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Grimeton Radio Station, Varberg

Grimeton Radio Station, Varberg

The Varberg Radio Station at Grimeton in southern Sweden (built 1922–24) is an exceptionally well-preserved monument to early wireless transatlantic communication. It consists of the transmitter equipment, including the aerial system of six 127-m high steel towers. Although no longer in regular use, the equipment has been maintained in operating condition. The 109.9-ha site comprises buildings housing the original Alexanderson transmitter, including the towers with their antennae, short-wave transmitters with their antennae, and a residential area with staff housing. The architect Carl Åkerblad designed the main buildings in the neoclassical style and the structural engineer Henrik Kreüger was responsible for the antenna towers, the tallest built structures in Sweden at that time. The site is an outstanding example of the development of telecommunications and is the only surviving example of a major transmitting station based on pre-electronic technology.

Station radio Grimeton, Varberg

La station radio Varberg, à Grimeton dans le sud-ouest de la Suède (construite en 1922-24), exceptionnellement bien conservée, est un monument des débuts de la communication transatlantique sans fil. Le site comporte le matériel de transmission, y compris le système d’antennes avec ses 6 pylônes de 127 m de haut. Bien qu’ils ne soient plus utilisés régulièrement, les équipements ont été conservés en état de marche. Sur 109,9 ha, on trouve les bâtiments qui abritent l’émetteur Alexanderson originel, dont les pylônes portant les antennes, des transmetteurs d’ondes courtes avec leurs antennes, ainsi qu’une zone résidentielle comportant les logements de fonction du personnel. L’architecte Carl Åkerblad a dessiné le bâtiment principal en style néoclassique, et les pylônes, les plus hauts construits en Suède à l’époque, sont l’œuvre de l’ingénieur Henrik Kreüger. Le site offre une illustration exceptionnelle du développement des communications ; c’est la seule survivante des grandes stations de transmission radio fondées sur les techniques antérieures à l’ère de l’électronique.

إذاعة فاربورغ

تشكّل محطة فاربورغ الإذاعية في غرايمتون جنوب غرب السويد (والتي تمّ تأسيسها عام 1922-1924 وحفظها بصورة ممتازة) نصباً يرتقي الى أوائل الاتصالات اللاسلكية العابرة للأطلسي. ويتضمّن هذا الموقع معدات الإرسال، بما في ذلك نظام الهوائيات المزوّد بستة أبراج للأسلاك ترتفع الى 127 متراً، وقد تمّ الحفاظ على حسن سير هذه المعدات مع أنه لا يتمّ استعمالها بانتظام. وعلى امتداد 109.9 هكتارات، ترتفع المباني التي تحوي جهاز ارسال ألكساندرسون الأصلي وأبراج الهوائيات الخاصة به، الى جانب اجهزة ارسال الموجات القصيرة بهوائياتها ومنطقة سكنية تتضمن منازل العمال. وقد عمد المهندس المعماري كارل اكيربلاد الى تصميم المبنى الرئيس حسب الطراز الكلاسيكي الجديد، أما أبراج الأسلاك الأشد ارتفاعاً في السويد في تلك الحقبة، فمن انجاز المهندس هنريك كروغر. ويجسد هذا الموقع صورة فريدة لتطور الاتصالات، حيث أن المحطة هي الوحيدة المتبقية بين المحطات الكبيرة القائمة على التقنيات السابقة لعصر الالكترونيات.

source: UNESCO/ERI

威堡广播站

位于瑞典南部格里默通市的威堡广播站建于1922-1924年,是早期无线电通信的完好见证。该站由无线发射设备组成,包括6座高达127米的发射铁塔。尽管已经不再正常运转,但所有设备都保存如初。占地109.9公顷,除了放置原先的亚历山德森发射装置的建筑,包括发射塔及其天线和短波发射机及其天线之外,还有员工的住宅。建筑师Carl Åkerblad将主建筑设计成新古典主义风格,结构工程师Henrik Kreüger则负责天线塔的设计。天线塔是当时瑞典最高的建筑物。该遗产地是电讯事业发展的杰出代表,并且是现存唯一基于前电气技术建造的主要发射站。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Радиостанция Варберг

Построенная в 1922-1924 гг. радиостанция Варберг в Гриметоне, южная Швеция, это исключительно хорошо сохранившийся памятник инженерного искусства, оставшийся от эпохи ранних беспроволочных трансатлантических коммуникаций. Он состоит из передающей установки, включающей систему из шести стальных радиоантенн высотой 127 м. Это оборудование хотя и не используется регулярно, но поддерживается в рабочем состоянии. Архитектор Карл Окерблад спроектировал главные здания радиостанции в неоклассическом стиле, а инженер Хенрик Креугер рассчитал конструкции башен для антенн, которые были на то время самыми высокими сооружениями в Швеции.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Emisora de Radio Varberg

Situada en Grimeton, al sudoeste de Suecia, la emisora de radio Varberg fue construida entre 1922 y 1924. Es un edificio monumental extraordinariamente bien conservado y muy representativo de la primera época del sistema de telecomunicaciones inalámbricas entre las dos orillas del Atlántico. El sitio conserva el material de transmisión, que comprende un conjunto de antenas formadas por seis torretas de acero de 127 metros de altura. Aunque ya no se utilizan sistemáticamente, los equipamientos de la emisora se mantienen en estado de funcionamiento. El sitio, que tiene una superficie de109,9 hectáreas, comprende varios edificios donde se hallan la emisora primigenia Alexanderson y varios transmisores de onda corta con sus correspondientes antenas, así como una zona de viviendas para el personal. El arquitecto Carl Åkerblad diseñó los edificios principales en estilo neoclásico y el ingeniero Henrik Kreüger se encargó de la construcción de las antenas, que en su época fueron las estructuras de ingeniería más altas de toda Suecia. La emisora Varberg constituye un testimonio excepcional del desarrollo de las telecomunicaciones y es el único ejemplo existente de una emisora de radio importante basada en la tecnología anterior a la era electrónica.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ヴァールベリ・ラジオ放送局

source: NFUAJ

Varberg radiostation

Het Varberg radiostation op Grimeton in Zuid-Zweden (gebouwd van 1922 tot 1924) is een uitzonderlijk mooi bewaard gebleven monument voor vroege draadloze trans-Atlantische communicatie. Het bestaat uit zenderapparatuur, waaronder een antennesysteem van zes 127-meter hoge stalen torens (de hoogste Zweedse bouwstructuren in die tijd). Het 109,9 hectare grote radiostation wordt gevormd door gebouwen waarin de oorspronkelijke Alexanderson zender gevestigd was – inclusief de antennetorens en kortegolfzenders met hun antennes – en een woonwijk met personeelswoningen. Het radiostation toont de ontwikkeling van de telecommunicatie en is het enige overgebleven voorbeeld van een groot zendstation op basis van pre-elektronische technologie.

Source: unesco.nl

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Varberg Radio Station
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (ii): The Varberg radio station at Grimeton is an outstanding monument representing the process of development of communication technology in the period following the First World War.

Criterion (iv): The Varberg radio station is an exceptionally well preserved example of a type of telecommunication centre, representing the technological achievements by the early 1920s, as well as documenting the further development over some three decades.

Long Description

The Varberg radio station at Grimeton is an exceptionally well-preserved example of a type of telecommunication centre, representing the technological achievements by the early 1920s, as well as documenting further development over some three decades.

The site is located 7 km east of Varberg in the Parish of Grimeton, in south-western Sweden. The site comprises 109.9 ha of land with buildings housing the Alexanderson ultra-long wave radiotelegraph transmitter constructed in 1922-24. This includes the towers carrying the antenna installation, short-wave transmitters with their antenna, and a residential area with housing for the station staff.

The main property consists of the original station site, with the exception of an area containing the 'new' transmitter building and the antenna mast of Teracom AB's broadcasting station. The main buildings were designed by architect Carl Åkerblad in neoclassical style. Inside the transmitter building, about half the area of the transmitter hall is occupied by the Alexanderson 200 kW high-frequency alternator and its associated equipment: control racks, auxiliary machinery, high-frequency transformers and the Alexanderson magnetic modulator. All are in operative condition. The other half of the hall contains short-wave transmitters installed from the late 1930s onwards. These have remained in operational condition, although now out of service, except for two transmitters that are still occasionally used. Most of the site is occupied by the antenna plant. Its aerial system is supported by six steel towers, each 127 m high, arranged in a straight line 380 m from each other. The towers were designed by and constructed under the supervision of Professor Henrik Kreüger. Each tower is associated with a radiating antenna element stretching from the top to an inductance coil on the ground. Buried in the ground is a counterpoise network of copper wire, extending to the borders of the site and adjacent properties. A system of electricity wires on wooden poles connects the inductance coils with the buried network. An ice-melting transformer house close to the transmitter hall provides electricity to heat up and free the wires of ice in the winter.

In the 19th century, scientific and technical developments in telecommunication were based on inventions by people such as Faraday, Clerk Maxwell, Hertz and Marconi. The use of telegraph started in the second half of the century. From here, telegraphic and radio transmissions developed further in the early 20th century. The first experiments to have wireless transmission of speech across the Atlantic were in 1915 and 1919. In Sweden, the contribution of the chief engineer Ernst Fredrik Werner Alexanderson (1878-1975) was decisive for taking these techniques further into practice. He was responsible for a number of innovations, including the high-frequency alternator for continuous (undamped) electric oscillations, which led to the improvement of telegraphic wireless communication over large distances as well as providing the basis for wireless telephony, later leading into radio broadcast. He developed the 'multiple-tuned antenna', a system of cooperating vertical antennae, which resulted in an important improvement of long-wave radio communication. Alexanderson promoted the plan for a global radiotelegraphic network after the First World War, when the global network of radiotelegraphic stations was constructed, according to Alexanderson's system of which Varberg Radio Station at Grimeton became a part. The structural engineer Henrik Kreüger (1882-1953) was responsible for the six antenna towers at Grimeton, then the tallest built structures in Sweden.

When the rapid development in electronic transmitters for long-distance wireless communication made the Alexanderson technique obsolete, the other radio stations were either modified or demolished. Varberg Radio Station, in regular service use until the 1960s, survives today, but it has remained an industrial site until 1997, since it has been partly opened to the public. Some equipment is still used by the Swedish Navy or for other purposes.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

In the 19th century, scientific and technical developments in telecommunication were based on inventions by people like Michael Faraday, J.C. Maxwell, H. Hertz, and Guglielmo Marconi. The use of telegraph started in the second half of the century. From here, telegraphic and radio transmissions developed further in the early 20th century. The first experiments to have wireless transmission of speech across the Atlantic were in 1915 and 1919.

In Sweden, the contribution of the chief engineer Ernst Fredrik Werner Alexanderson (1878-1975) was decisive for taking these techniques further into practice. He was responsible for a number of innovations, including the high-frequency alternator for continuous (undamped) electric oscillations, which led to the improvement of telegraphic wireless communication over large distances as well as providing the basis for wireless telephony, later leading into radio broadcast. He developed the ‘multipletuned antenna', a system of cooperating vertical antennae, which resulted in an important improvement of long-wave radio communication.

Alexanderson promoted the plan for a global radiotelegraphic network after the First World War. The Radio Corporation of America was formed to exploit and commercialise these achievements. From the end of World War I to the mid-1920s the global network of radiotelegraphic stations was constructed according to Alexanderson's system of which Varberg Radio Station at Grimeton became a part, built in 1922-24. The structural engineer Henrik Kreüger (1882-1953) was responsible for the six antenna towers at Grimeton, the tallest built structures in Sweden at that time.

By the end of the 1920s, the rapid development in electronic transmitters for long-distance wireless communication made the Alexanderson technique obsolete. Of the large Alexanderson stations only Varberg Radio Station remains today; the others were either modified or demolished The Varberg station was used in regular service until the 1960s, but it has been kept in working condition even later.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation