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City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto

City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto

Founded in the 2nd century B.C. in northern Italy, Vicenza prospered under Venetian rule from the early 15th to the end of the 18th century. The work of Andrea Palladio (1508–80), based on a detailed study of classical Roman architecture, gives the city its unique appearance. Palladio's urban buildings, as well as his villas, scattered throughout the Veneto region, had a decisive influence on the development of architecture. His work inspired a distinct architectural style known as Palladian, which spread to England and other European countries, and also to North America.

Ville de Vicence et les villas de Palladio en Vénétie

Fondée au IIe siècle av. J.-C. dans le nord de l'Italie, la cité a prospéré sous la domination vénitienne, du début du XVe à la fin du XVIIIe siècle. L'œuvre d'Andrea Palladio (1508-1580), fondée sur une étude approfondie de l'architecture romaine classique, donna à la ville son apparence unique. Ses interventions urbaines et ses villas, dont il parsema toute la Vénétie, eurent une influence décisive sur le cours ultérieur de l'architecture. Son travail a inspiré un style architectural caractéristique (le palladianisme) qui s'est répandu en Angleterre, dans d'autres pays d'Europe et en Amérique du Nord.

مدينة فيسانزا وفلاّت بالاديوفي فينيتو

تأسست هذه المدينة في القرن الثاني ق.م. في شمال إيطاليا، وازدهرت في ظلّ حكم البنادقة في بداية القرن الخامس عشر وحتى نهاية القرن الثامن عشر. كما أن عمل أندريا بالاّديو (1508-1580) التي ارتكزت على دراسة عميقة للهندسة المعمارية الكلاسيكية منح المدينة مظهرها الفريد. وكان لأعماله في المدن وفِلاّته التي نشرها في فينيتو كلها تأثير حاسم على مسار الهندسة المعمارية اللاحق. وقد ألهم عمله أسلوبًا معماريًا مميزًا (سمّي بالبالاديّة) وانتشر في إنكلترا، وفي بلدان أخرى من أوروبا وأميركا الشمالية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

维琴查城和威尼托的帕拉迪恩别墅

维琴查城于公元前2世纪修建在意大利北部,在威尼斯人的统治下,维琴查于15世纪早期到18世纪末达到全盛时期。意大利建筑师安德烈亚·帕拉第奥(1508-1580年)对古罗马建筑进行了详细研究,赋予了这座城市独特的风貌。帕拉第奥的市区建筑,以及散布在威尼托区的别墅,对意大利的建筑发展产生了决定性影响。帕拉第奥的建筑作品形成了一个与众不同的建筑风格,就是人们熟知的帕拉迪恩风格,这种建筑风格也传播到了英国、其他欧洲国家和北美。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Город Виченца и вилла архитектора Палладио в области Венето

Основанная во II в. до н.э. в северной Италии, Виченца процветала под венецианским правлением с начала XV в. до конца XVIII вв. Творения Андреа Палладио (1508-1580 гг.), базирующиеся на детальном изучении классической древнеримской архитектуры, придают городу уникальный вид. Как городские постройки, так и загородные виллы работы Палладио, разбросанные по всей области Венето, оказали решающее влияние на развитие архитектуры последующих периодов. Его работы легли в основу архитектурного стиля, известного как палладианство, который позже распространился в Англии, в других европейских странах, а также в Северной Америке.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ciudad de Vicenza y villas de Palladio en el Véneto

Situada en el norte de Italia, Vicenza fue fundada en el siglo II a.C. y prosperó bajo la dominación veneciana, desde principios del siglo XV hasta finales del XVIII. La obra de Andrea Palladio (1508-1580), basada en un estudio profundizado de la arquitectura romana clásica, dio a la ciudad su sello excepcional. Las construcciones urbanas de este arquitecto, así como las villas campestres que edificó en toda la región del Véneto, tuvieron una influencia decisiva en la arquitectura de los siglos posteriores, dando lugar a un peculiar estilo arquitectónico –el palladianismo– que se extendió por algunos países europeos como Inglaterra, y también por América del Norte.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ヴィチェンツァ市街とヴェネト地方のパッラーディオ様式の邸宅群
パラディオはイタリア・ルネサンス後期、16世紀の古典主義建築を代表する建築家。生誕地のベネト州ヴィチェンツァ周辺には、古典的形式美の極致とされるヴィラのラ・ロトンダのほか、オリンピコ劇場などの作品が多数残っている。その建築手法はパラディオ主義と呼ばれ、後にヨーロッパや北米諸国に影響を与えた。

source: NFUAJ

Vicenza en de Palladische villa's van Veneto

Vicenza werd in de 2e eeuw vóór Christus gebouwd in Noord-Italië. Het floreerde onder Venetiaanse heerschappij van de vroege 15e- tot het einde van de 18e eeuw. Het werk van Andrea Palladio (1508-1580) – gebaseerd op een gedetailleerde studie van de klassieke Romeinse architectuur – geeft de stad haar unieke uitstraling. De stedelijke gebouwen en villa’s van Palladio zijn verdeeld over de regio van Veneto en hadden een beslissende invloed op de ontwikkeling van de architectuur. Het werk van Palladio inspireerde tot een uitzonderlijke architectonische stijl die bekend staat als het Palladianisme. De stijl verspreide zich naar Engeland en andere Europese landen en naar Noord-Amerika.

Source: unesco.nl

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City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto (Italy) © UNESCO
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The city of Vicenza and the Palladian villas of the Veneto is a serial site including the city of Vicenza and twenty-four Palladian villas scattered in the Veneto area. Inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1994, the site initially comprised only the city of Vicenza with its twenty-three buildings attributed to Palladio, as well as three villas extra muros. Twenty-one villas located in several provinces were later included in the 1996 site extension.

Founded in the 2nd century BC in northern Italy, Vicenza prospered under Venetian rule from the early 15th to the end of the 18th century. The work of Andrea Palladio (1508–80), based on a detailed study of classical Roman architecture, gives the city its unique appearance. The palazzi, or town houses, were fitted into the urban texture of the medieval city, creating picturesque ensembles and continuous street facades in which the Veneto Gothic style combines with Palladio's articulated classicism.

The definitive Palladian country villa synthesizes, both figuratively and materially, the functional aspects of management of the land and the aristocratic self-glorification of the owner. lts core is the house-temple, embellished with a monumental staircase and crowned by a pediment supported by columns of the loggia. Porticos extend alongside the wings starting from the main building, and often end with towers. The different components are linked by a common classical language and are ordered according to a well-defined hierarchy.

Vicenza is widely, and with justification, known as la città di Palladio. However, he was the central figure in an urban fabric that stretches back to antiquity and forward to Neoclassicism. As such,Vicenza has acquired a world status that has long been recognized and reflected in the literature of architectural and art history. Basing his works on intimate study of classical Roman architecture, Palladio became the inspiration for a movement without parallel in architectural history.

Vicenza, birthplace of this movement, retains many of Palladio's original buildings and as such is a unique survival of a total humanist concept based on a living interpretation of antiquity. The property extends the recognition of the Outstanding Universal Value of the work of Andrea Palladio to the other manifestations of his creative genius in the Veneto region, covering his versatility in applying his principles to rural as well as urban contexts.

Criterion (i): Vicenza represents a unique artistic achievement in the many architectural contributions of Andrea Palladio, integrated within its historic fabric and creating its overall character. Scattered in the Veneto, the Palladian villas are the result of this Renaissance master’s architectural genius. The numerous variations of the villa pattern are evidence of Palladio’s constant typological experimentation, carried out by means of the reworking of classical architecture patterns.

Criterion (ii): Palladio’s works in the city of Vicenza and in the Veneto, inspired by classical architecture and characterized by incomparable formal purity, have exerted exceptional influence on architectural and urban design in most European countries and throughout the world, giving rise to Palladianism, a movement named after the architect and destined to last for three centuries.

Integrity

The property is composed of several elements, all showing its exceptional value: the perimeter includes the city of Vicenza with its twenty-three most representative Palladian buildings erected in the urban area and twenty-four of the most representative extra-urban villas. The 21st-century industrial development resulted in a strong transformation of the areas surrounding the city, affecting the original relationships between city and countryside. The villas have kept their integrity and are well preserved, within a territorial context which underwent several changes and for this reason was excluded from the site perimeter. Various parts of the property have been exposed to development pressures and the impact of agricultural and forestry regimes. There is some risk of flooding but these issues are being addressed by the property managers.

Authenticity

When applied to an urban area, authenticity includes a consideration of the urban structure, the form of the individual buildings that make up the townscape, the use of traditional building materials and techniques, and the functions of the buildings. In these terms Vicenza as a whole has preserved its authentic character, especially in relation to la città di Palladio.

The form of Palladio’s buildings is documented in his Quattro Libri dell’architettura (1570) and it has changed relatively little since they were constructed in the 16th century. The function of many of the palaces in Vicenza has changed from domestic to commercial, with consequent internal changes. The urban fabric of the city has undergone remarkably little change, and still retains the historic townscape known from early engravings.

The authenticity of the villas is also high. Detailed archival, technical and scientific studies have aimed at identifying the original forms of the villas. From these, it has been possible to specify the appropriate materials and techniques for use in restoration and conservation projects.

Protection and management requirements

The protection of the site is guaranteed by several legal measures of protection. The Palladian buildings in Vicenza and the Palladian Villas listed in the property are all protected under the Decreto Legislativo 42/2004, Codice dei Beni Culturali e del Paesaggio: a safeguarding measure which ensures any activity on the site must be authorized by the relevant Soprintendenza (local office of the Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities).

Special protection plans applied to all the buildings ensure careful preservation, according to the theoretical principles of restoration works. The urban planning tool for the city of Vicenza has defined some special measures for the preservation of the twenty-three Palladian buildings located in the historic centre.

The site Management Plan was developed by several public and private institutions. The UNESCO office, set up inside the Municipality of Vicenza, takes care of technical and administrative aspects and is charged with the monitoring of the site Management Plan. Given the site’s complexity, the general coordination is shared between the Ministry of Culture and the Veneto Region, while the Province of Vicenza coordinates provinces and municipalities. The coordination system aims to overcome the fragmentation of initiatives, fostering synergetic relationships between institutions.

The principal aims of the Management Plan are to recover and revitalize the urban image, characterized by a strong Palladian mark, through the definition of intervention priorities inside the historical centre and the buffer zone, to restore and preserve the villas and the surrounding open spaces, and to define a study for identifications of buffer zones around the villas. It encourages the growth of awareness of heritage value in the local population by means of spreading knowledge and allowing participation in the choices and the management of the heritage. As well, the management plan defines further actions for the UNESCO site, aimed to support its successful management, such as improvement of accommodation and leisure facilities and initiatives, and also of infrastructure and transport systems.