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Wineries and Vineyards for traditional Pisco Production

Date of Submission: 05/08/2019
Criteria: (ii)(iv)
Category: Cultural
Submitted by:
Ministry of Culture
State, Province or Region:
Lima, Ica, Arequipa, Moquegua, and Tacna Regions
Ref.: 6414
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The Tentative Lists of States Parties are published by the World Heritage Centre at its website and/or in working documents in order to ensure transparency, access to information and to facilitate harmonization of Tentative Lists at regional and thematic levels.

The sole responsibility for the content of each Tentative List lies with the State Party concerned. The publication of the Tentative Lists does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever of the World Heritage Committee or of the World Heritage Centre or of the Secretariat of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries.

Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party

Description

Dept Province District Winery UTM COORDINATES
(DATUM WGS84)
South East
Lima

CAÑETE

LUNAHUANA

LA REINA

8571643.10

380084.80

Lima

CAÑETE

LUNAHUANA

HIJOS DEL SOL

8564580.50

374443.90

Lima

CAÑETE

LUNAHUANA

RIVADENEYRA

8570272.70

379155.50

Ica

ICA

SALAS

LA CARAVEDO

8454182.50

419582.30

Ica

ICA

PARCONA

VISTA ALEGRE

8446132.80

422392.10

Ica

ICA

LA TINGUIÑA

TACAMA

8452045.90

422534.50

Ica

ICA

LOS AQUIJES

LOVERA PÉREZ

8440861.90

422658.20

Ica

ICA

SUBTANJALLA

TRES GENERACIONES

8451110.50

418462.30

Arequipa

AREQUIPA

VITOR

EL SOCAVÓN

8182049.10

198914.70

Arequipa

AREQUIPA

VITOR

ZEGARRA E HIJOS

8175340.30

185424.70

Moquegua

MARISCAL NIETO

MOQUEGUA

GHERSI

8085790.30

288655.10

Moquegua

MARISCAL NIETO

MOQUEGUA

ZAPATA

8093088.90

289217.30

Tacna

JORGE BASADRE

ILABAYA

MIRAVE

8069086.70

336828.20

Tacna

JORGE BASADRE

LOCUMBA

WARD

8063639.10

317366.10


Pisco is a traditional aguardiente (schnapps) of Peru obtained exclusively by distilling fresh grape musts recently fermented of Vitis Vinifera L species, which are called Pisqueras grapes, and are grouped into aromatic such as Italia, Moscatel, Albilla, and Torontel and non-aromatic such as Quebranta, Negra Criolla, Mollar, and Uvina. They are cultivated in officially recognized production areas located on the coast of Lima, Ica, Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna.

The grapevine, like other plants from Europe, was introduced by the Spaniards on Christopher Columbus second voyage, first into Central America, then into Mexico and later into Peru.  Many chroniclers, writers, and travelers refer to the first vineyards and wine production in Peru’s viceroyalty, such as the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (Cusco 1539 – Cordoba 1616), Spanish Jesuit Bernabe Cobo (Lopera 1580 - Lima 9-X-1657), José de Acosta (Medina del Campo 1540 - Salamanca 1600), Reginaldo de Lizárraga (Medellín, Badajoz ¿1545? - Asunción de Paraguay ¿?), Pedro de Cieza de León (Llerena 1522 - Sevilla 1554), Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala (San Cristóbal de Suntuntu ¿? - Lima ¿1615?), Antonio Vásquez de Espinoza (Castilleja de la Cuesta ¿? - Madrid 1630), among others, where it can be concluded that the first grapevines were harvested in Cusco or Lima between 1551 and 1555, and wine was produced for the first time at the Marcahuasi Hacienda in Cusco, property of Pedro López de Cazalla (Garcilaso de la Vega, Bernabé Cobo), where aguardiente (Bernabé Cobo) was also produced. In this regard, at the beginning of the 17th century, there are reports of some grapevine varieties that were cultivated, such as the prieta type, a little red or light black that, according to Garcilazo de la Vega, were introduced from the Canary Islands by Francisco de Caravantes; however, Bernabé Cobo (1580 – 1657) affirms that there are “Mollar, Albilla, Moscatel, white, black and other two or three differences.”   

The Catholic Church needed wine for liturgical acts, which enabled the fast grapevine’s crop in Peru, spreading widely in Ica, Lima, Arequipa, Moquegua, Tacna and Cusco, as well as on the north coast to La Libertad, Casma and Cascas on the north of Trujillo, Lambayeque, and Piura. The largest production was found in the valleys of Ica, Arequipa and Moquegua that served the demand for wine and aguardiente to the mines of Huancavelica, Castrovirreyna, Carabaya, and Potosí mainly, as well as cities, town halls, villages, parishes, reductions, etc. of the viceroyalty.

The Peruvian coast vineyards are examples of the successful use of the land to cultivate the grapevine, taking advantage of the climatic conditions and soils suitable for this purpose even though they are not located in the Mediterranean climate strip of the world, where traditionally almost all the wine and other products derived from the fermentation and aging of grape must are produced.

Pisco production areas:

Lima Region: It includes one of the oldest pisco producing areas, which are located in the southern part of the city of Lima, adjacent to Ica. The main pisco producing areas are in the valleys of Cañete, Mala, and Chilca, and the outstanding districts are Lunahuaná, San Vicente de Cañete, Quilmaná and Zúñiga, where the Uvina variety is mainly cultivated.   

Ica Region: It represents the most important pisco region of the country due to its development and productivity. The main pisco producing areas are located in the valleys of Chincha, Ica, and Pisco and to a lesser extent Nasca, where Italia, Albilla, Quebranta and Mollar grapes are mainly cultivated.

Wine and pisco production in Ica Region has been documented at least since the beginning of the 17th century. On April 30, 1613, the document entitled “Pedro José’s Testament”, nicknamed “El Griego”, established his possessions of aguardiente (pisco), his jars or jugs where he stored it, and his distiller, which demonstrates his status as a pisco producer (Huertas Vallejos, 2013).

Although pisco is currently produced throughout the region of Ica, the largest production is located in the valley of Ica. Here you can find important wineries such as La Caravedo, Viña Tacama, Vista Alegre Viticultural Farm, Ocucaje Winery, Tres Generaciones Winery, in addition to many other traditional wineries producing pisco at an artisanal and industrial level following traditional procedures.

Ica region is also home to the city and port that designates with its name “Pisco” to the grape aguardiente produced in Peru. The city and port of Pisco appear in the first map of Peru, Peruviae Auriferae Regionis Typus, made by the Spanish cartographer Diego Méndez in 1574 (Zanutelli Rosas, 1990) and by 1615 the village was illustrated by Huamán Poma de Ayala (1615-1616: page 1048). Martín de Murúa (Aspeitia ¿? – Madrid ¿1617?), Mercedarian religious, refers that “Then we have Chincha and its port, where there is a convent of religious preachers; after that, we have Pisco’s port which is thirty-five leagues from Lima, where there are many vineyards and is populated at times, since, as it is a seaport and all the wine of Ica embarks there. There are many hiring and people in this port because every year more than sixty or seventy ships come loaded with wine for the Kings. It also has a convent of Franciscan barefoot religious” (Morón, 2017: 39).  

Arequipa Region: Located in the southern part of the country, it is one of the regions with the greatest pisco tradition in Peru. The main pisco producing areas are located in the valleys of Caraveli, Majes, and Vítor, where the Negra Criolla varieties are mainly cultivated and to a lesser extent, Italia and Quebranta varieties.

Moquegua Region: It is within the pisco areas and has a denomination. The main pisco producing areas are in the Osmore Valley, where the Abilla, Negra Criolla varieties are cultivated, and to a lesser extent, Italia and Mollar varieties.

Tacna Region: Unlike the previous ones, this region includes smaller areas producing pisco. The main pisco producing areas are located in the valleys of Caplina, Locumba, and Sama, where the Negra Criolla varieties are mainly cultivated and to a lesser extent, Italia and Quebranta varieties.

Pisco production process:

The pisco production process developed in Peru probably since the end of the 16th century or the first years of the 17th century, required defined spaces and special facilities designed and organically distributed to take advantage of the gravity force to move the liquid in different stages of the elaboration process, which acquired particular features in the production regions, both in the typology and organization of building, as well as in the materials and constructive systems.

Generally, wineries are made up of a plantation house of variable dimensions for the owner’s housing, and the attached infrastructure to make and store wine and pisco, which shows important typological and constructive differences between the regions of Lima-Ica and Arequipa-Moquegua-Tacna, which in turn show differences between them.  

This infrastructure has varying degrees of development and scale: in Moquegua and Tacna, it includes a modest traditional architecture, located in a hillside of low slope and built with walls of adobe and quincha, mojinete roof type of wood and cane, floors and carpentry of wooden doors and windows with large adjacent environments of elongated shape, closed and covered with two wood slopes, mats and mud tiles, where wine presses and puntayas[1] are located in a staggered form, built with masonry stone, intended for pressing and crushing the grapes and for the rest of the must, as well as the fermentation rooms arranged transversally to the lagar2 and puntaya and at a lower level, where jars are placed in two rows and buried, served by a longitudinal channel that leads the must from the puntaya.  

The spaces to distill the fermented must by means of falcas3 and/or stills were located next to each other. Wineries in Arequipa have similar distribution and scale varying in materials and construction systems every time they used traditional ashlar (ignimbrite), obtaining building with greater elaboration and detail; likewise, it was common to locate fermentation jars on the level of the floor, although it is also possible to find some examples with buried jars.

Wineries in Lima and Ica were formed in different ways, as the whole process was frequently done outdoors and had only light roofs without lateral enclosures. Thus, wine presses and puntayas are located on the highest part of the property and in some cases, they are separated from the fermentation areas, which are made up of a series of vessels smaller than the jars, lined up above ground level in two parallel rows contiguous and embedded in continuous adobe benches. The distillation zone is mainly located in closed or partially closed environments, but always under a roof. Distilled pisco is stored in traditional baked clay piscos, which are stacked vertically in large groups in open environments, usually without any cover.

Treading and pressing: The production of pisco begins in March of each year by carefully stocking selected grapes from the wineries’ vineyards. Before weighing, the grapes are discharged into a rectangular masonry press or lagar, which is necessarily located at the highest point of the winery, as from there, juices and musts will flow by gravity, first into the fermentation tanks and then into the still itself. At the end of the sixth threshing, the wine press seal opens and the fresh grape juice falls to the puntaya and is stored for 24 hours. The juice is then taken to the fermentation jars or tanks through an ingenious system of conduits.

In large properties, there are wine presses with enough capacity for harvesting; in the medium ones, presses were smaller. Every winery has wooden presses, beams, and spindles to press the pomace that remained after the pressing, being generally of huarango wood of great dimensions.

Fermentation: The must fermentation methods also have regional particularities: in Arequipa, Moquegua, and Tacna, large jars of baked clay without varnish were used, which were often marked with crosses or other symbols and even with religious names and inscriptions and generally, many of which were dated, having preserved until today many pieces of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.  These jars were made by the method of rolls and "palette and anvil", which were then baked in large jug ovens of wineries or in private ovens. Dimensions of jars are variable, they generally measure between 1.5 m and 2.4 m in height (on average 1.90 m), with a maximum internal diameter of 1.1 m and 1.5 m (on average 1.23 m).

In Arequipa, jars were placed under a roof in two rows generally above the level of the wineries’ floor, while in Moquegua and Tacna they were buried almost completely, appearing out approximately 50 cm above ground level; this practice served to control the temperature during fermentation, while providing greater stability and support to the jar. Jars could be lined inside with tar for waterproofing. Stone discs were used to cover them.

Distillation: The traditional production of pisco is developed by direct and discontinuous distillation. The equipment for distillation could be placed in specific environments and under a roof (Arequipa, Moquegua, and Tacna) or in open spaces with light roofs supported by wooden columns (Lima and Ica), and they were made mainly of copper, using up to three types in the different regions of production:

Traditional falca: Its origin can be traced back to the late 16th or early 17th century and is built in brick and / or adobe with the walls plastered with lime that enclose a pot, vat or boiler, in which the fermented must is heated, whose vapors pass through a long tube called a cannon that narrows and tilts as it moves away from the vat and passes through a cold medium - usually water - that acts as a refrigerant and where the vapor condenses, obtaining the pisco that is collected in baked clay pots or piscos. At the level of its base, there is a pipe to discharge the vinasse or residues from distillation.

Charentès type simple still (used in the Cognac area, France): In Peru it is used since the 17th century and consists of a pot, vat or boiler where the must recently fermented is heated, the vapors rise to the capital, pipe, Moor hat or throat, in the shape of onion, and then flow through a conduit called "swan neck" arriving at a coil or condenser immersed in a "pool" with fresh water, where the alcoholic vapor becoming pisco is condensed.

Still with wine heater: It is similar to the simple still, which is fitted with a container of the vat’s capacity, known as the "heater" after the swan neck, where the vapors that come from the vat when the must is heated pass through the swan neck to the heater through a coil installed inside, exchanging heat with the must stored and continue to the condensing coil where the alcoholic vapor is finally condensed to obtain the pisco.

Storage: In Ica and Lima, pisco was stored and transported in long jugs of baked clay called piscos, which generally are grouped in a vertical position in great number, in open spaces and without cover.
_______________________________

[1],2 Translator’s note: a type of container where grapes are pressed.
3 TN: traditional distilling devices.  

Justification of Outstanding Universal Value

Wineries and vineyards of Lima, Ica, Arequipa, Moquegua, and Tacna regions are a testimony of an uninterrupted wine tradition of more than 400 years, oriented to the production of wines and piscos (grape brandy) in the coastal valleys of the central and southern part of the current territory of Peru.

Pisco has a long tradition and identity deeply rooted in Peru, whose production involves social, economic and cultural aspects highly present in the history of the aforementioned pisco regions from the late 16th century to the present.

The establishment and development of wineries, as well as the sowing and crops of grapevines and the production of wine products with the participation of creoles, mestizos, natives, as well as Afro-descendants and coolies Chinese (19th century) in Ica, respond to the great demand originated initially by the church in view of the need for sacramental wine for liturgical acts, as wine from Spain was not enough. This motivated the first grapevine plantations in the most fertile lands of the mountain and coastal valleys, in such a way that the vineyards spread rapidly and the production for general consumption increased remarkably, being elaborated shortly after the grape aguardiente that later would be known colloquially with the name of pisco by its relation with the port of Pisco (Ica) where this product was embarked and by the baked clay jugs of the same name where it was stored and transported. Pisco quickly reached regional prestige with the supply to major urban centers such as Lima, Potosi, Arequipa, Cusco, Huamanga, etc., and subsequently, from the 19th century, it was exported to many countries in America and Europe.

The productive activity of wines and piscos in Peru required special infrastructure and equipment, so that in the pisco regions of Lima, Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna, wineries of modest architecture and scale were developed, which are the result of the vernacular architecture of each region, but with specific characteristics due to their wine origin. In Ica, most of the wineries developed the same modest and traditional character according to the local architecture schemes, but with special typologies according to their pre-industrial condition; however, many other wineries had greater dimensions and architectural complexity, as they belonged to large farms established by religious orders such as the Jesuit, Augustinian, Dominican and Mercedarian, and by private owners with huge areas of grapevine crops mainly, in addition to cotton, wheat, corn, sugar cane among other crops.

Testimonies of this pre-industrial viticultural activity can be found in many wineries and farms of the coastal pisco valleys, such as: La Reina (1896), Hijos del Sol (19th), Rivadeneyra (1756) in Lunahuaná - Lima; La Caravedo (1684), Vista Alegre (1857), Tacama (1776 with Casa Hacienda founded in the 16th century by the Augustine order), Ocucaje (1898), Tabernero (1897), Lovera Pérez (1867), Tres Generaciones (1856) in Ica; El Socavon (17th), Zegarra e hijos (1929), in Arequipa; Ghersi (18th), Zapata (18th), Villegas (1926), in Moquegua; San Isidro Labrador de Magollo (18th), Mirave (18th), Ward (18th) in Tacna, among others and many other important traditional wineries, part of which are recognized and protected by the Peruvian State as part of the Cultural Heritage of the Nation in merit to its architectural, historical and technological values, among other aspects.

As a whole, wineries and wine farms, integrated into their vineyards as agricultural contexts, have left exceptional examples of pre-industrial wine architecture and traditional piscos, which illustrate the establishment and development of wine and piscos production in the valleys of Peru's desert coastal strip. This is how they evolved from their establishment in the 16th to 19th centuries and preserved until today most of the components that typify their colonial and republican origins, as well as the vineyards that transformed the agricultural landscape since the second half of the 16th century with the development of grapevine single-crop.

Altogether, wineries and wine haciendas, several of them integrated into their vineyards as agricultural contexts, have bequeathed exceptional examples of pre-industrial architecture of wines and traditional piscos, which illustrate the establishment and development of the production of wines and piscos in the valleys of the coastal desert of Peru, which evolved from its establishment in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries, currently retaining much of the components that typify its viceregal and republican origins, as well as the vineyards that transformed the agricultural landscape from the Second half of the 16th century with the development of monoculture of the vine.

Similarly, wineries testify to various aspects of traditional culture in today's communities linked to the production of wines and piscos, which show strong elements of continuity from the viceroyalty and republican past in the field of agricultural technologies and pre-industrial production, the knowledge associated with pisco making and handcrafted work for producing vessels, repairing and maintaining equipment, etc., as well as in the gastronomy, customs, festivities and traditions related to pisco production, among other aspects. 

Criterion (ii): The cultivation of the vine for wine production, resulted in a distinctive landscape in the coastal valleys of central and southern Peru, markedly influenced by the type of soil and climate of the desert, as well as by the volcanic activity in some valleys of the South, in which numerous wineries and wine estates were established, and who to this day, preserve the traditional infrastructure for the elaboration of pisco through distillation processes that reflect the technologies transferred by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century, which in turn were influenced by the Arabs, and that they adapted in the viceroyalty and the republic to the local conditions, spreading widely in the region in the XVII, XVIII and XIX centuries.

Similarly, the development of 16th and 17th-century grape varieties brought from Europe implied their adaptation to local soil, climate and water conditions and the development of specific agricultural methods for sowing, tending and harvesting, which are part of the transfer of properties and know-how. Over time, the selection and development of specific pisqueras grape varieties adapted to the characteristics of soil types, climates and water quality involved specialization and exchange of knowledge for the exploitation of the particular conditions of each valley in the 5 regions.

Criterion (iv): The total of wineries and farms reflect the development and evolution of the wine and pisco production process in Peru over the last four hundred years, thus constituting representative examples of pre-industrial viticultural rural architecture, which illustrate the fusion of productive technologies and regional construction traditions that have been adapted to the functional and spatial demands of the production process and conditioned by the location, the availability of building materials, the technologies and stylistic tendencies of each region, the economic possibilities of their owners, as well as the cultural interaction between Spaniards, mestizo and Indians during the Viceroyalty, including Afro-descendants in Ica generating particular types of wineries as well as knowledge, traditions and customs associated with vine crop and wine production.

The particular production process of pisco, which differs notoriously from the production of wine and other beverages derived from the total or partial alcoholic fermentation of grape must, is based on the must extraction and fermentation and its subsequent distillation through the use of falcas and/or stills, a process that required a specific infrastructure adapted to soil conditions, climate, availability of materials to produce presses, stills, falcas, jars, jugs, ovens, etc. , of which there are numerous examples from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries in the producing regions, many of which are still in use.

The great demand of pisco in the local market and in neighboring regions during the viceroyalty and the republic, made possible the forming of a large network of wineries distributed along more than 500km of the coastal zone (00 to 2000 masl)of the current Peruvian territory, which fluctuated in the 19th and 20th centuries according to diverse climatic, political, social and commercial factors, which influenced in the productivity and preservation of traditional wineries, experiencing some of them partial modifications in its infrastructure as part of the process of adaptation to the diverse influences and temporary conditions of production, and testifying the evolutionary process of the traditional wine industry over time.

Statements of authenticity and/or integrity

AUTHENTICITY

The important archival documentation, written and graphic, added to the material testimonies of the infrastructure for the elaboration of pisco, testify the history and the continuous development of the wine production in the 5 regions for more than four centuries and their influence on the customs and traditions of the population of the zones and identity of Peru. The old wineries preserve their initial typology and location, some of which still retain part of their original vineyards, as well as the corresponding equipment for production such as wineries, pots, falcas, stills, jars, barrels and tools, which are generally maintained as a testimony of the traditional production process, although in some cases they are not in use due to the fact that with the passage of time new modern industrial-type equipment with greater capacity have been incorporated, but they follow the same basic process of pisco production.

Earthquakes, political interventions such as the Agrarian Reform and market fluctuations, among other factors, caused temporary effects on wineries and vine crops at various times, producing times of crisis that are part of the historical development of all wine growing areas in the world, but did not alter the exceptional attributes of the property. Some of the producing valleys, such as those of Ica, Pisco, Moquegua, and Majes have produced and exported their pisco and wines continuously for at least four centuries and testify the vine single-crop farming whose landscape is preserved and the traditional methods used to produce pisco in each region.

INTEGRITY

The attributes of the Outstanding Universal Value of the cultural property are sufficiently complete, these contain the most representative and best-preserved elements that witness the beginnings and development of the production and marketing of pisco, they also include the favourable environmental conditions (geology, morphology, hydrology and climate) to specialized viticulture, some vineyards with adapted and traditional grape varieties, many types of wineries with traditional regional architecture that preserve their original infrastructure for production, as well as a wide variety of other buildings and components associated with the history of pisco production, which contribute to reinforcing the character of the complex. Although many of the wineries were affected by different earthquakes, such as the one in 2001 in Moquegua-Arequipa-Tacna and the one in 2007 in Ica, they have been renovated maintaining their attributes, function and the continuity of the traditional land use, which has been experiencing the expansion of its agricultural extension with the gradual incorporation of the desert in the region of Ica

The integrity of the complex must still be ensured through the legal protection and delimitation of its components, some of which are already part of the National Cultural Heritage expressly declared through legal regulations issued by the State.

Comparison with other similar properties

The cultural landscapes of vineyards, wineries or wine farms of Europe, America and other regions of the world have followed diverse forms of development and evolution, mainly conditioned by climatic, geographical, historical, cultural, economic, ethnographic factors, etc., that have forged in each one particular and specific identity and characteristics. Thus, each of the sites registered on the World Heritage List and on the UNESCO Tentative List represents outstanding models due to the characteristics that make them unique, having as a common factor the production of wine, aguardiente or other products coming from the fermentation, aging or distillation of grapes.

In accordance with the principles of the Global Strategy for a balanced, representative and credible World Heritage List, it is possible to note that of the 1,092 properties registered on the World Heritage List and the 1,726 properties registered on the Tentative Lists of 178 States Parties, only 16 properties related to wine, vineyards, wine production, and other derivaties are included in any of the above-mentioned lists, none of which is found in the American Continent, despite the long history and winemaking tradition of the region that has its origin in the second half of the sixteenth century, subtracting balance to the World Heritage List and Indicative Lists and constituting a category underrepresented globally (except Europe) and non-existent in the Latin America and the Caribbean Region. In addition, there are no nominations related to the production of other derivatives of alcoholic beverages other than those obtained from the fermentation and/or distillation of grapes, with the exception of Tequila (Mexico) from the agave.

Therefore, it can be considered that the inclusion of the proposed serial property of "Wineries and vineyards for the traditional production of pisco" in the Tentative List of World Heritage would be argued, since it constitutes a representative site for the category of "agricultural, industrial and technological properties” that is underrepresented in the World Heritage List for the Latin America and the Caribbean Region.

Sites on the World Heritage List

Cultural property such as the Sait Emilion Jurisdiction (France, 1999), The Loire Valley between Sully-Sur-Loire and Chalonnes (France, 2000), the Wachau Cultural Landscape (Austria, 2000), the Alto Duero Wine Region (Portugal, 2001), the Historic Cultural Landscape of the Tokaj Wine Region (Hungary, 2002), the Upper Middle Rhine Valley (Germany), 2002) and Lavaux, vineyard terraces (Switzerland, 2007), all located in Europe, refer to cultural landscapes involving specific vinicultural territories in a given región. They encompass extensive fields of vine crop, including cities, towns, monumental buildings such as temples, monasteries, castles, etc., whose origin and/or development are linked to the production and marketing of wines. 

Unlike these properties, the proposal of "Wineries and Vineyards for traditional pisco production" does not include cultural landscapes nor is it referred to the wine production, focusing on a series of traditional wineries and their respective vineyards distributed in 5 regions of the country, which illustrate the production process of more than three centuries of traditional pisco production (grape firewater).

The Piedmont Vineyard Landscape: Langhe-Roero and Monferrato (Italy, 2014), includes a serial cultural landscape of five distinct viticultural areas and a castle, reflecting the conjunction of the aesthetic qualities of their landscapes, the architectural and historical diversity of villages, monasteries, castles, cellars, etc., associated with wine production activities and ancient winemaking techniques.

The Climats, terroirs of Burgundy (France, 2015) and the Cultural Landscape of vineyards of the island of Pico (Portugal, 2004), include special cases specifically related to the plots of vine crop. Although they show differences between them with respect to their origin and management, they have a different approach to the proposal of "Wineries and Vineyards for traditional pisco production” focusing on the traditional wineries, which comprise the additional vineyards without a particular subdivisión and that are not referred to the production of wine.

Vineyards, houses and wineries of Champagne (France, 2015), include a series of three different sets: the historic vineyards of Hautvilliers, Aÿ and Mareuil-sur-Aÿ; the Santa Nicasia hill in Reims; the Champagne avenue and the "Fort Chabrol" oenology institute in the city of Epernay, where the vineyard areas and the underground cellars are located, in which the fermentation of the champagne takes place and the headquarters of the companies that commercialize it are located, representing the totality of the production stages and illustrating the evolution experienced by the production process.

This series includes three specific components of different characteristics in the Champagne region, which together illustrate the historical process of producing champagne as an original product. The proposal of "Wineries and Vineyards for traditional pisco production" differs in that it refers to a set of traditional buildings expressly intended to pisco production (also a product of origin) and their corresponding vineyards located in the five producing regions of Peru without involving other types of buildings or urban areas.

Landscape of agaves and old industrial facilities of Tequila (Mexico, 2006) constitutes the only property registered in the World Heritage List referring to the production of a traditional alcoholic beverage in the American continent, which expressly involves the agave and the tequila production processes, not being related to the vineyards nor the wine or any product resulting from the processing of the must of grapes, which constitutes a singular case.

Among the cultural property registered on the State Party's Tentative Lists, the proposal of "Principal Farms of Cape Vineyards" (South Africa, 2015) stands out. This proposal refers to the development of a vernacular architecture that combines European influences with regional building traditions and characterizes the wine country landscape developed over time and its natural environment. It differs from the other properties mentioned by its location (African continent) and its focus on traditional Cape vineyard farm architecture developed from the late 17th century, which presents unique characteristics of Dutch, English and local influence, resulting in a distinctive architectural style. This cultural property is similar to the proposal of "Wineries and Vineyards for traditional pisco production" in terms of its architectural-typological-productive approach, representing both cases of parallel situations of particular development of the productive infrastructure linked to viticulture in two very distant and different geographical areas under different local conditions and external influences, but resulting in very dissimilar examples both formally and functionally; therefore, the farms of the Cape vineyards are very closely related to European uses, styles, and forms; wineries for the traditional production of pisco are more related to the pre-existing traditional vernacular architecture, in addition to the differences between the technologies of the production processes due to the type of products, since the first case refers strictly to the production of wine with the traditional European techniques, while the case of wineries shows its own technology to produce pisco, which contains several traditional components that have no reference elsewhere.