State National Natural Park "Altyn-Emel"
Delegation Permanente de la Republique du Kazakhstan aupres de l'UNESCO
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The object of nomination is located on the southern macroslope Dzhungar Alatau at a height of 1000-1200 ? above the sea level, almost from different directions is surrounded with mountains. Relief. The mountain relief is obliged by the origin to vault – cloded nontectonic movement ( Didenko - Kislitsina, 1981). The region is various and includes all kinds of landscapes from plains up to mountain areas. The basic part is represented by(with) mountain files reaching 1200-2500 ? in height. A relief from flat slopes up to the rocks, in many cases are observed deeply cut slopes (mountain Chulak, Koktay, Aktay, Matay, Degeres). The foothills are submitted by various types of steppe. On flat sites are observed knobby and khobby – ridge sand combined with extensive between ridge meadow downturn and takur plains. Ground. On the territory of the object all patrimonial spectrum of mountain groud is submitted. A picture of a soil cover, in connection with mountain areas very motley. On plains prevail grey ground, meet salt marsh. Hydromorhe ground meet only in watered sites. In flood land areas are located deluval plains. Climate sharply continental. The winter period is characteristic in low temperatures and prevalence of clear weather (number of clear days for winter -24 days). Average temperature of January - 100?. The situation of the park on slopes of a southern exposition, and also receiption of dry weights of air from Ily nollow results in early arrival of spring and low quantity(amount) of average falls (200 mm). Summer is hot, the average temperatures of July reach(achieve) +200? (Atlas Kazakh SSR, 1982). The most damp month - June (29 % of the annual sum of deposits). For one year, on the average, 65 days with falls. The least quantity(amount) of falls in the winter and at the beginning of spring. The northwest winds prevail, annual repeatability have northeast (4 %) and southwest winds. The greatest speed of a wind - 4,8 ?/?, least - 1,6 ?/?. Fauna. The originality of territory of the National park promotes prosperity of as highly specific landscapes, adapted to conditions, as kinds of large ecological valency. Ichtiofauna is submitted by 28 kinds of fishes (22,1 % Ichtiofauna of Kazakhstan), concerning to to five groups, from them 12 aboriginal kinds (Dukravech, 1986). Aboriginal Ichtiofauna differs poor types by structure and brightly expressed endomism. Ily marinka (Schizotyorax), balchash the perch (Perca schrenki), thorn (Acipenser nudiventris) are brought in the Red book of Kazakhstan. The first kind is on the verge of disappearance (Bekenov etc., 1988). From a class of amphibious on the in territory of the park there are 4 kinds from the family of tailless (green (Bufo viridis) and danatin toad (Bufo danatensis) lake frog and Siberian (Rana ridibunda, R. sibiricus). Danatin toad and Siberian frog are brought in the red book of Kazakhstan. According to the number of kinds reptiles of the region they make 51 % from all gerpetofaund of Kazakhstan (25 kinds), of them 16 kinds of the snakes, 8 kinds of the lizards and 1 kind a turtle. In the Red book one kind motley kruglogolovka (Phrynocephalus versicolor) is brought. A variety ornitofauna here is submitted by 155 kinds of birds, that makes 39,8 % from all nested ornitofauna of Kazakhstan, from which 40 kinds are brought in the Red book of Kazakhstan (result last reexamination by the employees of the institute of Zoology and genefund together with the scientific employees of university of the state of Arizona (USA). Teriofauna of the park is submitted by 70 kinds of mammals. Dzheiran(Gazella subgutturoza), wild ram (Ovis ammon), turkmen kulan(Equus himionus) (makes 60 % all total number of a kind in Republic) are brought in ???P and Red book of Kazakhstan. In the Red book such kinds of region as stone marten (Martes foina), bandaging (Vormela peregusna), river otter (Lutra lutra) also are brought. From vertebralless animals on the territory of the park live numerous as well as rare kinds. In the Red book 32 kinds concerning 8 groups are brought: a dragonfly, devouts, straight winged, hard winged, membraneus winged, double winged, scaly winged. Flora. On the territory of the park there are 634 kinds of plants. A significant variety of landscapes causes types of riches of flora. The most widespread representatives are juniper (Juniperus sabina), outmeal (Featula), fire nonawned (Bromopsis inermis). The deserted vegetation is submitted subshrabs from the family of mari and ?. Artemisia. 41 kinds are rare and is on the verge of disappearance. It is such kinds, as Ilyinya Regelya (Iljinia regeliis), onions(bow) milkcoloured (Allium galantum), feather-grass Caucasian (Stipa kaucasica), honeysuckle (Lonicerta), poplar diverleave (Populus divergifolia), vodosbor Vilalya (Aquilegia vilalii), tian-shan cherry (Cerasus tianschanica), Ily saxaul and Balchash (Arthrophytum iliensis, A. balchaschiensis). Here appear 27 kinds endemics, are available relicts of the form, for example, Ily ferula (Ferula ilinensis). History and development The state national natural park "Altyn-Emel" was created by the governmental order of Republic of Kazakhstan from April 10, 1996 ? 416 in territory of Kerbulak and Panphylov administrative areas of Almaty area. March 9, 1999 this order was is re-registered by the order of Committee of a wood, fish and hunting facilities of the Ministry of natural resources and protection of an environment of Republic of Kazakhstan. Presence of historical and cultural objects. The territory of National park abounds archeological monuments of a stone epoch, bronze, early and late iron century, ethnographic and historico-cultural monuments. They are submitted vast burying grounds (height up to 20m, diameter up to 100m) and single buryings. 191 monuments of a history and cultures are totaled. The special scientific value has is a complex of monuments Besshatyr with grandiose barows, cult fencings and numerous petroglyphs in nearby gorges of mountains Chulack. (Akyshev, 1956; 1959; Maryashev, 1998). These burial places represent huge scientific and cultural value and require protection. Categories IUCN: state national park, reserved zone - 4