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Litomyšl Castle

Litomyšl Castle

Litomyšl Castle was originally a Renaissance arcade-castle of the type first developed in Italy and then adopted and greatly developed in central Europe in the 16th century. Its design and decoration are particularly fine, including the later High-Baroque features added in the 18th century. It preserves intact the range of ancillary buildings associated with an aristocratic residence of this type.

Château de Litomyšl

Le château de Litomyšl est à l'origine un château à arcades Renaissance, style qui a vu le jour en Italie et qui fut adopté et largement développé en Europe centrale au XVIe siècle. Sa conception et sa décoration sont de haute qualité, y compris les ajouts de style baroque-classique tardif du XVIIIe siècle. Le château a conservé la totalité des bâtiments annexes qui sont associés à ce type de demeure aristocratique.

قصر ليتوميشل

كان قصر ليتوميشل مزوداً بقناطر يعود طرازها الى عصر النهضة وهو طراز أبصر النور في ايطاليا واعتمد في اوروبا الوسطى حيث شهد تطوراً كبيراً في القرن السادس عشر. ويتميز تصميمه وزينته بمستوى رفيع بما في ذلك اضافات الطراز الباروكي الكلاسيكي الأخير في القرن الثامن عشر. وقد حافظ القصر على مجمل المباني الملحقة به والمنسجمة مع هذا النمط من المنازل الارستقراطية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

利托米什尔城堡

利托米什尔城堡承袭了文艺复兴时期拱廊式城堡的建筑风格。这种最早成形于意大利的建筑风格,在16世纪的中欧被广泛采纳并得以充分发展。其图案和装潢,包括18世纪增添的鼎盛巴洛克式晚期的装饰物,都堪称极品。这座拱廊风貌的贵族宅邸及其附属建筑都原封不动地保留了下来。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Замок в городе Литомишль

Замок в Литомишле был первоначально создан как «замок с аркадами». Эта модель получила развитие сначала в Италии, а затем, в XVI в., была принята и широко использовалась в Центральной Европе. Особенно прекрасны добавленные в XVIII в. архитектурные решения и декоративное оформление, включая появившиеся позднее элементы высокого барокко. Замок сохранил в целости ряд служебных зданий, свойственных аристократической резиденции такого типа.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Palacio de Litomyšl

El palacio de Litomyšl es un edificio con arquería inspirado en el estilo renacentista italiano, que fue adoptado y ampliamente desarrollado en Europa Central durante el siglo XVI. La magnificencia de su diseño y ornamentación es también característica de los elementos de estilo barroco-clásico tardío que fueron añadidos en el siglo XVIII. El castillo ha conservado la totalidad de los edificios anejos tradicionales en este tipo de mansiones aristocráticas.

source: UNESCO/ERI

リトミシュル城

source: NFUAJ

Kasteel Litomyšl

Litomyšl bestaat sinds de 10e eeuw, toen het een nederzetting was met een versterkte kern op de heuvel waar het kasteel nu staat. Kasteel Litomyšl was oorspronkelijk een Renaissance arcadekasteel, van het soort dat voor het eerst in Italië werd ontwikkeld en vervolgens werd overgenomen in Centraal-Europa in de 16e eeuw. Het ontwerp en de inrichting zijn erg mooi, waaronder de latere hoogbarokke kenmerken die toegevoegd werden in de 18e eeuw. Kasteel Litomyšl is een goed voorbeeld van de aristocratische residenties van Centraal-Europa tijdens de Renaissance en hun latere ontwikkeling onder invloed van nieuwe artistieke stromingen. De bijgebouwen van het aristocratisch kasteel zijn ook intact gebleven.

Source: unesco.nl

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Litomyšl Castle
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (ii): Litomyšl Castle is an outstanding and immaculately preserved example of the arcade castle, a type of building first developed in Italy and modified in the Czech lands to create an evolved form of special architectural quality.

Criterion (iv): Litomyšl Castle illustrates in an exceptional way the aristocratic residences of central Europe in the Renaissance and their subsequent development under the influence of new artistic movements.

Long Description

Litomyšl Castle is an outstanding and immaculately preserved example of the arcade castle, a type of building first developed in Italy and modified in the Czech lands to create an evolved form of special architectural quality. It illustrates in an exceptional way the aristocratic residences of central Europe in the Renaissance and their subsequent development under the influence of new artistic movements.

There has been a settlement since at least the 10th century at Litomyšl, which is located at an important communications junction on the main road between Bohemia and Moravia, with its fortified core on the hill where the castle now stands. A document of 1398 contains the first reference to an 'old palace' and castle at Litomyšl. Archaeological and historical investigations have revealed remnants of the medieval structure beneath and within the Renaissance castle. In 1425 the town was conquered after a siege by the Hussites. Restoration was undertaken at the end of the Hussite Wars by the new owners of Litomyšl, the Kostka family of Postupice. It was damaged by fire in 1460, in 1546 and it was almost completely gutted after a third fire, in 1560.

The ruined structure was granted in 1567 to the Vratislav family of Pernštejn, who received a royal grant to reconstruct it. Work began in 1568 under the supervision of Jan Baptista Avostalis (Giovanni Battista Avostalli), who was joined by his brother Oldřich (Ulrico). Most of the work had been completed by 1580. The architect František Maximilián Kaňka was responsible for considerable modifications from 1719 onwards in the High Baroque style. Major alterations took place in the interior in 1792-96, to the designs of Jan Kryštof Habich, but he was careful to preserve the fine Renaissance gables. Since that time there have been no changes of any consequence in the structure, design or decoration of the castle.

Litomyšl Castle was originally a Renaissance arcade-castle of the type first developed in Italy and then adopted and greatly developed in central Europe in the 16th century. Its design and decoration are particularly fine, including the later High Baroque features added in the 18th century. The castle is a four-winged, three-storeyed structure with an asymmetrical disposition. The western wing is the largest, whereas the southern wing is no more than a two-storeyed arcaded gallery to close the square second courtyard (a feature that is unique to Litomyšl). This groin-vaulted arcading continues round the western and eastern sides of the courtyard. The south-eastern corner of the eastern wing contains the castle chapel.

Of the features in the interior of the castle one of the most striking is the fine neoclassical theatre from 1796-97 in the western wing. Constructed entirely of wood, it can seat 150 spectators in nine loggias and its lower floor. The original painted decoration of the auditorium, stage decorations, and stage machinery have survived intact. The Renaissance main staircase of the castle is located in this wing, which houses some finely proportioned Renaissance rooms decorated for the most part in neoclassical style in the 18th century. The other two wings have comparable interiors, basically Renaissance in form and with lavish late Baroque or neoclassical ornamentation in the form of elaborate plasterwork and wall and ceiling paintings. The paintings simulate three-dimensional compositions with ornamental mouldings from Roman antiquity. The paintings are coordinated from one room to the next.

The buildings associated with the castle were all built or rebuilt during the course of the modifications that the castle itself underwent over time, and this is reflected in their architectural styles. Among the ancillary buildings, the most interesting is the Brewery, which lies to the south of the first courtyard. Originally constructed as a counterpart to the castle, with sgraffito decoration, it was substantially reconstructed after the 1728 fire and received what is its present appearance, which blends elements of high Baroque and neoclassicism, after the 1775 fire.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

There has been a settlement since at least the 10th century at Litomyšl, which is located at an important communications junction on the main road between Bohemia and Moravia, with its fortified core on the hill where the castle now stands.

There is known to have been a small church dedicated to St Clement on this site, and a Premonstratensian monastery was founded in the town in the first half of the 12th century. The monastery was closed when the bishopric was created in 1344, its buildings being shared out between the bishop and the chapter. The document of 1398 relating to this partition contains the first reference to an "old palace" and castle at Litomyšl. Archaeological and historical investigations have revealed remnants of the medieval structure beneath and within the Renaissance castle.

In 1425 the town was conquered after a siege by the Hussites, who razed all the ecclesiastical buildings to the ground. Restoration was undertaken at the end of the Hussite Wars by the new owners of Litomyšl, the Kostka family of Postupice, and details of this building have also been shown by recent investigations. It was damaged by fire in 1460 and again in 1546; after the second fire, the castle was confiscated by the king, but it was almost completely gutted after a third fire, in 1560.

The ruined structure was granted in 1567 to the Vratislav family of Pernštejn, who received a royal grant to reconstruct it. Work began in 1568 under the supervision of Jan Baptista Avostalis (Giovanni Battista Avostalli), who was joined by his brother Oldřich (Ulrico). Most of the work had been completed by 1580.

A fire in 1635 caused only slight damage to the upper storey of the castle and this was quickly repaired. The architect František Maximilián Kaňka was responsible for considerable modifications from 1719 onwards in the High Baroque style. Fire struck yet again in 1775, and the repairs involved some remodelling. Major alterations took place in the interior in 1792-96, to the designs of Jan Kryštof Habich, but he was careful to preserve the fine Renaissance gables. Since that time there have been no changes of any consequence in the structure, design, or decoration of the castle.

The first courtyard formed part of the original fortified settlement. The buildings associated with it were all built or rebuilt during the course of the modifications that the castle underwent over time, and this is reflected in their architectural styles.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation