Situated on the Gulf of Botnia, Rauma is one of the oldest harbours in Finland. Built around a Franciscan monastery, where the mid-15th-century Holy Cross Church still stands, it is an outstanding example of an old Nordic city constructed in wood. Although ravaged by fire in the late 17th century, it has preserved its ancient vernacular architectural heritage.
Située sur le golfe de Botnie, la ville de Rauma est l'un des plus anciens ports de Finlande. Elle est construite autour d'un monastère franciscain dont il reste l'église Sainte-Croix, qui date du milieu du XVe siècle. C'est un exemple exceptionnel de vieille ville nordique construite en bois. Bien que ravagée par le feu à la fin du XVIIe siècle, elle a protégé son patrimoine architectural ancien de style local.
مدينة راوما القديمة
إنّ مدينة راوما الواقعة على خليج بوتنيا هي إحدى أقدم المرافئ في فنلندا، وهي مشيّدة حول دير فرنسيسكاني بقيت من آثاره كنيسة الصليب المقدس التي تعود إلى منتصف القرن الخامس عشر. وتشكّل هذه المدينة نموذجاً قلّ نظيره لمدينة شمالية صغيرة مبنيّة من الخشب. ومع أنّ ألسنة النار قد التهبت هذه المدينة في أواخر القرن السابع عشر، إلا أنها حافظت على تراثها الهندسيّ ذي الطراز المحلّي.
劳马位于波特尼亚海湾(Gulf of Botnia)，是芬兰最古老的港口之一。古城绕圣芳济会修道院而建，15世纪中期的圣十字教堂仍巍然屹立，这里是典型的木结构的北欧城市。尽管在17世纪晚期遭到火灾破坏，但古代民间建筑的风貌犹存。
Старая часть города Раума
Расположенная на берегу Ботнического залива Раума – это одна из старейших гаваней в Финляндии. Сформировавшаяся вокруг францисканского монастыря, где до сих пор стоит церковь Святого Креста середины XV в., она является выдающимся примером старинного северного города, построенного из дерева. Раума пострадала от пожара в конце XVII в., но, тем не менее, сохранила свое древнее архитектурное наследие.
Situada en el golfo de Botnia, la ciudad de Rauma es uno de los puertos más antiguos de Finlandia. Fue construida en torno a un monasterio franciscano del que aún se conserva la iglesia de la Santa Cruz, construida a mediados del siglo XV. Es un ejemplo excepcional de ciudad nórdica construida en madera. Aunque fue pasto de las llamas a finales del siglo XVII, Rauma ha sabido preservar su antiguo patrimonio arquitectónico de estilo autóctono.
Rauma ligt aan de Botnische Golf en is een van de oudste havens van Finland. Het is gebouwd rond een Franciscaans klooster, waar de 15e-eeuwse Kerk van het Heilige Kruis nog staat. Het is een goed voorbeeld van een oude Scandinavische stad die gebouwd is van hout. De stad is verwoest door een brand in de late 17e eeuw, maar werd herbouwd. Ondanks enkele wijzigingen die werden aangebracht in de 19e eeuw, heeft Rauma zijn oude uiterlijk behouden. De stad beslaat een oppervlakte van 28 hectare en heeft 600 gebouwen, waarvan de meeste particulier bezit zijn.
Outstanding Universal Value
Situated on the Gulf of Bothnia, Rauma is one of few medieval towns in Finland. The core of the town is Old Rauma, which is composed of some 600 buildings constructed of wood, most of which are privately owned, and covers an area of 29 ha. Originally situated at the seashore, the Old Town is located some 1.5 km inland from the present coastline due to land uplift. Old Rauma is both a commercial and a residential area comprising the town area within the toll boundaries of Rauma in the 19th century. The town plan structure of Rauma has been maintained since the medieval period, including the irregular street network, city blocks, plots of land and courtyards. The buildings are mainly one storey tall, and date back between the 18th and 19th centuries, while some cellars remain from earlier houses. The residential houses are placed along the street, and outbuildings such as former animal sheds and granaries are built around narrow courtyards.
The present appearance of the buildings is a result of phases of gradual changes and enlargements between the 18th and the late 19th centuries. At the end of this period, the increased wealth of the town due to ship trading resulted in the extension and modernisation of residential buildings with decorative exterior panels with Neo-Renaissance details, and the characteristic, highly decorative gates of the courtyards.
The commercial area is located along two main streets stretching through the Old Town, while the Market Square, in the middle of the Old Town, forms the main meeting point and commercial place for local people and producers. The medieval church, built around a Franciscan monastery, and the former Town Hall built in 1775-76 in the Market Square are landmarks in the harmonious townscape of one-storey residential and commercial buildings. The architecturally homogenous urban area of Old Rauma is a well preserved and representative example of traditional Nordic wooden town building techniques and traditions.
Criterion (iv): The town of Old Rauma constitutes one of the best preserved and most expansive examples of northern European architecture and urbanism.
Criterion (v): Old Rauma is an outstanding example of a Nordic city constructed in wood, and acts as a witness to the history of traditional settlements in northern Europe.
Old Rauma includes all elements necessary to express its Outstanding Universal Value, namely the entire urban area dating back to between the 17th and 19th centuries, when the town expanded to the west. The town includes all elements that contribute to its integrity: the street network, city blocks, plots of land, as well as the buildings themselves. The historic fabric of the city has been built over centuries, forming different historic layers. The historic houses, courtyards, fences and gates, as well as the traditional street pavements, form a homogenous urban entity.
The buffer zone of Old Rauma is based on local topography and its scale allows to include all visual and historic elements in the vicinity of the property.
Climate change might cause a threat to the integrity of the World Heritage property.
The authenticity of Old Rauma is based on the well-preserved historic urban fabric, including different historic layers and building traditions. The urban morphology, including street networks, plots of land and historical buildings, such as houses for commercial and residential use, is exceptionally well preserved. The individual houses are well preserved and have been renovated and restored over time, taking into consideration their historic value. The town has maintained a genuine local spirit, as well as a characteristic local dialect. Old Rauma has preserved its function as a residential area and commercial centre with its Market Square and a variety of shops along the main streets. The use of traditional building techniques, skills and materials in maintenance and repairs helps preserve the cultural historic spirit of Old Rauma.
Protection and management requirements
Old Rauma is protected under the national legislation. The site is managed by a steering group with members of the national and local authorities and a local stakeholder. A local site manager has been appointed by the municipality and works from the Tammela renovation centre, providing services and technical assistance in repairs and renovation to homeowners. This service is free of charge to Old Town citizens. The centre also has a bank of traditional building materials and organizes workshops for local inhabitants to build architectural details.
City development is guided by detailed land use plans and cooperation between state authorities and the city, in order to overcome the challenges arising from development pressures.
Climate change may threaten individual buildings of Old Rauma, due to increasingly humid and warm winters that lead to a proliferation of harmful insects in wooden structures. The overall management system foresees appropriate follow-up for this issue.
Rauma is an outstanding example of the traditional wooden architecture and urbanism in this part of Europe, and one of the most beautiful and extensive of all those that have survived to the present day.
The city, located on the Gulf of Bothnia, is one of the oldest harbours in Finland, mentioned first in 1441. It is built around a Franciscan monastery where the mid-15th-century Holy Cross Church still stands. This is the former monastery church of a Franciscan friary, which was built in the mid-14th century. There are medieval wall and vault paintings in the choir of the two-aisle stone church. The church nowadays serves as the town and rural parish church of Rauma.
The city, which was constructed in wood, was ravaged by fire in the late 17th century and a new city was built. Despite some changes made in the 19th century, Rauma has preserved its ancient appearance as the modern city has grown up outside the original core.
Apart from the old Franciscan church and the ruins of the 15th-century Holy Trinity church, the only monument in the old city is the City Hall, built in the 18th century. However, the old city of Rauma's great wealth is its vernacular architectural heritage (houses, workshops and shops). The majority of the buildings in the old city have been sensitively restored as part of a comprehensive development plan.
Old Rauma is the largest unified historical wooden town in the Nordic countries. It covers an area of 28 ha and contains 600 buildings, most of which are privately owned. The lively business area is concentrated around the market square. In addition to dwelling houses there are different kinds of outbuildings, old animal sheds and granaries. The plots are bordered by gates and fences (plank walls).
The appearance of the buildings has formed gradually during several phases of building and renovation, over the past centuries. Characteristics from the 1700s still remain in some buildings, whereas others have the appearance of the 1820s and 1830s. The majority of the buildings, however, received their current neo-Renaissance exterior during the active period of renovation in the 1890s.
Kirsti is a typical two-room Old Rauma house from the 18th century furnished as a seaman's home from the turn of the last century.Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC