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Long-lived trees of Iran

Date of Submission: 24/08/2021
Criteria: (vii)(ix)
Category: Natural
Submitted by:
Iranian Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts
State, Province or Region:
Yazd, Sistan and Baluchestan, South Khorasan, Alborz, North Khorasan, Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Chaharmahal-E Bakhtiari, Qazvin, Hormozgan, Mazandaran, Markazi, Kerman, Boushehr and Fars Provinces
Ref.: 6552
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Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party

Description

Latitude and Longitude, or UTM coordinates:

species

Province

Coordinate

Cupressus sempervirens

Yazd Province, Abarghu city

N 31° 07′ 21″

E 53° 1647

Cupressus sempervirens

Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Khash City,

Dehpaeed village, 2 km from the village

N 28° 3548"

E 60° 4626

Cupressus sempervirens

Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Khash city, Sangan village, the place of Eidgah Niromd

N28° 3456E61° 1921

Platycladus orientalis

South Khorasan Province, Zirkuh city, Hajiabad,

central part of Asfad village

N 33° 2744

E 60° 0712

Platycladus orientalis

South Khorasan province, Qaen city, Zirkuh city, Shahkuh district, in the Stand village lands

N 33° 5036E 59° 4249

 

Platycladus orientalis

South Khorasan province, Zirkuh city, Hajiabad city, Mohammadabad village, in the village farm lands.

N 33° 2744E 60° 07 12

Platycladus orientalis

South Khorasan province, Dormian coty, Ghorak

village, in the gardens of the village

N 32° 5035

E 59° 5713

Juniperus excelsa

Alborz province, 65 km of Karaj-Chalous road, Shahrestanak village, Basal Dareh

N 35° 5905

E 51° 2354

 

Juniperus excelsa

North Khorasan, Shirvan, Glour Sarani area, on the outskirts of Sarani village, at the foot of

Kunjeh Khor mountain

N 37° 4505E 57° 5514

Juniperus excelsa

Semnan, SHahroud city, Bastam, Abarsij village

N 36° 3553

E 54° 5132

Long-lived trees are known as genetic, botanical, cultural and even historical reservoirs in world and there are countless efforts to maintain and protect them. The quality, number and diversity of long-lived trees in Iran are impressive and astonishing. More than 2000 long-lived individuals were identified in Iran and their information was recorded. Longevity is a period of tree life beginning with limited or extensive heart rot in tree trunk. The beginning of longevity period is different and depends on trees species. The beginning of longevity takes very long time to start in some trees that makes them very valuable long-lived individuals. The suitable natural habitats, special concern paid to the high productivity of trees, being in historical and religious places and specific religious beliefs are reasons for the extraordinary age of long-lived trees. In Iran Plane tree (Platanus orientalis) with 398 individuals, walnut (Juglans regia), Juniper (Juniperus excelsa), cedar (Cupressus sempervirens) and wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica) had the most frequency. The most aged long-lived tree is Abarkouh cedar (estimated 4000 years old), followed by Sharestank, Abarsij and Serani Juniper with estimated 2700-2800 years old. The age of Estand and Esfad cypresses was estimated to be 990- 1040 years old. Over the past two decades, there have been a lot of efforts in introducing long-lived trees to the responsible organizations in order to protect them precisely and scientifically.

The Cypress of Abarkuh, also called the Zoroastrian Sarv (Cupressus sempervirens) in Abarkuh in Yazd Province of Iran, is one of the well-known trees in this list. This tree with a height of 25 meters and with a perimeter of 11.5 meters is estimated to be over four millennia old and is likely the oldest or second-oldest living life form in Asia. The exact age of the tree has been difficult to determine, but experts estimate it is about 4000 years old. Favorable natural conditions of its location have been credited as the main reason for the tree’s longevity. There is a legend about the tree, which says the tree was first planted by Zoroaster. Coordinates: 31°7′21″N 53°16′47″E.

Information about distribution, perimeter, and the age of some identified long-lived trees in Iran showed in tables below.

Some of the most important long-lived trees in Iran

species

Province

Perimeter (cm)

Age (year)

Cupressus

sempervirens

Yazd Province, Abarghu city

962

4000

Cupressus

sempervirens

Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Khash City,

Dehpaeed village, 2 km from the village

445

60-700

Cupressus

sempervirens

Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Khash city, Sangan

village, the place of Eidgah Niromd

757

3000

Platycladus orientalis

South Khorasan Province, Zirkuh city, Hajiabad, central part of Asfad village

730

990-1040

Platycladus

orientalis

South Khorasan province, Qaen city, Zirkuh city,

Shahkuh district, in the Stand village lands

684

900-95

Platycladus orientalis

South Khorasan province, Zirkuh city, Hajiabad city, Mohammadabad village, in the village farm lands.

 

610

 

730-780

Platycladus orientalis

South Khorasan province, Dormian coty, Ghorak

village, in the gardens of the village

684

800-850

Juniperus excelsa

Alborz province, 65 km of Karaj-Chalous road,

Shahrestanak village, Basal Dareh

910

2700-2800

 

Juniperus excelsa

North Khorasan, Shirvan, Glour Sarani area, on the

outskirts of Sarani village, at the foot of Kunjeh Khor mountain

 

860

 

2700-2800

Juniperus excelsa

Semnan, SHahroud city, Bastam, Abarsij village

767

2700-2800

Juniperus excelsa

North Khorasan, Jajarm city, Jajarm district, outstrick

of the Archeh village

695

1800-1900

Juniperus excelsa

Tehran, Firozkuh city, Badroud village, near

Emamzadeh Esmaeil

490

1000-1100

Popolus nigra

North Khorasan, Shirvan city, Sarhad part, Jirestan district, Nazarali village

812

300-320

Popolus alba

Semnan province, Mahdishahr city, Pholadmahale part

355

200-250

Juglans regia

Isfahan province, Fereidun shahr city, Poshtkuh area,

Kalouseh village

1010

900-950

Juglans regia

North Khorasan, Shirvan city, Sivkanlu district, Chapanlu village

817

600-650

Juglans regia

Chaharmahal-E Bakhtiari province, Brojen city, Organ village, Bagh-e Khan

810-640

600-550

Juglans regia

Qazvin province, Rajaeidasht, West Alamut, Roudbar part, Yaroud village, Lat area

925

830-880

Juglans regia

Qazvin province, Rajaeidasht, West Alamut, Roudbar

part, Yaroud village, Lat area

685

500-550

Ficus benghalensis

Hormozgan province, Minab city, central part, Chelogavmishi village, in the Hajinouroz garden

1710

250-300

Quercus castaneifolia

Mazandaran province, Babol city, Eastern Bandpey, Gavzan Mahale village, Mandarka forest

1545

550-600

Quercus

castaneifolia

Mazandaran province, Babol city, Eastern Bandpey,

Gavzan Mahalle village, Vazyar forest

1545

550-600

Quercus

castaneifolia

Mazandaran province, Nowshahr city, Najardeh

village, Jalebon area

785

470-520

Quercus

macranthera

Semnan province, Mahdishahr city, Shahmirzad part,

outskirt of Roudbarak village

720

550-600

Platanus orientalis

Alborz province, 25 kilometers of Karaj-Chalus road, Gorab village, Emamzade Shahzade Hossein

2150

750-800

Platanus orientalis

North Khorasan province, Jajarm city, Katali village

1790

850-900

Platanus orientalis

South Khorasan province, Dormian city, Dormian

village in the area of Doushangan

1300

600-650

Platanus orientalis

Mazandaran province, Noushahr city, Kinj village

-

700

Platanus orientalis

Markazi province, Tafrash city, next to Sheshnav

Hosseinieh

975

600-700

Platanus orientalis

Kerman province, Barar city, Henza part, Kaldan

village, in front of Saheb alzaman mosque

565

350-400

Pistacia atlantica

Southe Khorasan province, Birjand city, Rach

village, outskirt of the village

625

800-850

Cupressus

sempervirens

Kerman province, Arzoeieh city, Soughan part,

Soughan village

975

1450-1500

Pistacia khynjuk

Boushehr province, near the road of Boushehr to Gerehbaladeh and Kazeron, in the Bozpar area

370

550-600

 

Pistacia atlantica

Chahrmahal and Bakhtiari province, Ardel city, in the road of Chahraz to Khushe village, in the area of Emamzade Jaafar

 

575

 

420-470

Ziziphus spina-

christi

Fars province, Kazeron city, Jare Baladeh part,

Kenarmaktab village

950

1100-1200

Justification of Outstanding Universal Value

The quality, number and diversity of long-lived trees in Iran are impressive and astonishing. More than 2000 long-lived individuals belonging to over 50 tree species, which some of them are threaten species, were identified. Some of them (such as Cupressus sempervirens in Yazd province) are the oldest living life form in Asia or the oldest of its kind in the world (Popolus alba in North Khorasan Province). In addition, a significant portion of the trunks of these trees remain intact and can depict the biological history of their habitats for humans and be a valuable heritage for future generations.

Criterion (vii): It seems that the most beautiful aspect of God's creation is the creation of various beings; and what more beautiful phenomenon than the presence of a creature of several thousand years that continues to live with exemplary splendor. Some of these trees are amazing in size compared to their similar species in other parts of the world and, like ancient legends, have relied on the history of this border and landscape, but this time they are living and true legends in front of human eyes. The aesthetic features of some of these trees are so eye-catching that they have influenced on literary works from Persian poetry and texts and perhaps in other languages; and have had a great impact on Iranian literature. In addition, the historical traces of some of these trees among Ancient Persian texts are more than 1000 years’ old.

Criterion (ix): Long-lived trees are known as genetic, botanical, cultural and even historical reservoirs in world. More than 2000 long-lived individuals, which some of them are threaten species, were identified in different area of Iran. They give us important information about genetic diversity, climatic change, religious believe etc.

Statements of authenticity and/or integrity

The suitable natural habitats, special concern paid to the high productivity of trees, being in historical and religious places and specific religious beliefs are reasons for the extraordinary age of long-lived trees in Iran. All of these trees are protected by the Cultural Heritage, handicraft and tourist Organization of Iran as a national natural monument and are indeed major tourist attractions.

In addition, the existence of numerous long lived-trees throughout the nature of Iran indicates the continuity of habitats of these species throughout the country.

Comparison with other similar properties

Due to the climate diversity in Iran, the number, diversity and quality of long- lived trees in Iran is impressive. The number, diversity and quality of long-lived trees in Iran relative to other countries is rare and unique. There are many examples of similar trees in the world, none of which are comparable to these flagship trees. Providing accurate statistics in this case requires more in-depth study and scientific evidence.