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Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings

Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings

Situated on the ancient trade route between Central Asia and northern Europe, Novgorod was Russia's first capital in the 9th century. Surrounded by churches and monasteries, it was a centre for Orthodox spirituality as well as Russian architecture. Its medieval monuments and the 14th-century frescoes of Theophanes the Greek (Andrei Rublev's teacher) illustrate the development of its remarkable architecture and cultural creativity.

Monuments historiques de Novgorod et de ses environs

Située sur l'ancienne route commerciale entre l'Asie centrale et l'Europe du Nord, Novgorod était la première capitale de la Russie au IXe siècle. Entourée d'églises et de monastères, elle devint un foyer de spiritualité orthodoxe ainsi qu'un centre de l'architecture russe. Ses monuments médiévaux et les fresques du XIVe siècle de Théophane le Grec (professeur d'Andreï Roublev), illustrent le développement de cette architecture et de cette créativité culturelle remarquables.

نصب نوفغورود وجوارها التاريخيّة

كانت نوفغورد أولى عواصم روسيا في القرن التاسع وهي تقع على الطريق التجاريّة القديمة بين آسيا الوسطى وأوروبا الشماليّة. تحيطها الكنائس والأديرة وقد استحالت موئل الروحانيّة الأرثوذكسيّة كما مركز الهندسة الروسيّة. تُجسّد نصب القرون الوسطى وجدرانيّات القرن الرابع عشر من أعمال تيوفان اليوناني (أستاذ أندري روبليف) تطوّر هذا الفنّ الهندسي وهذا الإبداع الثقافي المميز.

source: UNESCO/ERI

诺夫哥罗德及其周围的历史古迹

诺夫哥罗德是中亚通往北欧的古代贸易要道,也是9世纪时俄国的第一个首都。由于拥有众多的教堂和修道院,诺夫哥罗德成为东正教的牧师中心和俄国的建筑中心。它的中世纪遗址群以及14世纪希腊狄奥凡(安德烈·鲁比洛夫的老师)的壁画,描述了这座城市的著名建筑的发展以及文化创造力。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Исторические памятники Великого Новгорода и окрестностей

Новгород, выгодно располагаясь на древнем торговом пути между Средней Азией и Северной Европой, был в IX в. первой столицей России, центром православной духовности и русской архитектуры. Его средневековые памятники, церкви и монастыри, а также фрески Феофана Грека (учителя Андрея Рублева), датируемые XIV в., наглядно иллюстрируют выдающийся уровень архитектурного и художественного творчества.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Monumentos históricos de Novgorod y sus alrededores

Situada en la antigua ruta comercial entre el Asia Central y Europa Septentrional, Novgorod fue la primera capital de Rusia en el siglo IX. Con sus numerosas iglesias y monasterios, esta ciudad fue un centro importante de la vida espiritual ortodoxa y de la arquitectura rusa. Sus monumentos medievales y los frescos ejecutados en el siglo XIV por Teófanes el Griego, el maestro de Andrei Rublev, ilustran el extraordinario desarrollo alcanzado por la arquitectura y la creación artística de la época.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ノヴゴロドの文化財とその周辺地区

source: NFUAJ

Historische monumenten van Novgorod en omgeving

Novgorod ligt aan de oude handelsroute tussen Centraal-Azië en Noord-Europa en was de eerste hoofdstad van Rusland in de 9e eeuw. De stad – omringd door kerken en kloosters – was een van de belangrijkste centra van de Russische cultuur en spiritualiteit. De middeleeuwse monumenten en 14e-eeuwse fresco’s van Theophanes de Griek illustreren de ontwikkeling van Novgorods opmerkelijke architectuur en culturele creativiteit. De stad was een uitmuntend cultureel centrum en de geboorteplaats van de nationale stijl van steenarchitectuur en een van de oudste nationale scholen van de schilderkunst. Novgorod heeft hierdoor veel invloed gehad op de ontwikkeling van de Russische kunst als geheel gedurende de middeleeuwen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings © Quinn Dombrowski
Long Description

Novgorod was one of the major centres of Russian culture and spirituality: its monuments and the treasures they house bear living witness to this. As an outstanding cultural centre, birthplace of the national style of stone architecture, and one of the oldest national schools of painting, the town of Novgorod influenced the development of Russian art as a whole throughout the Middle Ages. The broad range of monuments conserved in Novgorod makes it a veritable 'conservatory' of Russian architecture of the Middle Ages and later periods (11th-19th centuries). These monuments alone suffice to illustrate the development of Russian architecture.

The town of Novgorod, the earliest documentary reference to which dates from the 10th century, lay on the trade route linking Central Asia with northern Europe (Baltic and Scandinavian countries). The urban aristocracy that governed the city-republic through a People's Assembly (Vece) invited a prince from the Swedish (Varangian) dynasty of the Rurikids to reign over them. In the Russian world, only the cities of Novgorod and Pskov had this sort of organization, which was similar to that of the Hanseatic cities, with which Novgorod had close trading contacts.

The See of an Orthodox archbishop, Novgorod (like Pskov) was one of the oldest and most important centres of Russian art and, more generally, of Russian culture. The most ancient Russian Old Church Slavonic manuscripts (11th century) were written at Novgorod, including an autonomous historiography (as early as the 12th century) and, in particular, the first complete translation into Slavonic of the Old and New Testaments (late 15th century). Novgorod and Pskov were jointly the birthplace of Russian stone architecture and the first national schools of painting.

It was only after the conquest of the two republics (1478, in the case of Novgorod) by the Muscovite rulers that the present Russian capital acquired cultural supremacy.

In Novgorod itself, there is the district of St Sophia, which includes: the Kremlin with its 15th-century fortifications, reinforced in the 17th century: the church of St Sophia from the mid-11th century, and other monuments from the 12th to 19th centuries, monuments in the commercial district (including many of the oldest churches in the town, such as the Church of the Transfiguration, decorated with frescoes at the end of the 14th century by Theophanes the Greek, who was responsible for reviving medieval Russian painting and was the teacher of Andrei Rublev); and four religious monuments (12th and 13th centuries) outside the old town (including the famous church of Neredica).

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The town of Novgorod, the earliest documentary reference to which dates from the 10th century, lay on the trade route linking Central Asia with northern Europe (the Baltic and Scandinavian countries). The urban aristocracy that governed the city-republic through a People's Assembly (or Vece) invited a prince from the Swedish (Varangian) dynasty of the Rurikides to reign over them. In the Russian world, only the cities of Novgorod and Pskov had this sort of organization, which was similar to that of the Hanseatic cities, with which Novgorod had close trading contacts.

The see of an Orthodox archbishop, Novgorod (like Pskov) was one of the oldest and most important centres of Russian art and, more generally, of Russian culture. The most ancient Russian Old Church Slavonic manuscripts (11th century) were written at Novgorod, including an autonomous historiography (as early as the 12th century) and, in particular, the first complete translation into Slavonic of the Old and New Testaments (late 15th century). Novgorod and Pskov were jointly the birthplace of Russian stone architecture and the first national schools of painting.

It was only after the conquest of the two republics (1478, in the case of Novgorod) by the Muscovite rulers that the present Russian capital acquired cultural supremacy.

The proposal submitted concerns not only the old monuments of the town proper, but also several monuments in outlying districts. In Novgorod itself, the proposal includes the district of St. Sophia (the Kremlin with its 15th-century fortifications, reinforced in the 17th century: the church of St. Sophia from the mid- 11th century: and other monuments from the 12th to the 19th centuries), monuments in the commercial district (including many of the oldest churches in the town, such as the Church of the Transfiguration, decorated with frescoes at the end of the 14th century by Theophanes the Greek, who was responsible for reviving medieval Russian painting and was the teacher of Andrei Rublev); and four religious monuments (12th and 13th centuries) outside the old town (including the famous church of Neredica).

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation