, to the designs of Henry van de Velde (1863-1957), then Director of the School of Applied Arts, replacing the original structure of 1860, the year the School was founded. The new building is representative of the progressive architectural concepts of the Jugendstil, in the transitional phase between Historicism and Modernism. The building was decorated with murals painted by Herbert sever in 1923 following the internationally famous Bauhaus exhibition.

Van de Velde was responsible for the design of the former School of Applied Arts (1905-6), also in the Jugendstil tradition. Oskar Schlemmer added wall sculptures in 1923; these had disappeared, but have now been replaced by copies.

The Haus am Horn was built to a design by Georg Muche in 1923 as a model building and exhibit, the first practical statement of the New Building Style of the Bauhaus. Annexes (a gatehouse, more rooms, a verandah, and a terrace facing the garden) were made in 1925. However, the original appearance as seen from the road is virtually unchanged. It is the only original Bauhaus building remaining in Weimar.

The Weimar Bauhaus was obliged to close in 1925 for political reasons. Gropius found support for his cultural and political stance in Dessau, along with the opportunity to create a number of large-scale new buildings. These were situated on the outskirts of the town, and comprise the Bauhaus itself and the Masters• Houses (Meisterhäuser), all commissioned by the municipality of Dessau and built in 1925-26. The latter were the residences of the successive Directors of the Bauhaus and some of its distinguished teachers.

Hannes Meyer replaced Gropius as Director in 1928, followed two years later by Mies van der Rohe. From then until 1932 the institution enjoyed its most influential period in its struggle for the renewal of artistic and industrial design. It attracted world-famous artists such as Feininger, Kandinsky, and Moholy-Nagy to its teaching staff.

The Bauhaus was closed down in 1933, the building itself being used for other purposes. The interior was completely destroyed in a 1943 air-raid, and no renovation was carried out until 1956. The Masters• Houses were also badly damaged during this raid, the Director's house being completely destroyed; restoration and reconstruction work was carried out in the 19505.

 

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation