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Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, Lhasa

Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, Lhasa

The Potala Palace, winter palace of the Dalai Lama since the 7th century, symbolizes Tibetan Buddhism and its central role in the traditional administration of Tibet. The complex, comprising the White and Red Palaces with their ancillary buildings, is built on Red Mountain in the centre of Lhasa Valley, at an altitude of 3,700m. Also founded in the 7th century, the Jokhang Temple Monastery is an exceptional Buddhist religious complex. Norbulingka, the Dalai Lama's former summer palace, constructed in the 18th century, is a masterpiece of Tibetan art. The beauty and originality of the architecture of these three sites, their rich ornamentation and harmonious integration in a striking landscape, add to their historic and religious interest.

Ensemble historique du Palais du Potala, Lhasa

Le palais du Potala, palais d'hiver du dalaï-lama depuis le VIIe siècle, symbolise le bouddhisme tibétain et son rôle central dans l'administration traditionnelle au Tibet. Le complexe s'élève sur la Colline rouge au centre de la vallée de Lhasa, à 3 700 m d'altitude. Il comprend le Palais blanc et le Palais rouge, et leurs bâtiments annexes. Fondé également au VIIe siècle, le monastère du Temple de Jokhang est un complexe religieux bouddhiste exceptionnel. Norbulingka, le palais d'été du dalaï-lama, construit au XVIIIe siècle, est un chef d'œuvre de l'art tibétain. La beauté et l'originalité de l'architecture de ces trois sites, leur riche décoration et leur intégration harmonieuse dans un paysage admirable s'ajoutent à leur intérêt historique et religieux.

مجمّع قصر بوتالا التاريخيّ في لاسا

يجسّد قصر بوتالا، وهو قصر الدالاي لاما في فصل الشتاء منذ القرن السابع، بوذيّة التيبت ودورها المركزيّ في إدارة التيبت التقليديّة. شُيّد المجمع على الهضبة الحمراء وسط وادي لاسا على ارتفاع 3700 متر. وهو يضمّ القصر الأبيض والقصر الأحمر والمباني الملحقة بهما. كما تأسس في القرن السابع دير معبد جوكانغ وهو مجمّع ديني بوذي استثنائي. ويُشكّل قصر نوربولينغا وهو المقرّ الصيفي للدالاي لاما المشيّد في القرن الثامن عشر، تحفةً من تحف فنّ التيبت. وإلى هندسة المواقع الثلاثة المبتكرة وإنمّا أيضاً الجميلة وزخرفتها واندماجها في المنظر الرائع، تُضاف أهميّتها التاريخيّة والدينيّة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

拉萨布达拉宫历史建筑群

布达拉宫自公元7世纪起就成为达赖喇嘛的冬宫,象征着藏传佛教及其在历代行政统治中的中心作用。布达拉宫,坐落在拉萨河谷中心海拔3700米的红色山峰之上,由白宫和红宫及其附属建筑组成。大昭寺也建造于公元7世纪,是一组极具特色的佛教建筑群。建造于公元18世纪罗布林卡,曾经作为达赖喇嘛的夏宫,也是西藏艺术的杰作。这三处遗址的建筑精美绝伦,设计新颖独特,加上丰富多样的装饰以及与自然美景的和谐统一,更增添了其在历史和宗教上的重要价值。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Исторический ансамбль дворца Потала в городе Лхаса

Дворец Потала, зимняя резиденция Далай-ламы с VII в., является символом тибетского буддизма и свидетелем его главенствующей роли в традиционном управлении Тибетом. Комплекс, включающий Белый и Красный дворцы с служебными постройками, воздвигнут на Красной Горе в центре долины Лхаса на высоте 3700 м над уровнем моря. Храм и монастырь Джоканг, также основанные в VII в., – выдающийся буддийский религиозный комплекс. Норбулинка, бывший летний дворец Далай-ламы, сооруженный в XVIII в., – подлинный шедевр тибетского искусства. Красота и оригинальность архитектуры этих трех объектов, богатое украшение и гармоничное включение в выразительный ландшафт, дополняют их историческую и религиозную ценность.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Conjunto histórico del Palacio del Potala en Lhassa

El palacio del Potala, residencia de invierno del Dalai Lama desde el siglo VII, es un sí­mbolo del budismo tibetano y del papel desempeñado por éste en la administración tradicional del Tí­bet. El conjunto palaciego –que se yergue sobre la Montaña Roja, en el centro del valle de Lhasa, a 3.700 metros de altitud– comprende el Palacio Blanco, el Palacio Rojo y sus edificios anejos. Forman también parte del sitio el monasterio del Templo de Jokhang, un excepcional complejo religioso budista construido también en el siglo VII, y el Palacio de Norbulingka, residencia de verano del Dalai Lama construida en el siglo XVIII y obra maestra del arte tibetano. La belleza y originalidad de la arquitectura de estos monumentos, su rica ornamentación y su armonización con el admirable paisaje circundante, vienen añadirse a su interés histórico y religioso.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ラサのポタラ宮歴史地区 
チベット自治区ラサ市、チベット仏教の寺院・宮殿。7世紀に成立したチベット初の統一王朝はラサに遷都し、紅山(マルポリ)に王宮を築き、今回、追加登録された大昭寺(ジョカン)を建立した。しかし、9世紀半ばに吐蕃王国が滅亡し、現在のポタラ宮は17世紀にダライ・ラマ5世が建設。谷から110mの山の斜面に13層の高層建築物が建ち、頂上には金殿がある。2001年、郊外に広大な敷地を占める1755年建立の夏の離宮・羅布林(ルオブリンカー)が追加登録された。

source: NFUAJ

Historisch ensemble van het Potala paleis, Lhasa

Het Potala paleis is het winterpaleis van de Dalai Lama sinds de 7e eeuw en staat symbool voor het Tibetaanse boeddhisme. Het complex bestaat uit de Witte en Rode paleizen met hun bijgebouwen, gebouwd op de Rode berg in de Lhasa vallei op een hoogte van 3.700 meter. Het Jokhang Tempelklooster uit de 7e eeuw is een uitzonderlijk boeddhistisch complex. Norbulingka is het voormalige zomerpaleis van de Dalai Lama. Dit meesterwerk van Tibetaanse kunst werd gebouwd in de 18e eeuw. De prachtige en originele architectuur van de drie gebouwen, de rijke versiering en harmonieuze integratie in het landschap, voegen toe aan hun historische en religieuze belang.

Source: unesco.nl

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The Potala Palace © Sacred sites
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Enclosed within massive walls, gates and turrets built of rammed earth and stone the White and Red Palaces and ancillary buildings of the Potala Palace rise from Red Mountain in the centre of Lhasa Valley at an altitude of 3,700 metres. As the winter palace of the Dalai Lama from the 7th century CE the complex symbolizes Tibetan Buddhism and its central role in the traditional administration of Tibet. The White Palace contains the main ceremonial hall with the throne of the Dalai Lama, and his private rooms and audience hall are on the uppermost level. The palace contains 698 murals, almost 10,000 painted scrolls, numerous sculptures, carpets, canopies, curtains, porcelain, jade, and fine objects of gold and silver, as well as a large collection of sutras and important historical documents. To the west and higher up the mountain the Red Palace contains the gilded burial stupas of past Dalai Lamas. Further west is the private monastery of the Dalai Lama, the Namgyel Dratshang.

The Jokhang Temple Monastery was founded by the regime also in the 7th century, in order to promote the Buddhist religion. Covering 2.5ha in the centre of the old town of Lhasa, it comprises an entrance porch, courtyard and Buddhist hall surrounded by accommodation for monks and storehouses on all four sides. The buildings are constructed of wood and stone and are outstanding examples of the Tibetan Buddhist style, with influences from China, India, and Nepal. They house over 3,000 images of Buddha and other deities and historical figures along with many other treasures and manuscripts. Mural paintings depicting religious and historical scenes cover the walls.

Norbulingka, the Dalai Lama's former summer palace constructed in the 18th century, is located on the bank of the Lhasa River about 2km west of the Potala Palace in a lush green environment.  It comprises a large garden with four palace complexes and a monastery as well as other halls, and pavilions all integrated into the garden layout to create an exceptional work of art covering 36ha. The property is closely linked with religious and political issues, having been a place for contemplation and for signing political agreements.

The Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka embody the administrative, religious and symbolic functions of the Tibetan theocratic government through their location, layout and architecture. The beauty and originality of the architecture of these three sites, their rich ornamentation and harmonious integration in a striking landscape, contribute to their Outstanding Universal Value.

Criterion (i): The Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace is an outstanding work of human imagination and creativity, for its design, its decoration and its harmonious setting within a dramatic landscape. The three-in-one historic ensemble of the Potala Palace, with Potala the palace-fort complex, Norbulingka the garden residence and the Jokhang Temple Monastery the temple architecture, each with its distinctive characteristics, forms an outstanding example of traditional Tibetan architecture.

Criterion (iv): The scale and artistic wealth of the Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, which represents the apogee of Tibetan architecture, make it an outstanding example of theocratic architecture, of which it was the last surviving example in the modern world.

Criterion (vi): The Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace forms a potent and exceptional symbol of the integration of secular and religious authority.

Integrity

The Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace owns tens of thousands of collections of diverse cultural relics. The wall paintings are rich in themes, form the best of Tibetan painting art and precious material evidence for learning Tibetan history and the multi-ethnic cultural fusion. The historic scale, architectural typology and the historic environment remain intact within the property area and within the buffer zone, carrying the complete historic information of the property.

Authenticity

In terms of design, material, technology and layout, the historic ensemble of the Potala Palace has well retained its original form and characteristics since it was first built and from successive significant additions and expansions, convincingly testifying to its Outstanding Universal Value.

Protection and management requirements

The three components of the Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, the Potala Palace, Norbulingka and the Jokhang Temple are all State Priority Protected Sites, and protected by the Law on the Protection of Cultural Relies of the People's Republic of China.The Potala Palace was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1994, the Jokhang Temple in 2000 as an extension to the property, and Norbulingka in 2001 as a further extension to the property. The buffer zone of the property has been confirmed as originally demarcated. Any intervention must be approved by the responsible cultural heritage administration, with restoration strictly in accordance with the principle of retaining the historic condition. The Potala Palace Management Regulations have been put into force; measures are formulated and taken for better visitor management. A World Heritage Steering Committee has been established in Lhasa. The conservation and management plans for the three component parts of the World Heritage property have been formulated and will be submitted and put into force as soon as possible.

Notes
  • Extension of "The Potala Palace and the Jokhang Temple Monastery, Lhasa" to include the Norbulingka area.