Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks
Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks
The Temple of Haeinsa, on Mount Gaya, is home to the Tripitaka Koreana , the most complete collection of Buddhist texts, engraved on 80,000 woodblocks between 1237 and 1248. The buildings of Janggyeong Panjeon, which date from the 15th century, were constructed to house the woodblocks, which are also revered as exceptional works of art. As the oldest depository of the Tripitaka , they reveal an astonishing mastery of the invention and implementation of the conservation techniques used to preserve these woodblocks.
Temple d'Haeinsa Janggyeong Panjeon, les dépôts des tablettes du Tripitaka Koreana
Le temple d'Haeinsa, sur le mont Gaya, abrite le Tripitaka Koreana , collection la plus complète de textes du canon bouddhiste, gravés sur 80 000 tablettes de bois entre 1237 et 1248. Destinés à recevoir ces tablettes – documents vénérés autant qu'œuvre d'art exceptionnelle –, les bâtiments du Janggyeong Panjeon datent du XVe siècle et sont les plus anciens dépôts du Tripitaka . Ils démontrent une maîtrise stupéfiante dans la conception et la mise en œuvre des techniques de conservation de ces tablettes de bois.
معبد هينسا غانغ غيونغ بان جون ومخازن الألواح الخشبية تريباتاكا كوريانا
يحوي معبد هينسا القابع على قمة كايا التريباتاكا كوريانا التي تعتبر أكثر مجموعات الشرائع البوذية اكتمالاً والتي حفرت على 80000 لوحة خشبية ما بين عامي 1237 و1248. أما أبنية غانغ غيونغ بان جون المعدّة لاحتضان هذه الألواح - التي تعتبر وثائق مقدسة بقدر ما هي تحفة فنية استثنائية –، فيعود تاريخها الى القرن الخامس عشر وتشكل أقدم مخزن للتريباتاكا ودلالة على مهارة فائقة في بلورة تقنيات حفظ هذه الالواح الخشبية وتنفيذها.
Монастырь Хэинса, Чангён-Пханджон – хранилище деревянных табличек «Трипитака Кореана»
Храм Хэинса на горе Каясан – это местонахождение «Трипитаки Кореана», наиболее полного собрания буддийских текстов, выгравированных на 80 тыс. деревянных дощечек в период 1237-1248 гг. Здания Чангён-Пханджон, относящиеся к XV в., были построены для размещения деревянных дощечек и также расцениваются как замечательные произведения искусства. Старейшие хранилища «Трипитаки» демонстрируют удивительное мастерство разработки и внедрения технологии, используемой для сохранения этих деревянных дощечек.
Templo de Haeinsa y Janggyeong Panjeon, depósitos de tabletas de la Tripitaka Coreana
Situado en el monte Kaya, el templo de Haeinsa conserva la Tripitaka Coreana, la versión más completa de textos del canon budista, que fueron grabados en 80.000 tabletas de madera entre los años 1237 y 1249. Los edificios de Janggyeong Panjeon fueron construidos en el siglo XV para servir de depósito de esas veneradas tabletas, que son también reverenciadas como obras de arte excepcionales. En estos depósitos ha quedado patente la sorprendente maestría con que se han concebido y aplicado técnicas encaminadas a la conservación de esas tabletas de madera.
Tempel van Haeinsa -Janggyeong Panjeon, bewaarplaats houtblokken Tripitaka Koreana
De tempel van Haeinsa, op de berg Gaya, is de thuisbasis van de 'Tripitaka Koreana': de meest complete collectie van boeddhistische teksten, wetten en verdragen, gegraveerd op 80.000 houtblokken tussen 1237 en 1248. Boeddhistische geleerden van over de hele wereld erkennen de nauwkeurigheid en superieure kwaliteit van de teksten. De houtblokken zijn ook waardevol vanwege het delicate houtsnijwerk van de Chinese karakters. Deze zijn zo regelmatig dat het lijkt alsof ze het werk zijn van een enkele hand. De gebouwen van Janggyeong Panjeon dateren uit de 15e eeuw en werden gebouwd om de houtblokken te huisvesten. Het zijn bijzondere kunstwerken. Als oudste bewaarplaatsen van de Tripitaka Koreana onthullen ze een verbazingwekkende inventiviteit in conservatietechnieken om de houtblokken zo goed mogelijk te bewaren.
Outstanding Universal Value
The Janggyeong Panjeon in the Temple of Haeinsa, on the slopes of Mount Gayasan, is home to the Tripitaka Koreana, the most complete collection of Buddhist texts, laws and treaties extant, engraved on approximately 80,000 woodblocks between 1237 and 1248. The Haeinsa Tripitaka woodblocks were carved in an appeal to the authority of the Buddha in the defense of Korea against the Mongol invasions. They are recognized by Buddhist scholars around the world for their outstanding accuracy and superior quality. The woodblocks are also valuable for the delicate carvings of the Chinese characters, so regular as to suggest that they are the work of a single hand.
The Janggyeong Panjeon depositories comprise two long and two smaller buildings, which are arranged in a rectangle around a courtyard. As the most important buildings in the Haeinsa Temple complex, they are located at a higher level than the hall housing the main Buddha of the complex. Constructed in the 15th century in the traditional style of the early Joseon period, their design is characterized by its simplicity of detailing and harmony of layout, size, balance and rhythm.
The four buildings are considered to be unique both in terms of their antiquity with respect to this specialized type of structure, and for the remarkably effective conservation solutions that were employed in their design to protect the woodblocks from deterioration, while providing for easy access and storage. They were specially designed to provide natural ventilation and to modulate temperature and humidity, adapted to climatic conditions, thus preserving the woodblocks for some 500 years from rodent and insect infestation. The Haeinsa Temple complex is a famous destination for pilgrimages, not only among Korean Buddhists, but Buddhists and scholars from all over the world.
Criterion (iv): The depositories of the Haeinsa Temple are unique both in terms of their antiquity so far as this specialized type of structure is concerned, and also for the remarkably effective solutions developed in the 15th century to address the problem of storing and conserving the 80,000 woodblocks used to print the Buddhist scriptures (Tripitaka Koreana) against deterioration.
Criterion (vi): The Janggyeong Panjeon and its unique collection of 13th century Tripitaka Koreana woodblocks, outstanding for their artistry and excellent execution of engraving techniques, occupy an exceptional position in the history of Buddhism as the most complete and accurate corpus of Buddhist doctrinal texts in the world.
All components of the Haeinsa Temple complex, including the Janggyeong Panjeon and the Tripitaka Koreana woodblocks, are included within the boundaries of the designation.
The overall condition of the Janggyeong Panjeon is good, though continuous repairs are required to the woodblocks and to the shelves on which the woodblocks are stored.
The remarkably successful conservation solutions employed in the design of the depositories, which provide for natural ventilation and temperature and humidity control, have resulted in the protection of the woodblocks for over 500 years from rodent and insect infestation. Temperature and humidity levels should continue to be strictly monitored and controlled.
The woodblocks and depositories are of wood construction and are susceptible to fire damage and theft.
The temple complex, individual structures and woodblocks maintain a high degree of authenticity. The Janggyeong Panjeon continues to house the 80,000 woodblocks of the Tripitaka Koreana and maintains both their original form and function. Restoration of the four depositories was carried out during the past 30 years in order to conserve the buildings. The form, general layout and architectural detailing of the buildings have been preserved to this day without any major changes or damage.
Protection and management requirements
Haeinsa Temple is owned by the Korean Buddhist Jogye Order. The Daejanggyeongpan (Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks) and the Janggyeong Panjeon (the depositories) have been designated as National Treasures, under the Cultural Heritage Protection Act. The entire area of Haeinsa Temple is designated as a Historic Site and a 2,095 ha area around the temple complex including Mount Gayasan, is designated as a Scenic Site under the same Act. The entire area of Mount Gayasan surrounding the temple is designated and protected as a National Park by the Natural Parks Act, which acts as a buffer zone to the cultural heritage. Haeinsa Temple is also registered as a ‘Buddhist Temple with historical significance’ under the Traditional Buddhist Temple Preservation Law. These designations impose strict constraints on alterations to the property and buffer zone.
At the national level, the Cultural Heritage Administration (CHA) is responsible for establishing and enforcing policies for the protection of the temple complex and buffer zone, and allocating financial resources for the conservation of the Janggyeong Panjeon and the woodblocks. Gyeongsangnam-do Province provides additional financial support for the conservation of the temple and its woodblocks, and Hapcheon-gun County is directly responsible for the more specific operations of conservation and management. Haeinsa Temple is in charge of the day-to-day management and provides information on the woodblocks via its website. Regular day-to-day monitoring of the property is carried out and in-depth professional monitoring is conducted on a 3 to 4 year basis.
General conservation focuses on protecting the physical environment of the property together with various projects that concentrates on the documentary values of the Tripitaka woodblocks. Conservation work is conducted by Cultural Heritage Conservation Specialists who have passed the National Certification Exams in their individual fields of expertise. Although there is no specific management plan for the property, management policies of collaborating institutions under the various statutory designations provide the framework for conservation.
In order to protect the Janggyeon Panjeon and woodblocks from fire, full-time security guards and a 24-hour surveillance system are in place and a lightening rod has been installed. A mid-size fire pump truck is placed within the grounds of the temple for immediate response to fire. In order to control the temperature and humidity within the depositories, there are restrictions to visitor entry into the Janggyeong Panjeon.
The Temple of Haeinsa, on Mount Gaya, is home to the Tripitaka Koreana , the most complete collection of Buddhist texts, laws and treaties extant, engraved on 80,000 woodblocks between 1237 and 1248. The buildings of Janggyeong Panjeon, which date from the 15th century, were constructed to house the woodblocks, which are also revered as exceptional works of art. As the oldest depository of the Tripitaka (Three Baskets), they reveal an astonishing mastery of the invention and implementation of the conservation techniques used to preserve these woodblocks.
The Haeinsa Tripitaka woodblocks were carved in an appeal to the authority of the Buddha in the defence of Korea against the Mongol invasions. They are recognized by Buddhist scholars around the world for their outstanding accuracy and superior quality. Chinese Buddhist scholars have also used the Tripitaka Koreana as a reference in their compilations. The woodblocks are also valuable for the delicate carving of the Chinese characters, so regular as to suggest that they are the work of a single hand.
The collection is also an invaluable cultural heritage because of its outstanding historical significance and associations with ideology, religion, historical events and the experiences of individuals. Among Korea's historic Buddhist temples, three are recognized as the Three Jewels of Korean Buddhism. Haeinsa, the largest temple in Korea, is known as the Dharma Jewel Temple because it houses the woodblock texts. Originally the term 'Dharma Jewel' (poppa ) referred to Buddhist doctrine or the compilation of the Buddha's teachings, which form the basis of Buddhist laws. As the Haeinsa woodblock depositories house the most complete and accurate version of the scriptures in the world, they are a famous destination for pilgrimages, not only among Korean Buddhists but also Buddhists and scholars from all over the world. There are some 500 monks living at Haeinsa today, studying the Buddha's teachings and guarding the Tripitaka Koreana . The depositories at Haeinsa are extremely rare in that they were built for the express purpose of housing the woodblocks; 18th- and 19th-century buildings for the same purpose in China and Japan are inferior in design and construction. They are also among the largest wooden structures in the world.
This is a distinctive cultural heritage testifying to the development of important cultural assets, society, art, science and industry. The depositories were built in the traditional wooden architectural style of the early Joseon period and are unparalleled not only for their beauty but also for their scientific layout, size and faithfulness to function, i.e. preservation of the woodblocks. They were specially designed to provide natural ventilation and to modulate temperature and humidity, adapted to climatic conditions and thus preserving the precious woodblocks for some 500 years undamaged by rodent or insect infestation.Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Haeinsa Temple is Situated on Mount Kaya (1430 m), one of Korea's most beautiful mountains which, because of its rugged terrain, has been immune from the ravages of war that have plagued Korea throughout its history.
The temple was first built in 802 during the United Shilla Kingdom, and has been restored and enlarged on a number of occasions. The Changgyong P'ango are the four depositories used to store the 80,000 woodblocks used to print the Tripitaka Koreana. Their original form is uncertain: it is known, however, that the Queen ordered their restoration in 1481 during the reign of the Choson King Sejo, the work being completed in 1488. Sudarajang, one of the main depositories, was restored in 1622 and the other main depository, Poppojon, in 1624 (as shown by a dedication found during restoration work in 1964). They remain intact and in use for their original purpose today.
The Haeinsa Changgyong p'ango depositories house the world's most complete and accurate version of the Tripitaka, the complete Buddhist canons. They were carved to replace the first Tripitaka Koreana woodblocks, carved during the reign of King Hyonjong (reigned 1010-31) in the hopes of protecting the Koryo kingdom from invasion by the Khitan people of Mongolia. The first set of woodblocks were carved during the Mongol invasion of 1232. The seat of the Koryo court was moved to Kanghwa Island in that year, at the beginning Of a long episode of resistance. The project began in 1237 with the woodblocks for two volumes, comprising a total of 113 books, and was completed twelve years later with the woodblocks for the three-book index, making a total of 1496 volumes (6568 books) Of Buddhists teachings, sutras, and rules.
The Haeinsa Tripitaka Koreana is considered to be the most accurate Of all extant Tripitaka texts using Chinese characters because at the time of carving the National preceptor Sugi, the Buddhist monk in charge of the carving, thoroughly compared them with the contents Of texts extant at that time, including the Northern Sung Chinese version, the Khitan version, and the first version of the Tripitaka Koreana, to correct errors and replace missing characters. His revisions are recorded in the thirty-volume Record of the Revisions of the Tripitaka. The Haeinsa Tripitaka Koreana is the only Tripitaka to include material found in the Northern Sung and Khitan versions, which are almost non-existent today. In addition, the Haeinsa Tripitaka Koreana includes the pop won Churim, IIch'ae Kyongumui, and Naejon Suhamumso, three texts that would otherwise have remained unknown.
They were carved in Namhae (South Kyongsang province), and after their completion were stored in the Taejanggyong p'andang, outside the west gate of the Kanghwa Fortress. A ceremony was held to celebrate their completion in 1251; they were moved first to Sonwonsa Temple on Kanghwa Island in 1318 and to the present depositories in 1398, because of frequent foreign invasions towards the end of the Koryo period. Records indicate that the king went to the Yongsan River (now the Han River) to supervise personally the transportation of the woodblocks.Source: Advisory Body Evaluation