State of Conservation (SOC)
Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (2010)
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
The political context does not allow the definition of a Desired state of conservation at this stage.
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds
Total amount provided to the property: approximately USD 4,000,000 (since 1988)
International Assistance granted to the property
Total Amount Ap proved:100,000USD
|1982||32-month expert services to undertake an architectural survey of ...||100,000 USD|
February-March 2004: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/ICCROM mission; from September 2005 to May 2008: 6 experts missions within the framework of the elaboration of the Action Plan for the Safeguarding of the Cultural Heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem; February-March 2007: special World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/ICCROM mission sent by the Director-General of UNESCO for the issue of the Mughrabi ascent; August 2007, January and February 2008: missions for the application of the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism; March and December 2009: World Heritage Centre missions.
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Natural risk factors;
b) Lack of planning, governance and management processes;
c) Alteration of the urban and social fabric;
d) Impact of archaeological excavations;
e) Deterioration of monuments;
f) Urban environment and visual integrity;
g) Traffic, access and circulation.
Within the present context, only specific activities are possible, such as the implementation of those foreseen within the UNESCO Action Plan for the Safeguarding of the Cultural Heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
The timeframe is linked to the evolution of the overall situation on the ground. More specifically, the implementation of the Action Plan is subject to the availability of extra-budgetary ressources.
Current conservation issues
A report was transmitted by the Israeli National Commission for UNESCO to the World Heritage Centre on 28 January 2010 and by the Ministry of Awqaf of Jordan through the Jordanian Permanent Delegation on 30 March 2010.
It is to be noted that since 1967, the Old City of Jerusalem is de facto administered by the Israeli authorities. Therefore, all new constructions and conservation projects are in principle subject to the administrative jurisdiction of the IsraeliMunicipality and usually supervised by the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA).
I. Report from the Israeli authorities
The report of the Israeli authorities presents a whole range of activities. The main ones are summarized hereunder:
(i) Revitalisation Plan
The work has proceeded on two levels: the plan for the public realm (streets, alleys, souqs) and detailed plans for specific areas.
(ii) Plan for guidelines for conservation and building
Until the Revitalisation Plan is approved, an interim statutory plan proposes to present guidelines for conservation and monitoring for the purpose of obtaining licenses and building permits.
(iii) Upgrading of the public realm, infrastructure and facades
A manual is being prepared to include guidelines for the design of pavings and furnishing, to be integrated in plans for upgrading streets, including infrastructure improvements and facades restorations. Works to improve the infrastructure around Jaffa Gate/Bab al-Khalil have started. They will include new traffic management for vehicles and pedestrians, new street paving, lighting. The upgrading of facades is to take place jointly.
(iv) Accessibility, cleaning and maintenance
Further to a survey of the public realm in 2009, a Master Plan for accessibility in the OldCity will include accessible tourist information and street signage, tourist routes, elevators, etc. Cleaning and maitenance have been outsourced by the Municipality to a company hired to implement a new action plan for discarding refuse.
b) Conservation projects:
(i) Rehabilitation and preservation of monuments within the Old City
Work was completed at the so called Ottoman Tombs inside the Jaffa Gate of the OldCity, and conservation projects were carried out at St Mary of the Teutons, St Mary’s Gate at the Holy Sepulchre and MessiahChurch.
(ii) Rehabilitation and management of the Old City walls and gates
Conservation work continues at the north-western corner of the OldCity towards the south-western corner and work has begun on the southern wall from Zion Gate to Dung Gate.
c) Archaeological works:
(i) Western Wall tunnels and Plaza
The archaeological works in the Western Wall tunnels continue, notably: finalisation of the two year conservation project to consolidate the vaults of the Baladiyya Madrasa, stabilisation of the ceiling of the Hasmonean tunnel, addition of access routes for the public around the Struthion pool.
(ii) Salvage excavations
A number of excavations in and around the Old City are carried out, connected to building projects: Western Wall Plaza, Western Wall tunnels, Gloria Hotel in the Christian quarter, Al Ward street, Hosh Saqsaq, St Mary of the Teutons, Omer Street, Misgav Ladakh Street (in order to build an elevator between the Jewish quarter and the Western Wall Plaza).
d) Construction works:
(i) Western Wall Plaza
At the Strauss building, the plan for additional office space, restrooms and a police station was approved in December 2009. The building will also provide a new entrance to the Western Wall tunnels and its visitors centre. On the Western side of the Plaza, the Western Wall Heritage Foundation intends to open an educational institute including offices, an information centre, an auditorium, above antiquities unearthed by the excavations. The plan has yet to be deposited. Another plan for upgrading the Davidson Centre has been initiated as well as a plan for the elevator connecting the Jewish quarter to the Plaza to include more functions.
(ii) Zion Gate underground parking
The revised plan for the underground parking is to be submitted, as well as for new residential buildings above.
e) Plans and activities outside the Old City walls
The report mentions several projects located outside the OldCity walls, notably at MountZion: excavations, improvement of the public realm, conservation efforts at the complex of the Tomb of David and at the Cenacle. It also mentions the development of East Jerusalem, at Sheikh Jarrah and Wadi Joz, Damascus Gate, and a number of excavations, notably at New Gate, Lions Gate, Wadi Hilwa (City of David). It also mentions the Jerusalem Outline Plan (1968) and the Outline Town Planning Scheme (2000). The latter, approved for deposition in the District Planning Commission, includes a definition of three zones of conservation: the OldCity, the visual basin of the OldCity and the HistoricCity.
The report received from the Israeli authorities also mentions works carried out by the Jerusalem Waqf within the Haram ash-Sharif (see below, report from the Jordanian authorities) and work undertaken at the Holy Sepulchre, both by the Franciscans and the Greek-Orthodox Patriarchate, in particular the conservation of the belfry architectural elements by the Israel Antiquities Authority.
II. Report from the Jordanian authorities
The report received from the Permanent Delegation of Jordan provides information on the works carried out by the Ministry of Awqaf in the Haram ash-Sharif, among others:
a) Maintenance work on the stucco and mosaics inside the Dome of the Rock;
b) Restoration of the internal marble walls of the Dome of the Rock;
c) Several restoration and maintenance work inside Al-Aqsa Mosque: stucco, stone, marble decoration and wood panels;
d) Restoration of the eastern porch and courtyard of Al-Aqsa Mosque;
e) Restoration of the tiles of the courtyards of Al-Aqsa Mosque;
f) Restoration of the walls of Al-KhanthaniaSchool;
g) Restoration of walls and ceilings of the fifth porch of Al-Marwani and study for the restoration of its columns;
h) Work on the roofs of Al-Aqsa library and Islamic Museum;
i) Studies to establish a fire extinguisher system on the Haram ash-Sharif.
The report stresses the difficulties of bringing restoration materials within the compound of the Haram ash-Sharif and the fact notably that the Waqf was not allowed by the Israeli authorities to install the crescent on the Dome of the Rock, to introduce tiles for restoration of the Dome and to install lighting equipment at the site.
The largest part of the report however focuses on the excavations carried out by the Israeli authorities in various places surrounding Al Aqsa Mosque and Al Buraq Plaza, and under Al Ward street. The report notably states that “the fact that foreign observers and Muslim Awqaf experts were prevented from inspecting the Israeli archaeological excavation sites […] places many questions regarding Israeli intentions specific to these archaeological projects”. Other excavations are mentioned at the Omayyad Palaces area, at Al-Khanqah Al-Salahiya in the north-east part of the Old City, as well as works outside the western wall of the Church of the Holy Sepulche. The report deplores the building of a synagogue using cast concrete walls and columns on Al-Ward street, for which Waqf land was seized near Hammam Al-Ain and Hammam Al-Shifa.
In their report, the Jordanian authorities also express their concern at archaeological excavations undertaken by the Israeli authorities outside the Old City walls, in the area of Silwan, and the digging of tunnels towards Al Aqsa Mosque, that caused collapse of buildings in Silwan and could affect the structure of the walls of the Old City and of the Haram ash-Sharif. They mention several other activities undertaken by the Israeli authorities outside the Old city, such as the construction of the light rail, the movement restrictions and the changes in the demographic balance of the OldCity.
III. Action Plan for the Safeguarding of the Cultural Heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem
With the remaining funds available under the Action Plan funded by the Government of Italy, in the second half of 2009, the "Young People Cultural activities" workshops, held by local experts, were successfully carried out by the Burj Luq Luq Social Centre.
The educators (48) and children (50) who participated in the workshops were enthusiastic of the experience on the cultural heritage of the OldCity; and the educators are ready to repeat it with their pupils in the coming years. The World Heritage in Young Hands kit has been reproduced in many copies and it will be available for future training courses. In addition, 65 trainees among youth and children passionately participated on the photography/video course and an exhibition of their work was organised at the Social Centre.
The World Heritage Centre is waiting for the approval of a request submitted to the Italian authorities to allocate the remaining funds in order to complete the restoration of some residential buildings in the Christian quarter. The objective is to improve the quality of life of the residents, among the poorest families of the OldCity, in the same time preserving the historic building stock, belonging to the Custody of the Holy Land. A training component, fundamental to improve the skills in conservation of the local workers, would be definitely included in the project by testing the Rehabilitation manual produced in the framework of the Action Plan.
Concerning the restoration of the church of St. John Prodromos, funded by the A.G. Leventis Foundation, the activities of the first phase are focusing on preliminary studies and the architectural design in order to define the detailed restoration interventions that will be carried out in the following years. The detailed architectural survey of the church and the evaluation of its state of conservation were carried out by the chosen expert in collaboration with an archaeologist specialised in the interpretation of late Antiquity/medieval constructions. Before preparing the final project, the need to remove the modern cemented crypt's paving to allow the humidity to evaporate and in the same time to conduct complementary archaeological research under the paving was recognised. The archaeological studies will be conducted by the Ecole biblique of the Dominicans Convent in Jerusalem in the second half of 2010.
IV. Other projects
The development of an Architectural Heritage Preservation Institute, in partnership with the Welfare Association and thanks to funding from the European Commission (€700,000), initiated in 2007, is reaching its last phase. Based on the curriculum developed by ICCROM, one pilot and three long core courses have taken place as well as two seminars and three short intensive training sessions (approximately 150 trainees). Training of trainers has also taken place and a documentation centre including a specialised library, database, website, and publications was established, setting the basis for the future Institute.
As a follow-up to the project for the establishment of a Centre for Restoration of Islamic Manuscripts, located in the Madrasa Al Ashrayfiyyah within the Haram ash-Sharif, a new capacity-building project has been developed, with funding from the UNESCO’s Regular Programme (USD 190,000). This new project aims to build the capacity of the staff in paper restoration and electronic inventorying to ensure the long-term conservation of this invaluable collection of manuscripts and other historic documents, which are in advanced state of deterioration.
The project for the “Safeguarding, Refurbishment and Revitalization of the Islamic Museum of al-Haram ash-Sharif and its Collection”, funded by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has started in 2009. It will mainly consist in the following: make an assessment and an inventory the collections, improve conservation measures, upgrade storage and exhibition spaces and develop the conservation, management and administrative capacities.
V. The Mughrabi Ascent
At its 31st session (Christchurch, New Zealand, July 2007), the World Heritage Committee adopted Decision 31 COM 7A.18, by which it requested “the World Heritage Centre to facilitate the professional encounter at the technical level between Israeli, Jordanian and Waqf experts to discuss the detailed proposals for the proposed final design of the Mughrabi ascent, prior to any final decision”. Accordingly,two professional meetings took place in Jerusalem on 13 January and 24 February 2008 between Israeli and Jordanian (including Waqf) experts. Unfortunately, no other meeting took place since that date, although repetedly requested by the World Heritage Committee and the Executive Board of UNESCO. Indeed, the last meeting scheduled on 12 November 2008, was postponed at the request of the Jordanian authorities, “until a date when it can get its own experts and equipment on the site in order to take the appropriate measurements, necessary to finalise the design of the project”. Bilateral consultation between Jordan and Israel did not make this visit possible.
In their report of January 2010, the Israeli authorities indicate that: “Following the decision of the National Council for Planning and Construction, an alternative plan for the Mughrabi Ascent was made in order to maintain the authenticity and integrity of the site reflected in the recommendations of the World Heritage Committee and its Advisory bodies. The process of the approval of this plan should end only after a formal publication of the approved planning principles.”
UNESCO has acknowledged receipt of this information and reiterated in its letter to the Israeli National Commission for UNESCO its support for the organization of a meeting of the concerned parties to evaluate the alternative plan before its final approval.
The report from the Jordanian authorities recalls previous decisions by the World Heritage Committee and the Executive Board of UNESCO in this respect, as well as their attempt of 29 July 2009 to access the site of the Mughrabi Ascent to take their own measurements, referring to the provisions of both the Hague and the 1972 Conventions as well as to the Status quo arrangement (foreseen within the Israel-Jordan peace treaty of 1994).
The “Reinforced monitoring mechanism”, requested by the Executive Board at its 176th session (176 EX/Special Plenary Meeting decision) and by the World Heritage Committee since its 31st session (Decisions 31 COM 5.2., 31 COM 7A.18), was applied for Jerusalem with regard to the Mughrabi ascent. Six monitoring reports were prepared by the World Heritage Centre in this respect and forwarded to the concerned parties and the members of the World Heritage Committee. The seventh report was kept pending upon decision by the Chairperson of the World Heritage Committee.
VI. 182nd and 184th sessions of the Executive Board and 35th session of the General Conference of UNESCO
At its 182nd session in September 2009, the Executive Board adopted Decision 182 EX/5(II) in which it recalled previous decisions and regretted “in this regard the postponement of the follow-up meeting of experts which was scheduled on 12 November 2008 […] as well as of the planned visit of Jordanian technical experts to the Mughrabi Ascent site on 29 July 2009, due to circumstances that have impeded Jordanian experts from having access in order to take measurements”. It recognized “the existence of deep concerns regarding the decision taken by the Jerusalem District Planning and Construction Commission on the town planning scheme for the Mughrabi ascent” and requested that despite that decision, “the process for the design of the Mughrabi ascent be inclusive of all parties concerned, in accordance with the spirit and content of previous World Heritage Committee decisions”.
At its 35th session, the General Conference adopted Resolution 35C/49 by which it “reiterates its concern as to the obstacles and practices, unilateral or otherwise, affecting the preservation of the distinctive character of the Old City of Jerusalem” and “invites the Director-General to pursue his efforts with the concerned parties for the safeguarding of the outstanding universal value of the Old City of Jerusalem”.
During the 184th session of the Executive Board, document 184 EX/5 (IV) related to the Mughrabi Ascent and document 184 EX/12 concerning the Old City of Jerusalem were presented to the members of the Board. Two draft decisions (184 EX/PX/DR.1 and 184 EX/PX/DR.2) were submitted by Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Cuba, Djibouti, Egypt, Kuwait, Malaysia, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Tunisia and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. After considerable effort to reach a consensus, a decision was adopted, to which the original draft decisions were attached, by which the examination of these agenda items was postponed to the 185th session of the Executive Board.
 The issue of the archaeological excavations carried out since 1967 by the Israeli authorities in the Old City of Jerusalem has been the object of several discussions at the sessions of the Governing Bodies of UNESCO. These archaeological campaigns are in contradiction with article VI. 32 of the 1956 New Delhi Recommendation on International Principles Applicable to Archaeological Excavations, related to excavations in occupied territory.
Link to the decision
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add,
2. Recalling Decision 33 COM 7A.18, adopted at its 33rd session (Seville, 2009),
3. Recalling the relevant provisions on the protection of cultural heritage including the four Geneva Conventions (1949), the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of 1954, the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage of 1972, the inscription of the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls at the request of Jordan on the World Heritage List (1981) and on the List of World Heritage in Danger (1982), and the recommendations, resolutions and decisions of UNESCO,
4. Recalling the importance of maintaining the integrity and authenticity of the Old City of Jerusalem,
5. Affirming the necessity of cooperation to facilitate access to the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls, including heritage sites therein, in the context of the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage of 1972, and recognizing in this regard the existing physical obstacles,
6. Affirming that nothing in the present decision, which aims at the safeguarding of the cultural heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls, shall in any way affect the relevant United Nations resolutions and decisions, in particular the relevant Security Council resolutions on the legal status of Jerusalem,
7. Thanks international donors for their generous contributions to the UNESCO Action Plan for the Safeguarding of the Cultural Heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem and calls upon the international donor community to further support, through extra-budgetary funding, activities aimed at the safeguarding of the cultural heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem, in particular in the context of the Action Plan;
8. Requests the World Heritage Centre to make technical expertise and assistance available for the current and future conservation works foreseen in the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls, taking into consideration the activities foreseen in the context of the Action Plan, as needed;
9. Recognizes the concerns raised about the Israeli archaeological excavations and works in the Old City and on both sides of the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls, and asks the Israeli authorities to provide the World Heritage Centre with all relevant information and details about them, and also requests the World Heritage Centre to play a proactive role in this regard;
10. Encourages the Director-General to take the necessary measures, in consultation and cooperation with the concerned parties, to reactivate and reinvigorate the implementation of the short-, medium- and long-term objectives of the Action Plan, including training, education and cultural activities, and the preservation of sites and monuments of the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls as inscribed on the World Heritage List;
11. Requests a joint World Heritage Centre/ICCROM/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to the property as referred to in the Operational Guidelines to assess and advise on progress made in the implementation of the Action Plan and, in cooperation and consultation with the concerned parties, identify appropriate operational and financial mechanisms and modalities to strengthen technical cooperation with all concerned parties in the framework of the Action Plan;
12. Thanks the World Heritage Centre for the steps undertaken in the implementation of the Action Plan for the Safeguarding of the Cultural Heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem and further requests it to report on this matter and on the state of conservation of the property at its 35th session in 2011;
13. Recalling 176 EX/Special Plenary Meeting/Decision, adopted by the Executive Board of UNESCO at its 176th session, Decision 32 COM 7A.18 adopted at its 32nd session (Quebec City, 2008), and Decision 181 EX/5 (II) adopted by the Executive Board of UNESCO at its 181st session,
14. Reaffirming the purpose and spirit of the professional encounter at the technical level of 13 January 2008, as well as the follow-up meeting of 24 February 2008,
15. Noting the Sixth Reinforced Monitoring Report (February 2009) prepared by the World Heritage Centre,
16. Regretting the postponement of the follow-up meeting of experts which was scheduled on 12 November 2008, as called for in Decision 32 COM 7A.18, due to circumstances that have impeded Jordanian experts from having access to the Mughrabi Ascent site,
17. Recognizing the existence of deep concerns regarding the decision by the Jerusalem District Planning and Construction Commission on the town planning scheme for the Mughrabi Ascent,
18. Requests that, despite the decision mentioned in Paragraph 17, the process for the design of the Mughrabi Ascent be inclusive of all parties concerned, in accordance with the spirit and content of previous World Heritage Committee decisions;
19. Reaffirms in this regard that no measures, unilateral or otherwise, should be taken which will affect the authenticity and integrity of the site in accordance with the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage of 1972 and, as necessary, the relevant provisions of the UNESCO Conventions on the protection of cultural heritage;
20. Being aware that the process for the design of the Mughrabi Ascent, which allows for the taking into consideration of the designs submitted during the aforementioned professional encounter, is still under way, also requests the World Heritage Centre to follow closely, in the context of the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism, the developments associated with this process;
21. Thanks the World Heritage Centre for facilitating the holding of the professional encounter at the technical level of 13 January 2008, as well as the follow-up meeting of 24 February 2008, between Israeli, Jordanian and Waqf experts, as requested by Decision 31 COM 7A.18;
22. Reiterates its request that the Israeli authorities continue the cooperation commenced with all concerned parties, in particular with Jordanian and Waqf experts;
23. Reaffirms the necessity of cooperation in order to arrange for access to the Mughrabi Ascent site, and reiterates the call on the Director-General to organize a follow-up meeting of experts as soon as possible, once the parties concerned have reached an agreement;
24. Takes note of the recent exchange of correspondence between Israel (letter dated 31 May 2009) and Jordan (letter dated 12 June 2009) aiming at reaching an agreement that may allow the Director-General to organize a follow-up meeting as soon as possible;
25. Decides to continue applying the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism for the state of conservation of the Mughrabi Ascent, and further requests a report from the World Heritage Centre at least every three months, until the 35th session of the World Heritage Committee in 2011;
26. Decides to retain the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Link to the decision
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-10/34.COM/7A, WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add and WHC-10/34.COM/7A.Add.2),
2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
- Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 34 COM 7A.22)
- Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 34 COM 7A.23)
- Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 34 COM 7A.13)
- Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.1)
- Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 34 COM 7A.29)
- Colombia, Los Katios National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.14)
- Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.2)
- Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 34 COM 7A.3)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo Virunga National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.4)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.5)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo Garamba National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.6)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo Salonga National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.7)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 34 COM 7A.8)
- Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 34 COM 7A.17)
- Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.9)
- Georgia, Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Decision 34 COM 7A.27)
- India, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (Decision 34 COM 7A.12)
- Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 34 COM 7A.18)
- Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 34 COM 7A.19)
- Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 34 COM 7A.24)
- Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 34 COM 7A.20)
- Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 34 COM 7A.10)
- Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 34 COM 7A.25)
- Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 34 COM 7A.30)
- Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 34 COM 7A.26)
- Senegal, Niokolo Koba National Park (Decision 34 COM 7A.11)
- Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 34 COM 7A.28)
- United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 34 COM 7A.16)
- Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 34 COM 7A.31)
- Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 34 COM 7A.21)
VII. Draft Decision: 34 COM 7A.20
The Draft Decision will be presented to the World Heritage Committee in the form of an Addendum.
Jerusalem (Site proposed by Jordan)
View inscribed site documents, nomination file, reports, decisions, ...
a) Natural risk factorse) Deterioration of monuments;
Inscription on the Danger ListYear: 1982
Threats to the Site:
(cf. Document CLT 82/CH/CONF.015/8)
“[…] they considered that the situation of this property corresponds to the criteria mentioned in the ICOMOS note and, in particular, to criteria (e) (significant loss of historical authenticity) and (f) (important loss of cultural significance) as far as "ascertained danger" is concerned, and to criteria (a) (modification of juridical status of the property diminishing the degree of its protection), (b) (lack of conservation policy) and (d) (threatening effects of town planning) as far as "potential danger" is concerned. […]”
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).