State of Conservation (SOC)
Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania)
Factors affecting the property in 2004*
- Erosion and siltation/ deposition
- Financial resources
- Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
- Legal framework
- Management systems/ management plan
- Other Threats:
Collapsing monuments due to lack of maintenance
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
- poor state of preservation
- plant infestations
- sea wave and river erosion
- land use conflicts such as animal grazing, subsistence farming, constructions, vandalism
- lack of a functional management plan
International Assistance granted to the property until 2004
Requests Approved: 0
Total Amount Approved: 51,083USD
|2001||Preparation of the Management Plan for the Ruins of Kilwa ...||24,320 USD|
|1999||Purchase of radio calls and solar panels for World Heritage sites||9,713 USD|
|1996||Preparatory assistance for tentative list about Ruins of Kilwa ...||10,550 USD|
|1983||Preparation of a conservation and management plan for Kilwa ...||6,500 USD|
Missions to the property until 2004**
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2004
An ICOMOS mission visited the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins Songo Mnara, in the United Republic of Tanzania, from 23 to 27 February 2004 at the request of the State Party through letter dated 21 May 2003. The purpose of the mission was to assess the state of conservation of Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara National Monuments World Heritage site, undertake a thorough study of the problems facing the site such as beach erosion and its impact on the site; and to review the possibility of, and make the necessary recommendations concerning the inscription of the site on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara are historic Swahili towns founded on islands off the coast of East Africa in the present day Lindi Region, Kilwa District in the United Republic of Tanzania. The ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani comprise the vestiges of the great mosque, constructed in the 12th century of coral tiles embedded in a core of clay. There are also remains of the Palace Husuni Kubwa, built between ca. 1310 and 1333, numerous mosques, the Gereza (prison) constructed on the ruins of the Portuguese fortress, and finally an entire urban complex with houses, public squares and burial grounds.
ICOMOS confirms the information provided to the Bureau in 1999 on numerous issues requiring attention, such as the damage caused by sea erosion, collapsing monuments due to lack of maintenance, the problem of zoning or non existent buffer zone, population pressure, non-participation of the community, unclear management systems leading to inactivity and an old legal framework that may require revision, among others.
ICOMOS notes that the population pressure could cause considerable and irreversible damage. Currently there is a proposition to have a 500-meter buffer zone, however the area in question has already been settled. There is urgent need to explore the possibility of creating a buffer zone or enact by-laws governing new settlements. ICOMOS further notes that the state of conservation of the property has worsened to such an extent that, unless some form of control is put in place, the whole listed property is likely to become a living thriving town with modern houses.
The erosion currently taking place along the beach at Kilwa Kisiwani is of great concern, posing great danger to the Gereza, as well as to the whole site. ICOMOS notes the need for urgent attention on Gereza addressing both the erosion threat as well as the collapsing building fabric. There is an urgent need to rehabilitate the building through a conservation action that would involve strengthening the structural integrity, addressing all the cracks and the collapsing roof portions as well as urgent conservation of the doors.
As regards the nomination, which was based only on the archaeology and historical importance, ICOMOS notes that Kilwa Kisiwani has also a living part with a community that impacts on the site physically and even spiritually, which should have been taken into consideration. ICOMOS, therefore, stresses the importance of reviewing the original nomination file to include consideration of the local communities in both tangible and intangible aspects.
The Centre was informed by the Permanent Delegate of the United Republic of Tanzania, through the transmission of an article published in the Guardian newspaper on 27 October 2003, that the French Government had announced a grant worth 95,400 € (US$ 110,000) to the Tanzanian Division of Antiquities in favour of the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani World Heritage site. This financial assistance is aimed at improving the historical knowledge of the site of Kilwa Kisiwani and strengthening the national research capacity in history, archaeology, sociology, ethnology and culture through training, studies and inventory of existing archives. The site also benefited from a US$ 57,032 grant in 2001 by the Government of Japan to build a jetty allowing residents and visitors to board on ships without having to wade through the water.
Despite this, the State Party, and notably the Antiquities Department, which is responsible for the conservation and protection of the site, seems overwhelmed. There seems to be no proper plans nor any foreseeable resources specifically allocated to carry out the major work required to ensure the safeguarding of the property.
Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2004
Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania)The World Heritage Committee, 1. Noting, with serious concern, the continuing deterioration and the serious threats affecting the property of the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara, 2. Considering the importance of the World Heritage property of the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara, and the need for any programme or project, local or international, to take into account the recommendations included in international documents, particularly the World Heritage Convention and its Operational Guidelines 3. Noting with appreciation the support provided by the Governments of France and Japan to address some of the problems facing this property, 4. Recommends that the State Party put in place a proper management structure and mechanism to protect the property; 5. Decides to inscribe the Runis of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara on the list of the World Heritage in Danger.
New inscription on the List of World heritage in danger
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Following examination of state of conservation reports of properties on the
World Heritage List (WHC-04/28.COM/15B and WHC-04/28.COM/15B Add)
and of proposals for inscription of properties on the World Heritage List
2. Decides to inscribe the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
- Bam and its Cultural Landscape, Islamic Republic of Iran (Decision 28 COM 14B.56)
- Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) (Decision 28 COM 15B.41)
- Cologne Cathedral, Germany (Decision 28 COM 15C.2 )
Draft Decision: 28 COM 15B.41
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Noting, with serious concern, the continuing deterioration and the serious threats affecting the property of the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara,
2. Considering the importance of the World Heritage property of the Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara, and the need for any programme or project, local or international, to take into account the recommendations included in international documents, particularly the World Heritage Convention and its Operational Guidelines,
3. Noting with appreciation the support provided by the Governments of France and Japan to address some of the problems facing this property,
4. Recommends that the State Party consider revisiting the criteria for listing Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara to give adequate consideration for the property as a living historical town;
5. Recommends that the State Party put in place a proper management structure and mechanism to protect the property;
6. Decides to inscribe the Runis of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara on the list of the World Heritage in Danger.
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).