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Frontiers of the Roman Empire - Dacia

Date of Submission: 31/01/2020
Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)
Category: Cultural
Submitted by:
Ministry of Culture
State, Province or Region:
Mehedinți, Caraș-Severin, Timiș, Arad, Hunedoara, Alba, Cluj, Sălaj, Bistrița-Năsăud, Mureș, Harghita, Covasna, Brașov, Argeș, Teleorman, Vâlcea, Dolj, Olt counties
Ref.: 6447
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Disclaimer

The Tentative Lists of States Parties are published by the World Heritage Centre at its website and/or in working documents in order to ensure transparency, access to information and to facilitate harmonization of Tentative Lists at regional and thematic levels.

The sole responsibility for the content of each Tentative List lies with the State Party concerned. The publication of the Tentative Lists does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever of the World Heritage Committee or of the World Heritage Centre or of the Secretariat of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries.

Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party

Description

The structure of the limes consisted of a complex system of towers, earthworks, walls, small fortifications, the forts behind the limes being usually placed at a distance of ca. 5 km from it, the related civil settlements and non-Roman structures. In front the earthen ramparts it was not identified insofar a ditch. Forts are similar, garrisons to mixed infantry and cavalry troops, most likely built by them. Here and there the earthen ramparts are clearly visible, almost on the original height, the limes specificities being best preserved in the Moigrad area (Porolissum).

All over Romania, circa 100 forts, 50 small fortifications and more than 150 towers are known, although their number must have been much larger. Furthermore, there are also other structures part of the border system, of the most important counting the man-made barriers, generally composed of earthen ramparts, but also of stone walls. Of the forts, only four-five may be visited and are accessible to the public, however not the same applies to any rampart part, wall or tower. In most places, the limes is no longer visible, hence it is difficult to identify. Topographically, the limes is partially protected, none of its elements being found in urban areas.

Nevertheless, only a small part belongs to the public property, thus many sectors are endangered especially because of the farming works. In most cases, the stone was used in the construction of villages, churches and medieval castles in the area. Most limes portions from northern Dacia lie in forested areas, hence affected by forestry. Ancient roads and paths cross many times the limes line.

Based on stamped tile finds, we suppose that the towers too, even the limes, were built by the fort garrisons, although the archaeological material is scarce. The layout of the towers is either rectangular or circular, they are built either of stone or timber, some, being researched in the 70’ies. In some areas, a man-made line was found, generally formed of earth ramparts, here and there with small stone walls. On the other hand, the rampart was not archaeologically investigated, but by a trench or two, its structure being unclear. Stone walls were identified only nearby Porolissum. In passes and vulnerable areas, small fortifications were built, attached to the limes wall where it was identified, but it lay at a somewhat distance from the earthen rampart, similarly to the towers. Still in passes were built also the earthen ramparts, although in recent years a stone wall and earth ramparts were reported on plateaus, not only in passes. The towers seem to sketch a line, however, in fact, they are set in a network, being located in depth or in front according to the land configuration, obviously, for communication purposes.

The specificities of the northern border are found only here and there in the other border areas of Dacia, however arguments are extremely few. In eastern Transylvania, the border must have been similar, nearby the forts line being identified here and there towers, but for now, without a man-made defence line, smaller fortifications not being discovered. By the exit from the mountains, southwards, the border was set on the Olt line, flowing into the Danube, characterised by small forts and fortifications. For short time spans, likely under Hadrian, then starting with Caracalla, a man-made 235 km long line was used, from the Danube to the mountains (Bran gorge), made up of an earthen rampart, lying at a variable distance of 10-50 km east the Olt. Unfortunately, the border is poorly preserved today. At 10-50 m behind the rampart were identified timber watch towers. Behind this line lay 12 fortifications, of which four double, located at a small distance from it. The route of the western border is unclear, watch towers not being identified south the fort at Bologa, with one exception. That is why the limes route is only supposed on the line of the fortifications from the extreme west of the province, which in fact corresponds approximately to the main axis of Dacia, the imperial road from Drobeta to Porolissum.

Thus we note at least seven different types of limes:

- Banat – from the Danube upwards – imperial road monitored by auxiliary forts – up to Micia. It is possible that in the Banat Plain had existed man-made earth barriers, however, this is not certain yet.

- the Apuseni Mountains – only one burgus and the settlements in the gold mining area are known.

- Bologa-Tihău – hill area – complex limes – towers, rampart, wall, forts, small fortifications.

- Tihău-Livezile – similar to the preceding, earthen rampart or stone wall unidentified.

- Livezile-Brețcu (Olt) – mountain area – forts, towers, rampart reported in one area (Câmpu Cetății, 10 km east the fort at Călugăreni and 11 km north Sărățeni).

- the Olt line surveilled by smaller or larger forts.

- Limes Transalutanus – a proper limes similar with that in Britannia and Germania – man-made earthen rampart surveilled by small and medium-sized forts.

Small part of the limes is visible, although it was not yet fully researched. The man-made line of towers and sometimes stone walls from Transylvania survived best, on a distance of approximately 350 km, especially in the northern, north-western sectors of ca. 50-60 km, generally in state property, due to its location on hilltops and in forests. The situation of the forts behind these defence lines is partially clarified. In only ca. 20% of the cases the land is in state property, therefore safe from the dangers of the inherent agriculture practice. Nevertheless, only the proper forts are in general object of this public property, related settlements being further in private property. In fact, they are nowhere clearly delimited.


Bistrița Năsăud COUNTY

 

 

No.

 

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

 

LOCALITY

 

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

 

TOPONYM

 

 

TYPE OF SITE

 

COORDINATES IN STEREO 70

 

1

 

Monor

 

Monor

 

1

 

Dealul Braniște

 

wachtower

477824.314

602230.332

 

2

 

Șieu

 

Șieu

 

1

 

Dealul Zburătorilor

 

wachtower

470572.762

609144.302

 

3

 

Șieu

 

Șieu

 

2

 

La Braniște

 

wachtower

468830.407

611517.531

 

4

 

Mărișelu

 

Domnești

 

1

 

Tabla Pietroasa

 

fortlet

460048.257

615408.651

 

5

 

Budacu de Jos

 

Budacu de Jos

 

1

 

Vârful Măgurii

 

wachtower

463999.492

616329.091

 

6

 

Budacu de Jos

 

Budacu de Jos

 

2

 

Dealul Cetăţii

 

wachtower

463687.745

622744.623

 

7

 

Budacu de Jos

 

Buduș

 

3

 

La Ulmi

 

wachtower

465734.241

618583.499

 

8

 

Șieu-Măgheruș

 

Sărăţel

 

1

 

Sărăţel 1

 

wachtower

456498.062

616926.517

 

9

 

Șieu-Măgheruș

 

Sărăţel

 

2

 

Sărăţel 2

 

wachtower

456700.52

616918.354

 

10

 

Cetate

 

Orheiul Bistriţei

 

1

 

Orheiul Bistriţei

 

auxiliary fort

468956.489

621889.308

 

11

 

Livezile

 

Livezile

 

1

 

Livezile

 

auxiliary fort

467702.426

631768.751

 

12

 

Șintereag

 

Șintereag

 

1

 

Dealul Oului

 

wachtower

446447.565

633071.412

 

13

 

Salva

 

Salva

 

1

 

Roata lui Todoran

 

wachtower

451666.084

645687.585

 

14

 

Salva

 

Salva

 

2

 

Dealul Dumbravă

 

wachtower

453516.324

647049.11

 

15

 

Năsăud

 

Năsăud

 

1

 

La Ţigani

 

wachtower

454472.691

644237.352

 

16

 

Năsăud

 

 

2

 

Vârful Pietrei

 

wachtower

455008.166

646019.51

 

17

 

Zagra

 

Zagra

 

1

 

Dealul Ciorilor

 

wachtower

446991.315

647179.669

 

18

 

Zagra

 

Perișor

 

2

 

Vârful Zgăului

 

wachtower

443142.09

647185.367

 

19

 

Zagra

 

Perișor

 

3

 

Vârful Colnicului

 

wachtower

443586.537

647281.312

 

20

 

Zagra

 

Perișor

 

4

 

Vârful Colnicului 2

 

wachtower

443572.47

647236.129

 

21

 

Zagra

 

Perișor

 

5

 

Păltiniș

 

wachtower

440374.489

647439.736

 

22

 

Spermezeu

 

Sita

 

1

 

Casa Urieșilor

 

wachtower

439799.15

647484.136

 

23

 

Spermezeu

 

Sita

 

2

 

Dealul Sâtii

 

fortlet

439519.811

647473.021

 

24

 

Spermezeu

 

Spermezeu

 

3

 

Lazuri

 

wachtower

436158.547

645557.454

 

25

 

Spermezeu

 

Spermezeu

 

4

 

Lazuri vis a vis la est

 

wachtower

437016.507

645532.194

 

26

 

Spermezeu

 

Dobricei

 

5

 

Vârful Lazului

 

wachtower

433333.768

645391.793

 

27

 

Spermezeu

 

Dobricei

 

6

 

Rângoiţa

 

wachtower

432659.349

645480.898

 

28

 

Căianu Mic

 

Ciceu Poieni

 

1

 

Vârful Osoiului

 

wachtower

431928.722

645210.062

 

29

 

Căianu Mic

 

Ciceu Poieni

 

2

 

Podul Milcoaiei

 

wachtower

430878.265

645314.866

 

30

 

Căianu Mic

 

Ciceu Poieni

 

3

 

Strunga Găvojdenilor

 

wachtower

430179.741

645235.928

 

31

 

Căianu Mic

 

Ciceu Poieni

 

4

 

Faţa Carpenului  3

 

wachtower

429706.321

645055.921

 

32

 

Negrilești

 

Purcărete

 

1

 

Faţa Carpenului  2

 

wachtower

429532.833

645041.993

 

33

 

Negrilești

 

Purcărete

 

2

 

Faţa Carpenului  1

 

wachtower

429552.149

645024.589

 

34

 

Negrilești

 

Negrilești

 

3

 

Cornul Malului 2

 

wachtower

429122.167

644621.742

 

35

 

Negrilești

 

Negrilești

 

4

 

Cornul Malului

 

wachtower

428665.556

644575.442

 

36

 

Negrilești

 

Negrilești

 

5

 

Negru Vodă

 

wachtower

428374.467

643764.031

 

37

 

Negrilești

 

Negrilești

 

6

Cetatea lui Negru

Vodă

 

fortlet

428272.549

643524.036

 

38

 

Negrilești

 

Negrilești

 

7

 

Dealul Muncelului?

 

wachtower

427596.97

643910.212

 

39

 

Negrilești

 

Negrilești

 

8

 

?

 

wachtower

427654.35

643910.212

 

40

 

Ciceu-Giurgești

 

Ciceu-Giurgești

 

1

 

Vârful Sflederului 2

 

wachtower

425842.297

643233.201

 

41

 

Ciceu-Giurgești

 

Dumbrăveni

 

2

 

Vârful Sflederului

 

wachtower

425736.274

643305.516

 

42

 

Ciceu-Giurgești

 

Ciceu-Giurgești

 

3

 

Valea Mestecănișului

 

fortlet

425201.827

642767.528

 

43

 

Ciceu-Giurgești

 

Dumbrăveni

 

4

 

Vârful Runcului

 

wachtower

424366.462

642485.559

 

44

 

Ciceu-Giurgești

 

Dumbrăveni

 

5

 

?

 

wachtower

422436.446

641529.86

 

45

 

Ciceu-Giurgești

 

Dumbrăveni

 

6

 

Dealul Podului

 

wachtower

421379.092

642243.528

 

46

 

Ciceu-Giurgești

 

Dumbrăveni

 

7

 

?

 

wachtower

420596.953

642385.68

 

47

 

Uriu

 

Ilișua

 

1

 

ARCOBA(DA)RA

 

auxiliary fort

431588.557

634983.567

 

48

 

Ciceu-Mihăiești

 

Ciceu-Corabia

 

1

 

Poniţa

 

wachtower

419456.234

642108.508

Sălaj COUNTY

 

 

No.

 

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

 

LOCALITY

 

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

 

TOPONYM

 

 

TYPE OF SITE

 

COORDINATES IN STEREO 70

 

1

 

Fildu de Jos

 

Fildu de Sus

 

1

 

Grebăn

 

wachtower

340111.095

607256.766

 

2

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

1

 

Cornul Vlașinului

 

wachtower

340654.104

611336.104

 

3

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

2

 

Poic

 

fortlet

341563.043

611540.462

 

4

 

Horoatu Crasnei / Bucium

 

Huta / Hurez

 

3

 

Dl. lui Gyuri

 

wachtower

341772.108

613100.639

 

5

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

4

Între Dl. Cozlii și

Salhiger

 

wachtower

342860.445

614263.824

 

6

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

5

 

Salhiger

 

wachtower

343285.965

614543.934

 

7

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

6

 

Dealu Mare

 

wachtower

343649.812

615198.626

 

8

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

7

Între Dl. Mare și

Arsură

 

wachtower

343996.367

615627.841

 

9

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

8

 

Arsură 2

 

wachtower

344089.913

617700.454

 

10

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

9

 

Arsură 1

 

wachtower

344119.705

617708.51

 

11

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

10

 

Arsură 3

 

wachtower

344047.363

617644.129

 

12

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

11

Dl. Boului/Coasta

Julii

 

wachtower

344405.148

619377.904

 

13

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

12

 

La Frapsin

 

wachtower

344977.163

619338.923

 

14

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

13

 

Dl. Secuiului

 

fortlet

346252.764

620244.321

 

 

15

 

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

 

Hurez

 

 

14

 

Sub Cornet- Păstăiasa

 

earthen rampart

345823.126

619660.015

346478.256

620203.692

 

16

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

15

 

Sub Cornet 1

 

wachtower

345749.957

620202.904

 

17

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

16

 

Sub Cornet 2

 

wachtower

345597.191

620271.884

 

18

 

Horoatu Crasnei

 

Hurez

 

17

Dl. Boului/La

Ferice

 

wachtower

344442.886

618401.993

 

19

 

Horoatu Crasnei/Bucium

Sângeorgiu de

Meseș / Hurez

 

18

 

Dealu Prislop 4

 

wachtower

344234.819

617359.935

 

20

 

Horoatu Crasnei/Bucium

Sângeorgiu de

Meseș / Hurez

 

19

 

Dealu Prislop 1

 

wachtower

344196.149

616360.984

 

21

 

Bucium /Horoatu Crasnei

Sângeorgiu de

Meseș / Hurez

 

1

 

Dealu Prislop 2

 

wachtower

344390.601

616942.594

 

22

 

Bucium

Sângeorgiu de

Meseș

 

2

 

Dealu Prislop 3

 

wachtower

344333.093

617063.005

 

23

 

Bucium

Sângeorgiu de

Meseș

 

3

 

Dl. Cozlii

 

wachtower

341670.135

613874.196

 

24

 

Buciumi

Sângeorgiu de

Meseș

 

4

 

Poiana Șeredanilor

 

wachtower

347311.578

621551.625

 

25

 

Bucium

Sângeorgiu de

Meseș

 

5

Dl. Boului/Măguriţa

 

wachtower

344712.281

619008.184

 

26

 

Buciumi

 

Buciumi

 

6

Sub Padină / Coasta Ogrăzii

 

wachtower

348037.906

622349.289

 

27

 

Buciumi

 

Buciumi

 

7

Sub Padină /

Deasupra Șurii

Fânului

 

wachtower

347677.044

622048.973

 

28

 

Buciumi

 

Bodia

 

8

 

Groapa Mare

 

wachtower

348812.894

623039.269

 

29

 

Buciumi

 

Bucium

 

9

 

Grădiște

 

auxiliary fort

351569.286

618364.293

 

30

 

Agrij

 

Agrij

 

1

 

Coasta Lată

 

wachtower

349135.79

623669.889

 

31

 

Agrij

 

Agrij

 

2

 

Osoiul Ciontului 2

 

wachtower

349413.851

624191.913

 

32

 

Treznea

 

Treznea

 

1

 

Coasta Ciungii 1

 

wachtower

350472.072

625388.71

 

33

 

Treznea

 

Treznea

 

2

 

Coasta Ciungii 2

 

wachtower

350829.193

625584.288

 

34

 

Treznea

 

Treznea

 

3

 

Vârful Ciungii

 

wachtower

351281.585

626078.055

 

35

 

Treznea

 

Treznea

 

4

 

Gura Teghișului

 

wachtower

352959.743

626608.546

 

36

 

Treznea

 

Treznea

 

5

 

Vf. Teghișului

 

wachtower

353567.597

626882.977

 

37

 

Treznea

 

Treznea

 

6

 

Sub Păstaie

 

wachtower

354050.414

627739.829

 

38

 

Treznea

 

Treznea

 

7

 

Dealul Mănăstirii

 

wachtower

351981.404

626323.18

 

39

 

Treznea

 

Treznea

 

8

 

Vârful Obârșiei

 

wachtower

350248.834

624997.058

 

40

 

Treznea

 

Bozna

 

9

 

Osoiul Ciontului

 

wachtower

349711.922

624623.878

 

41

 

Românași

 

Românași

 

1

 

Cetate

 

auxiliary fort

361441.214

624662.559

 

 

42

 

 

Mun. Zalău

 

 

Zalău

 

 

1

 

Vf. Păstaie - Sub

Păstaie

 

earthen rampart

354296.508

628362.452

353776.838

627324.692

 

43

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

2

 

Vf. Păstaie

 

wachtower

354292.936

628369.146

 

44

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

3

 

Măgura Stânii 1

 

wachtower

356217.721

629909.363

 

45

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

4

 

Măgura Stânii 2

 

wachtower

356332.967

629944.733

 

46

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

5

 

Sub Măgura Stânii

 

wachtower

356582.452

630184.766

 

47

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Stâna

 

6

 

La Oroieși

 

wachtower

356583.239

630599.384

 

48

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Stâna

 

7

 

La Balize

 

wachtower

356634.868

631417.653

 

49

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

8

La nord de Pârâul

Măgurii

 

wachtower

355680.873

631098.084

 

50

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

9

 

Masa Craiului

 

wachtower

355520.409

631553.449

 

51

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

10

 

Peringaru

 

wachtower

355880.161

632374.066

 

52

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

11

 

Dealul Poieniţa

 

wachtower

356085.707

632669.42

 

53

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

12

 

Dl. Dojii 2

 

wachtower

356384.419

633255.678

 

54

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

13

 

Dl. Dojii

 

wachtower

356608.924

633417.157

 

55

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

14

La Ţigani / Pădurea Orașului

 

wachtower

356603.108

633762.188

 

56

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Zalău

 

15

La Ţigani / Pădurea Orașului 2

 

wachtower

356849.43

633875.1

 

57

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Ortelec

 

16

 

Clocoţăl

 

wachtower

356961.343

634665.612

 

58

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Ortelec

 

17

 

Măgurice 2

 

wachtower

357164.398

634977.745

 

59

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Ortelec

 

18

 

Măgurice

 

wachtower

357779.744

635690.476

 

60

 

Mun. Zalău

 

Ortelec

 

19

 

Fântâna Șușigului

 

fortlet

358207.607

636404.635

 

 

61

 

 

Mun. Zalău

 

 

Ortelec

 

 

20

 

Măgurice-La

Strâmtură

 

 

rampart

358030.965

636119.73

358176.533

636402.265

 

62

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

1

 

Fântâna Șușigului 2

 

fortlet

358366.527

636577.665

 

63

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

2

 

Druia

 

wachtower

357754.643

632505.759

 

64

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

3

 

Sub Druia

 

wachtower

357915.696

632505.816

 

65

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

4

Poiana

Moigrădanilor

 

wachtower

358293.46

633215.102

 

66

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

5

 

Dl. Ferice

 

wachtower

360088.904

633318.315

 

 

67

 

 

Mirșid

 

 

Mirșid

 

 

6

 

Poiana Moigrădanilor-Dl. Ferice

 

earthen rampart

358308.885

636550.547

359906.623

637915.394

 

68

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

7

 

Poguior

 

wachtower

358656.283

636709.344

 

69

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

8

 

Dealul Făgiște

 

wachtower

359243.736

637324.995

 

70

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

9

 

Viţinal 1

 

wachtower

359643.151

637738.444

 

71

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

10

 

Viţinal 2

 

wachtower

359686.252

637819.073

 

72

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

11

 

Dealu Mare 3

 

wachtower

360634.024

637670.851

 

73

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

12

 

Dealu Mare 2

 

wachtower

361634.549

637105.39

 

74

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

13

 

Dealu Mare

 

wachtower

362177.763

637011.961

 

75

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

14

 

Dealu Mare

 

wachtower

361670.914

636524.884

 

76

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

15

 

Voievodeasa 1

 

wachtower

365036.797

638333.553

 

77

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

16

 

Voievodeasa 2

 

wachtower

364447.075

638288.589

 

78

 

Mirșid

 

Mirșid

 

17

 

-

 

wachtower

365035.072

638336.11

 

79

 

Creaca

 

Brusturi

 

1

 

La Ruine (CERTIAE)

 

auxiliary fort

364748.747

629970.651

 

80

 

Creaca

 

Jac

 

2

Pomet

(POROLISSVM)

 

auxiliary fort

360477.881

632725.669

 

81

 

Creaca

 

Jac

 

3

 

Citera

 

auxiliary fort

361166.851

632993.997

 

 

82

 

 

Creaca

 

 

Jac

 

 

4

 

Terasa Sanctuarelor-Sub Citeră

 

earthen rampart

360633.05

633457.34

361140.587

633222.394

 

 

83

 

 

Creaca

 

 

Jac/Brebi

 

 

5

 

Sub Citeră-Roata

Dungii

 

earthen rampart

360555.141

632956.326

362302.924

634942.744

 

84

 

Creaca

 

Brebi

 

6

 

Sub Citeră

 

fortlet

362313.561

634283.332

 

85

 

Creaca

 

Brebi

 

7

Sub Citeră B2 / Roata dungii

 

fortlet

362325.438

634861.188

 

86

 

Creaca

 

Brebi

 

8

 

Dealu Mare 1

 

wachtower

361634.59

637105.358

 

87

 

Creaca

 

Brebi

 

9

 

Mănăstire

 

wachtower

363329.544

638425.463

 

88

 

Creaca

 

Brebi

 

10

 

Dumbrava Brebi

 

wachtower

364085.935

638404.86

 

89

 

Creaca

 

Ciglean

 

11

 

La Fundătură

 

wachtower

366241.082

637648.506

 

90

 

Creaca

 

Ciglean

 

12

 

La Fundătură 2

 

wachtower

366494.342

637852.182

 

 

91

 

 

Creaca

 

 

Prodănești

 

 

13

 

 

Pe Șanţ

 

 

rampart

368430.856

638613.288

368341.154

638608.263

 

92

 

Jibou

 

Var

 

1

 

Dealul Tărăboilor

 

wachtower

370110.383

638325.547

 

93

 

Surduc

 

Tihău

 

1

 

Grădiște / Cetate

 

wachtower

374603.477

638977.172

 

94

 

Surduc

 

Tihău

 

2

 

Grădiște

 

auxiliary fort

374115.912

639444.302

 

95

 

Surduc

 

Surduc

 

3

De-asupra Văii

Hrăii

 

wachtower

375913.793

643133.444

 

96

 

Băbeni

 

Cliţ

 

1

 

Faţa Chicerii

 

wachtower

381696.718

645689.223

 

97

 

Lozna

 

Preluci

 

1

 

Holm

 

wachtower

382504.451

646597.994

 

98

 

Lozna

 

Preluci

 

2

 

Hornicior

 

wachtower

382551.062

646547.784

 

99

 

Lozna

 

Lozna

 

3

 

Curmăturiţa

 

wachtower

385198.469

648230.341

 

100

 

Lozna

 

Valea Leșului

 

4

 

Ţiclău

 

wachtower

386383.872

648623.547

 

101

 

Lozna

 

Valea Leșului

 

5

Picioarele

Andreichii

 

wachtower

386942.738

649324.779

 

102

 

Ileanda

 

Negreni

 

1

 

Dealul Hoancelor

 

wachtower

389151.395

649247.205

 

103

 

Ileanda

 

Negreni

 

2

 

Poiana la Arbore

 

wachtower

389587.977

649043.085

 

104

 

Ileanda

 

Podișu

 

3

 

La Bontauă

 

wachtower

392792.486

650233.658

 

105

 

Ileanda

 

Rogna

 

4

 

-

 

fortlet

392792.486

650233.658

 

106

 

Ileanda

 

Ileanda

 

5

 

La Căsoi

 

wachtower

395752.91

649101.819

 

107

 

Ileanda

 

Dăbâceni

 

6

 

Coama Pietrar 1

 

wachtower

395745.705

646642.635

 

108

 

Ileanda

 

Dăbâceni

 

7

 

Coama Pietrar 2

 

wachtower

395899.64

646100.788

 

109

 

Gâlgău

 

Glod

 

1

 

Toaca Glodului

 

wachtower

397112.633

646131.274

 

110

 

Gâlgău

 

Glod

 

2

 

Cetate I

 

wachtower

400061.683

644259.057

 

111

 

Gâlgău

 

Glod

 

3

 

Cetate II

 

wachtower

400038.263

644240.923

 

112

 

Gâlgău

 

Gâlgău

 

4

 

Casa Popii/Poianu

 

wachtower

403417.168

643578.731

 

113

 

Gâlgău

 

Gâlgău

 

5

 

Casa Popii

 

wachtower

404724.341

643497.733

 

114

 

Gâlgău

 

Căpâlna

 

6

 

Casa Urieșilor

 

wachtower

405522.053

643082.645

 

115

 

Gâlgău

 

Căpâlna

 

7

 

Dâmbul lui Golaș

 

wachtower

405026.461

642482.919

 

116

 

Gâlgău

 

Căpâlna

 

8

 

Hotroapă

 

wachtower

405796.197

642930.986

 

117

 

Poiana Blenchii

 

Fălcușa

 

1

 

Dealul Muncelului

 

wachtower

409353.696

640704.753

 

118

 

Zimbor

 

Sutor

 

1

 

(Optatiana)

 

auxiliary fort

366486.801

611366.793

Cluj COUNTY

 

No.

 

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

 

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

 

COORDINATES IN STEREO 70

 

1

 

Chiuiești

 

Dosu Bricii

 

1

 

Muncelul Chiuieștiului

 

wachtower

418725.438

644810.786

 

2

 

Chiuiești

 

Chiuiești

 

2

 

Dealul Crucii

 

wachtower

412990.924

644275.276

 

3

 

Chiuiești

 

Sălătruc

 

3

 

Dealul lui Mihai

 

wachtower

414138.410

642039.369

 

4

 

Cășeiu

 

Cășeiu

 

1

 

SAMVM

 

auxiliary fort

412042.230

632520.187

 

5

 

Cășeiu

 

Guga

 

2

 

Vârful Ţâglii

 

wachtower

410183.937

640190.047

 

6

 

Câţcău

 

Muncel

 

1

 

Muchia Poienii Lupului

 

wachtower

408567.415

641250.851

 

7

 

Poieni

 

Hodișu

 

1

 

Cornul Sonului

 

wachtower

340382.078

606598.688

 

8

 

Poieni

 

Poieni

 

2

 

Dealul Cornii

 

wachtower

340274.624

606407.647

 

9

 

Poieni

 

Poieni

 

3

 

Dealul Bociului

 

wachtower

339410.919

605200.791

 

10

 

Poieni

 

Poieni

 

4

 

Râmbușoi

 

wachtower

339198.663

604588.259

 

11

 

Poieni

 

Poieni

 

5

 

Dosu Marcului

 

wachtower

338783.858

603991.001

 

12

 

Poieni

 

Poieni

 

6

 

Horhiș

 

wachtower

338372.061

603802.327

 

13

 

Poieni

 

Poieni

 

7

 

Cetăţea

 

wachtower

338107.133

603080.449

 

14

 

Poieni

 

Poieni

 

8

 

Dâmbu Vărădeștilor1

 

wachtower

337838.078

603447.224

 

15

 

Poinei

 

Poieni

 

9

 

Dâmbu Vărădeștilor2

 

wachtower

337824.801

603478.443

 

16

 

Poieni

 

Poieni

 

10

 

Dâmbu Vărădeștilor

earthen rampart

337664.016

603551.266

 

17

 

Poieni

 

Poieni

 

11

 

Poieni centru

 

fortlet

337462.940

603594.159

 

18

 

Poieni

 

Bologa

 

12

 

Grădiște

 

auxiliary fort

338935.303

600620.997

 

19

 

Poieni

 

Bologa

 

13

 

Măgura Bologii

 

wachtower

336407.216

599259.693

 

20

 

Căpușu Mare

 

Dumbrava / Straja

 

1

 

Dealul Ursului

 

wachtower

367092.922

592972.670

 

21

 

Gilău

 

Gilău

 

1

 

La Castel

 

auxiliary fort

376400.902

585437.036

 

22

 

Gilău

 

Gilău

 

2

 

Dealul Mic 2

 

wachtower

377874.667

582992.189

 

23

 

Gilău

 

Gilău

 

3

 

Dealul Mic 3

 

wachtower

377768.394

582978.836

 

24

 

Gilău

 

Gilău

 

3

 

Dealul Mic 4

 

wachtower

377757.942

582980.895

 

25

 

Florești

 

Luna de Sus

 

1

 

Dealul Mic 5

 

wachtower

377731.485

582762.667

 

26

 

Turda

 

Turda

 

1

 

Potaissa

 

legionary fort

406040.460

564151.546

 

27

 

Săvădisla

 

Finișel

 

1

 

Dealul Ursoaia

 

wachtower

376852.202

576145.697

 

28

 

Săvădisla

 

Hășdate

 

2

 

Dealul Marginea

 

wachtower

375080.859

573091.042

 

29

 

Băișoara

 

Liteni

 

1

 

Pădurea Bisericii

 

wachtower

378803.017

570211.386

 

30

 

Băișoara

 

Băișoara

 

2

 

Vârful Pliculeţe

 

wachtower

380983.759

565464.076

 

31

 

Cluj-Napoca

 

Mănăștur

 

1

 

Pădurea Bisericii

 

wachtower

389839.473

583135.316

Alba COUNTY

 

No.

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

 

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

 

COORDINATES IN STEREO 70

 

1

 

Ighiu

 

Ighiu

 

1

 

Dealul Măgulici

 

auxiliary fort

383841.470

515491.674

 

2

 

Ocna Mureș

 

Războieni

 

1

 

Grajduri CAP

 

auxiliary fort

412802.437

546474.953

 

3

 

Zlatna

 

Pătrângeni

 

1

 

Zlatna

 

auxiliary fort

365386.005

511631.522

 

4

 

Zlatna

 

Trâmpoiele

 

2

 

Zlatna

 

wachtower

354028.493

518417.612

 

5

 

Alba Iulia

 

Alba Iulia

 

1

 

Cetate

 

auxiliary fort

389735.868

508484.741

 

6

 

Abrud

 

Abrud

 

1

 

Cetăţeaua

 

fortlet

351914.552

530992.645

Hunedoara COUNTY

No.

TERRITORIAL

ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

LOCALITY

No. of

SITE/TAU

TOPONYM

TYPE OF SITE

COORDINATES IN

STEREO 70

 

1

 

Geoagiu

 

Cigmău

 

1

 

Cetatea Urieșilor

 

auxiliary fort

359717.786

489818.781

 

2

 

Geoagiu

 

Bozeș

 

2

 

Cetatea Urieșilor

 

fort

358457.222

498728.125

 

3

 

Veţel

 

Veţel

 

1

 

Micia (Grădiște)

 

auxiliary fort

330641.093

492612.893

 

4

 

Hunedoara

 

Hunedoara

 

1

 

Dealul Sânpetru

wachtower

335657.603

474009.677

 

5

 

Boșorod

 

Târsa

 

1

 

Luncani Târsa

 

temporary fort

356598.141

460917.067

 

6

 

Orăștioara de Sus

Costești / Grădiștea de Munte

 

1

 

Vârtoape

 

temporary fort

363323.205

462709.548

 

7

 

Orăștioara de Sus

Costești/ Grădiștea de Munte

 

2

 

Muncel

 

temporary fort

368719.278

461784.986

 

8

 

Orăștioara de Sus

Costești/ Grădiștea de Munte

 

3

 

Dealul Șesului

 

temporary fort

369946.516

458833.764

 

9

 

Orăștioara de Sus

Costești/ Grădiștea de Munte

 

4

 

Comărnicel I

 

temporary fort

377442.437

455055.362

 

10

 

Orăștioara de Sus

Costești/ Grădiștea de Munte

 

5

 

Comărnicel II

 

temporary fort

376808.599

454564.619

 

11

 

Orăștioara de Sus

Costești/ Grădiștea de Munte

 

6

 

Comărnicel III

 

temporary fort

377069.132

455638.229

 

12

 

Băniţa

 

Băniţa

 

1

 

Jigoru Mare

 

temporary fort

367742.958

448045.250

 

13

 

Sarmizegetusa

 

Sarmizegetusa

 

1

Ulpia Traiana

Sarmizegetusa

 

civil settelment

327297.916

448390.111

Caraș Severin COUNTY

No.

TERRITORIAL

ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

LOCALITY

No. of

SITE/TAU

TOPONYM

TYPE OF SITE

COORDINATES IN

STEREO 70

 

1

 

Zăvoi/Marga

Vama Marga (greșit: Zăvoi)

 

1

 

Voislova (Pons Augusti)

 

auxiliary fort

302560.134

450405.144

 

2

 

Zăvoi

 

Zăvoi

 

2

 

Zăvoi (Agnaviae)

 

auxiliary fort

297868.963

450576.806

 

3

 

Obreja

 

Jupa

 

1

 

Traianu

 

auxiliary fort

280516.963

445146.786

 

4

 

Caransebeș

 

Jupa

 

1

 

Tibiscum

 

auxiliary fort

280403.092

444620.759

 

5

 

Brebu

Brebu (greșit: Cornuţel)

 

1

 

Caput Bubali

 

auxiliary fort

272193.660

439931.638

 

6

 

Fârliug

 

Fârliug

 

1

 

Aizis

 

auxiliary fort

254302.622

449198.807

 

7

 

Berzovia

 

Berzovia

 

1

 

Berzobis

 

auxiliary fort

236020.849

442108.123

 

8

 

Forotic

 

Surducu Mare

 

1

 

Rovină

 

auxiliary fort

233403.249

424958.733

 

9

 

Vărădia

 

Vărădia

 

1

 

Arcidava

 

auxiliary fort

228705.980

403557.423

228347.106

404600.149

 

10

 

Vărădia

 

Vărădia

 

2

 

Chilii

 

auxiliary fort

 

11

 

Teregova

 

Teregova

 

1

 

La Hideg

 

auxiliary fort

288458.321

411196.324

 

12

 

Mehadia

 

Mehadia

 

1

 

Zidină

 

auxiliary fort

291058.310

385227.786

Olt COUNTY

 

No.

TERRITORIAL

ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

COORDINATES IN

STEREO 70

 

1

 

Crîmpoaia

 

Crîmpoaia

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

481048.166

312035.588

 

2

 

Tia Mare

 

Tia Mare

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

472099.474

263023.393

 

3

 

Gostavăţu

 

Gostavăţu

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

462390.187

287011.033

 

4

 

Dobrosloveni

 

Reșca

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

451886.022

297254.301

 

5

 

Piatra Olt

 

Criva de Sus

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

444589.666

319689.665

Vâlcea COUNTY

 

No.

 

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

 

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

 

COORDINATES IN STEREO 70

 

1

 

Drăgășani

 

Drăgășani

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

442218.548

350321.716

 

2

 

Ionești

 

Ionești

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

439755.178

376180.156

 

3

 

Râmnicu Vâlcea

 

Stolniceni

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

446145.741

394018.512

 

4

 

Dăești

 

Sânbotin

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

450930.593

408099.319

 

5

 

Călimănești

 

Jiblea

 

1

 

La Gaitini

 

auxiliary fort

449997.156

414836.096

 

6

 

Călimănești

 

Căciulata

 

2

 

 

auxiliary fort

446175.314

419844.413

 

7

 

Berislăvești

 

Rădăcinești

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

456297.276

420418.784

 

8

 

Perișani

 

Băiașu

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

453010.746

430263.236

 

9

 

Racoviţa

 

Copăceni

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

446091.577

433099.333

 

10

 

Racoviţa

 

Racoviţa

 

2

 

 

auxiliary fort

446145.910

433701.070

 

11

 

Titești

 

Cucoiu

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

452461.011

434755.126

 

12

 

Câineni

 

Câineni Mici

 

1

 

 

wachtower

445988.621

444511.985

 

13

 

Câineni

 

Râu Vadului

 

1

 

 

wachtower

443321.828

447358.985

Sibiu COUNTY

 

No.

TERRITORIAL

ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

COORDINATES IN

STEREO 70

 

1

 

Boiţa

 

Boiţa

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

442920.100

459411.021

Brașov COUNTY

 

No.

 

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

 

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

 

COORDINATES IN STEREO 70

 

1

 

Ucea

 

Feldioara

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

476055.952

477727.097

 

2

 

Voila

 

Cincșor

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

488883.421

481799.062

 

3

 

Râșnov

 

Râșnov

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

534552.530

457755.568

 

4

 

Hoghiz

 

Hoghiz

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

521733.461

497624.341

 

5

 

Moieciu

 

Drumul Carului

 

1

 

Drumul Carului

 

auxiliary fort

523618.633

441611.345

Covasna COUNTY

 

No.

 

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

 

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

 

COORDINATES IN STEREO 70

 

1

 

Boroșneu Mare

 

Boroșneu Mare

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

577706.621

480471.546

 

2

 

Reci

 

Reci

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

570042.604

483106.151

 

3

 

Bodoc

 

Olteni

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

565649.961

498366.488

 

4

 

Baraolt

 

Baraolt

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

543771.250

507057.029

 

5

 

Breţcu

 

Breţcu

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

601697.003

506514.396

Harghita COUNTY

 

No.

 

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

 

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

 

COORDINATES IN STEREO 70

 

1

 

Mărtiniș

 

Sânpaul

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

529404.940

521729.700

 

2

 

Mărtiniș

 

Bădeni

 

2

 

 

fortlet

526868.764

524219.196

 

3

 

Odorheiu Secuiesc

Odorheiu

Secuiesc

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

523464.280

534713.394

 

4

 

Atid

 

Inlăceni

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

509216.061

547654.056

Mureș COUNTY

 

No.

 

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

 

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

 

COORDINATES IN STEREO 70

 

1

 

Sărăţeni

 

Săeăţeni

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

501065.811

562455.491

 

2

 

Eremitu

 

Călugăreni

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

490641.424

569662.248

 

3

 

Eremitu

 

Câmpul Cetăţii

 

2

 

 

whatchtower

499298.662

572968.337

 

4

 

Sovata

 

Săcădat

 

1

 

 

rampart

507624.396

574527.741

 

5

 

Chiheru de Jos

 

Chiheru de Jos

 

1

 

 

whatchtower

504401.600

579458.990

 

6

 

Ibănești

 

Ibănești

 

1

 

 

whatchtower

497130.677

583767.221

 

7

 

Hodac

 

Toaca

 

1

 

 

rampart

499392.033

594516.653

 

8

 

Ideciu de Jos

 

Ideciu de Sus

 

1

 

 

whatchtower

483957.416

593793.972

 

9

 

Brâncovenești

 

Brâncovenești

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

482336.182

595830.482

 

10

 

Vătava

 

Vătava

 

1

 

 

whatchtower

482681.532

611242.049

 

11

 

Deda

 

Deda

 

1

 

 

whatchtower

491031.681

611399.588

Teleorman COUNTY

 

No.

 

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

 

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

 

COORDINATES IN STEREO 70

 

2

 

Putineiu

 

Putineiu

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

497336.579

266445.632

 

3

 

Salcia

 

Băneasa

 

1

 

Băneasa

 

auxiliary fort

497265.670

270791.104

 

4

 

Roșiorii de Vede

 

Roșiorii de Vede

 

1

 

Epureasca

 

whatchtower

495319.517

282361.460

 

5

 

Roșiorii de Vede

 

Roșiorii de Vede

 

2

 

Valea Urlui

 

auxiliary fort

495103.068

284618.067

 

6

 

Roșiorii de Vede

 

Roșiorii de Vede

 

3

 

Valea Mocanului

 

earthen rampart

495876.341

286077.342

 

7

 

Roșiorii de Vede

 

Roșiorii de Vede

 

4

 

Valea Mocanului

 

whatchtower

495753.9655

286061.989

 

8

 

Stejaru

 

Gresia

 

1

 

Gresia

 

auxiliary fort

493539.890

296981.341

Argeș COUNTY

 

No.

 

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

 

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

 

COORDINATES IN STEREO 70

 

1

 

Bârla

 

Afrimești

 

1

 

castru mic

 

auxiliary fort

481197.091

331673.330

 

2

 

Bârla

 

Afrimești

 

2

 

castru mare

 

auxiliary fort

481146.609

331801.305

 

3

 

Bârla

 

Bârla

 

3

 

Urluieni 1

 

whatchtower

483345.783

332320.019

 

4

 

Bârla

 

Bârla

 

4

 

Urluieni 2

 

whatchtower

484044.571

332612.566

 

5

 

Hârșești

 

Martalogi

 

1

 

Hârșești 1

 

whatchtower

484769.342

332996.340

 

6

 

Hârșești

 

Martalogi

 

2

 

Hârșești 2

 

whatchtower

485592.151

333478.805

 

7

 

Stolnic

 

Izbășești

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

483032.154

344864.182

 

8

 

Săpata

 

Mârtești

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

481396.191

356488.234

 

9

 

Săpata

 

Mârtești

 

2

 

 

auxiliary fort

481418.179

356592.644

 

10

 

Lunca Corbului

 

Lăngești

 

1

 

 

whatchtower

481723.352

356865.179

 

11

 

Albota

 

Mareș

 

1

 

 

whatchtower

486042.775

362574.646

 

12

 

Albota

 

Albota

 

2

 

 

auxiliary fort

487236.063

363535.781

 

13

 

Albota

 

Albota

 

3

 

 

whatchtower

489725.577

365606.178

 

14

 

Pitești

 

Pitești

 

1

 

Războieni

 

whatchtower

490530.656

371000.505

 

15

 

Micești

 

Purcăreni

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

491797.034

384262.661

 

16

 

Câmpulung

 

Câmpulung

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

501089.741

413470.086

 

17

 

Câmpulung

 

Câmpulung

 

2

 

 

fortlet

5011116.959

413470.669

 

18

 

Rucăr

 

Rucăr

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

514099.746

433202.809

Prahova COUNTY

 

No.

TERRITORIAL

ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

COORDINATES IN

STEREO 70

 

1

 

Drajna

 

Drajna de Sus

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

584229.839

418128.579

 

2

 

Dumbrăvești

 

Mălăiești

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

579852.784

399602.999

 

3

 

Târgșoru Vechi

 

Târgșorul Vechi

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

573369.071

377123.868

Buzău COUNTY

 

No.

TERRITORIAL

ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

 

LOCALITY

No. of

SITE/TAU

 

TOPONYM

 

TYPE OF SITE

COORDINATES IN

STEREO 70

 

1

 

Pietroasele

 

Pietroasele

 

1

 

 

auxiliary fort

624276.872

400560.707

Justification of Outstanding Universal Value

The registration of the Roman border crossing various countries was a joint objective, a trans-national Frontiers of the Roman Empire (FRE) monument being established in 2005. The goal of the LIMES programme is to draw up the documentation regarding the monuments composing the Roman border from Romania, the largest unitary heritage monument in the country, contributing with the longest sector, of over 1000 de km, to the unique UNESCO monument “Frontiers of the Roman Empire” (FRE). Most of the archaeological sites lie in rural areas, hence many are well preserved.

The research of the Roman border started in the 19th century, extensively carried out in the 1970’ies. Nevertheless, currently, the monuments composing the Roman border are not topographically mapped, yielding little archaeological information though.

The theme study which must be drafted and the propositions for the tentative national list suppose a comprehensive documentation for the draft of a list of monuments to be included, based on criteria also applied by the other European states and adapted to regional specificities, on the tentative UNESCO list. The documentation of these monuments, given the nature of the sites in Romania, is very difficult, hence the programme development under optimal conditions is key.

The known monuments which compose limes dacicus and those in  Muntenia, which had been part of the province of Moesia, are rather numerous, however, they will be definitely enriched with other new as they are recorded. Fortifications with legionary or auxiliary troops in garrison, usually lie in valleys, close to most accessible communication routes, the border line being advanced by ca. 5 km, composed of towers and small fortifications. The latter are set in a varied background, commonly close to the tops of the highest hills. The auxiliary fortifications do not lie precisely on the border line, but at a distance of ca. 5 km behind the border. These must have been the specificities of the northern border (from Bologa - Cluj county to Orheiul Bistriței) and likely of that from east Transylvania, farther, southwards, up to Brețcu (Covasna county). In the west instead, the border line seems to have been made on the line of the imperial road (current road Orșova-Caransebeș-Hațeg-Alba-Iulia-Turda), without yet an identified tower line in front the important forts. All the elements of the Roman frontier system must be represented, as we know from the European analogies, that are the dossiers delivered to nominate the Frontiers of the Roman Empire in UNESCO, and these must have a significant contribution in justifying the Universal Value of the monument. Therefore, we have proposed the inscription of the most important civil settlements on the Western limes of Dacia, Alba-Iulia (Apulum) and Sarmizegetusa, no matter if they are overlapped or adjacent to fortresses. Moreover, especially for the importance in contributing to the Statement of the Universal Value, temporary camps in Orăștie Mountains have been added, one of the values being there earliest chronology, dating from the very beginning of the Roman conquest of Dacia. They reveal in a very special way the Roman army strategy in one of the most important conflicts of the Roman Empire. The single outposts lie in the gold mining area of the Apuseni Mountains.

In the south-eastern side, the border is set on the Olt valley, with the features of a riverine frontier, while for a short while, on a 5-30 km line (Eartern ramapart) east the Olt starting from Râșnov (Brașov county) to Ciuperceni (Teleorman county) on a ca. 200 km distance. The latter, functions discontinuously in the first half of the 2nd century and early 3rd century AD. In the rest of the periods, the functional border was that on the river.

Except the fortifications on the Danube line, there are also a few other important forts between the future limes transalutanus and the Danube, which had belonged under Trajan to the province of Moesia.

Criterion (ii): The remains of the Roman borders of the province of Dacia, are, together with the limes Germanicus, Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall, the most significant elements of the Roman borders present in Europe. The forts, burgi, towers, ramparts, walls, beside the connected infrastructure and civil settlements evidence an important exchange of human and cultural values, at the climax of the Roman empire, by the development of the Roman military architecture, extending the constructional technical and management knowledge to the edges of the empire. These structures mirror a complex border system imposed to existent societies starting from the northern side of the Roman empire, introducing firsthand military installations and civil dependent settlements connected by an extended infrastructure network. The Roman borders were not an impenetrable barrier, but they controlled and allowed the movement of the populations: of not only the military troops, but also of the civilians and traders. Thus, they triggered the exchange of cultural values by the displacement of soldiers and civilians of various ethnicities. This led to deep changes and developments in affected regions, in terms of human inhabitancy, architecture and landscaping habits in one word, the organisation of the surrounding space. Even today, Roman borders are an obvious part of the landscape.

Criterion (iii): As integral part of the general defensive system of the Roman empire, the Dacia limes has an extraordinary cultural value. It is an incontestable evidence of the maximum extension of the power of the Roman empire, by the enforcement of its northern border, a physical expression of the Roman imperial policy. It proves the Roman empire’s ambition to rule the whole world, in order to impose its laws and lifestyle in a long term view. It is evidence to the Roman colonisation in afferent territories, of the diffusion of the Roman culture and varied traditions – military, engineering, architectural, religious, economic and political – and of the many human settlements associated to state defence, which contribute to the understanding of the life of the Roman soldiers and their families in this part of the empire.

Criterion (iv): The Dacian limes is a remarkable example of Roman military architecture, of the constructional techniques and their evolution, accomplished by the engineers of the time, over several generations. It proves the variety and sophistication of the Roman’s answer to the specific topography and climate, or to the political, military and social circumstances from the northern part of the empire, which are also found in the entire European side of the empire, thus impacting most later developments in this part of the world.

Statements of authenticity and/or integrity

The selected parts for registration are of a high authenticity degree, each verified by extended scientific studies. The materials and substance of the underground archaeological remains are very well preserved, similarly to the remains visible at surface level. The shape and design of each part of the Roman border in Dacia are clear and easy to establish and associate. Later developments, overlapping border parts, although few, are a vertical buffer-area. There is a small number of restorations of the border elements, among the forts especially, also aligned to the vertical buffer-areas category. The Dacian limes joins all Roman border elements visible on other sectors as well: natural barriers, fortification lines in the form of rampart and ditch or even wall, fort networks, burgi and towers. The majority of its structures lay underground, never excavated. Excavated parts were protected according to the latest standards and are in general in a good state.

The proposed parts show the extraordinary complexity of the Roman border in its European side. Although some parts, quantitatively few, were affected by natural and anthropic processes, the integrity of the structure is proven by its visible parts and those underground. Plenty of elements were researched and very few of them were later built on top, while where reconstructions are corresponding, they were included in the system. The overwhelming majority of the Dacian limes is found in the rural environment, lies underground with significant parts noticeable on the surface. Many individual sites are impeccably preserved.

Comparison with other similar properties

The Roman empire, at the peak of its territorial extension, was one of the largest empires in history. Enclosing the Mediterranean Sea, it was protected by a border system flowing constantly all around.

The limits of the Roman empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Black Sea in the east, from central Scotland to the north, to the northern boundaries of southern Sahara. The Roman frontier was completed in the 2nd century AD. It has an approximate length of 5000 km, being formed of linear barriers (earthen ramparts with palisades or stone walls), beside legionary fortresses and auxiliary forts, towers, limes roads and many civil settlements. Best preserved limes portions are found in England, Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.

Until now, three sectors of the Roman border were registered in LPM UNESCO: Hadrian’s Wall (1987), the Limes Germanicus (2005) and the Anonine Wall (2008).

Spread on 130 km, from one shore to another of northern England, Hadrian’s Wall was built at the order of the emperor, in AD 122, as a linear continuous barrier on the northern limit of the Roman province of Britannia. The continuous wall between the two shores was preceded by a line composed of rampart, ditch and palisade, along several forts and burgi, as well as watch towers, all linked by a vast road network.

The German limes spreads on a length of 550 km, between the Rhine and the Danube and was built in stages, over the 2nd century AD. With its forts, burgi, towers, physical barriers, connecting infrastructure and civil settlements, it is an incontestable evidence of an inter-human values and civilisation exchange via the development of the military architecture in areas until then poorly developed. It was not only a military barrier, but also a system of economic and cultural limits. It is also an excellent example of topographical and engineering accuracy of the Romans.

The Antonine Wall was built around AD 140, in the attempt to partially conquer Scotland and extend the province of Britannia by a few tens of km northward. By its military and civil constructions it evidences an active cultural exchange between the civilisations. As it was in use only for a generation, it is a photography of the Roman frontiers, at a given moment in time, especially in terms of design and initiation of the constructional work.

Other sectors of the Roman border from Europe pending enlisting on the tentative PM list of UNESCO: the limes of Germania Inferior (joint effort Germany-the Netherlands), the Danube limes (with national sectors for Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, Serbia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania). These are, in overwhelming majority, riverine frontiers, set along the two most rivers of Europe – the Rhine and the Danube. Therefore, they exhibit specificities typical to a river frontier, lacking linear barriers and tower networks. It has, instead, a network of well situated forts, interconnected and connected to the civil world of the provinces via a complete road network and provided with strategic crossing points of the two important rivers.

The Dacian limes is the longest land Roman border sector of Europe, stretching over more than 1000 km. It is the most complex unitary concept of Roman border within the empire, bringing together all the other systems, alternately used in the Roman world. Its existence provides an entirely different view of the Danube limes system. Doubled for more than one century and a half by the Dacian limes, it somewhat became complementary to the latter, if not even inactive, for this period. The high variation degree of the geographical conditions in Dacia required an adapted frontier by alternating various systems within the same provincial border: limes Porolissensis is a continuous alternate between the linear barriers and tower network-systems. In the west and along the Olt, are noted continuous lines of fortification along certain roads.

Its positioning mostly outside built-up areas provides the opportunity of a reliable protection, while accessibility is a management issue, making the cultural tourism along the Dacian limes a feasible goal.

In the end, the Roman cultural heritage has a privileged place in the Romanian identity and culture, as it is the evidence of the Latin inheritance. Therefore, the authorities and the public of Romania are interested in its protection and valuation, especially most recently.