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Olympic National Park

Olympic National Park

Located in the north-west of Washington State, Olympic National Park is renowned for the diversity of its ecosystems. Glacier-clad peaks interspersed with extensive alpine meadows are surrounded by an extensive old growth forest, among which is the best example of intact and protected temperate rainforest in the Pacific Northwest. Eleven major river systems drain the Olympic mountains, offering some of the best habitat for anadromous fish species in the country. The park also includes 100 km of wilderness coastline, the longest undeveloped coast in the contiguous United States, and is rich in native and endemic animal and plant species, including critical populations of the endangered northern spotted owl, marbled murrelet and bull trout.

Parc national Olympique

Situé au nord-ouest de l'État de Washington, le parc national Olympique est célèbre pour la diversité de ses écosystèmes. Des pics couronnés de glaciers parsemés de grandes prairies alpines sont entourés d'une vaste forêt ancienne où se trouve le meilleur exemple de forêt pluviale tempérée intacte et protégée de tout le nord-ouest du Pacifique. Onze grands réseaux fluviaux drainent le massif, offrant le meilleur habitat aux espèces de poissons anadromes du pays. Le parc comprend également 100 km de côtes rocheuses sauvages, un record pour les États-Unis, et il compte de nombreuses espèces animales et végétales indigènes et endémiques, dont des populations essentielles menacées de chouettes tachetées du Nord, de guillemots marbrés et d'ombles à tête plate.

المنتزه الأولمبي الوطني

يقع المنتزه الأولمبي الوطني شمال غرب ولاية واشنطن وهو ذائع الصيت لتعدد نظمه البيئيّة. تكلل الثلوج القمم في تناثر من مروج شاهقة تحيطها غابة قديمة فيها أعظم مثال عن غابة مطريّة معتدلة المناخ سليمة المعالم ومحميّة في شمال غرب المحيط الهادئ. وتصرّف الجبال الأولمبيّة مياهها عبر إحدى عشرة شبكة مياه نهريّة تمثّل أفضل مسكن لأصناف الأسماك الصاعدة من البحار إلى الأنهار لتلقي بيوضها. وفي المنتزه أيضاً 100 كيلومتر من السواحل الصخريّة المتوحشة وفي هذا رقم قياسي للولايات المتحدة كما العديد من الأصناف الحيوانيّة والنباتيّة الأصليّة والمستوطنة وبعضها مهدد بالزوال مثل بومة الشمال المرقطة والبطريق الرخامي والسمك المرقّط مسطح الرأس.

source: UNESCO/ERI

奥林匹克国家公园

奥林匹克国家公园坐落于华盛顿州的西北角,以其生态系统多样性著称于世。公园中不仅有常年被冰雪覆盖的高山,还有大量的高山草甸,以及高山草甸周围的古森林,这些树林是太平洋西北部地区保存最为完好的温带雨林之一。从奥林匹亚山上发源的11条主要河流为当地的溯河产卵鱼类提供了良好的栖息环境。奥林匹克国家公园内还有100公里长的沿海原野保留地,这是美国最长的未开发海岸地带。在这片原野保留地内生活着大量当地特有的动植物,包括濒危的北部斑点猫头鹰、斑海雀和海鳟等。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Национальный парк Олимпик

Парк, расположенный на северо-западе штата Вашингтон, славится разнообразием своих ландшафтов. Обработанные ледниками высокогорья сочетаются с обширными альпийскими лугами, а также девственными лесными массивами, которые являются наилучшим примером дождевых умеренных лесов, произрастающих на северо-западном тихоокеанском побережье. 11 рек, которые дренируют горный массив Олимпик, считаются одними из лучших в стране лососевых угодий. Парк также включает 100-километровый береговой отрезок – это самый значительный участок нетронутого цивилизацией побережья на северо-западе США. Местная флора и фауна очень богаты, с целым рядом эндемиков. Среди редких птиц – пятнистая неясыть.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Parque Nacional Olímpico

Situado al noroeste del Estado de Washington, el Parque Nacional Olímpico es célebre por la gran diversidad de sus ecosistemas. Sus montañas con glaciares y vastas praderas alpinas están rodeadas por grandes bosques añosos, entre los que se encuentra el mejor ejemplar de bosque pluvial virgen de todo el noroeste del Pacífico. Las once cuencas fluviales que drenan el macizo montañoso ofrecen un hábitat ideal a las especies de peces anádromos. El parque posee también 100 kilómetros de litoral rocoso intacto –el mayor tramo de costa virgen de los Estados Unidos– y cuenta con numerosas especies animales y vegetales, nativas y endémicas, entre las que figuran algunas en peligro de extinción como la lechuza moteada septentrional, el alca jaspeada y el salvelino.

source: UNESCO/ERI

オリンピック国立公園

source: NFUAJ

Olympisch Nationaal park

Het Olympisch Nationaal park in het noordwesten van de staat Washington, is bekend om z'n diversiteit van ecosystemen. Met gletsjers bedekte toppen worden afgewisseld door uitgestrekte bergweiden. Het is omgeven door een omvangrijk gematigd regenwoud. Elf grote riviersystemen voeren het water uit de Olympische bergen af, waarmee het een goed leefgebied vormt voor anadrome vissen. Daarnaast bevat het Nationaal park 100 kilometer woestijn en is het rijk aan inheemse en endemische dier- en plantensoorten, waaronder de bedreigde noordelijke gevlekte uil, de gemarmerde murrelet (een soort alk) en de stierforel.

Source: unesco.nl

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Olympic National Park © Brian Michelsen
Statement of Significance

Olympic National Park features spectacular coastline, scenic lakes, majestic mountains and glaciers, and magnificent temperate rainforest. It is the lowest latitude in the world in which glaciers form at relatively low elevation. Its relative isolation and highly varied rainfall have produced complex and varied life zones. Olympic contains a great wealth of geological formations. The rocky islets along the coast are remnants of a continuously receding and changing coastline. The biological evolution, ecological variety and sheer splendor of Olympic National Park make it a special place.

Criterion (vii): Olympic National Park is of remarkable beauty, and is the largest protected area in the temperate region of the world that includes in one complex ecosystems from ocean edge through temperate rainforest, alpine meadows and glaciated mountain peaks. It contains one of the world’s largest stands of virgin temperate rainforest, and includes many of the largest coniferous tree species on earth.

Criterion (ix): The park’s varied topography from seashore to glacier, affected by high rainfall has produced complex and varied vegetation zones, providing habitats of unmatched diversity on the Pacific coast. The coastal Olympic rainforest reaches its maximum development within the property and has a living standing biomass which may be the highest anywhere in the world. The park’s isolation has allowed the development of endemic wildlife, subspecies of trout, varieties of plants and unique fur coloration in mammals, indications of a separate course of evolution.

Long Description

Olympic National Park is isolated from other mountain ranges and surrounded by the waters of the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound; this isolation has allowed the development of endemic species, including Olympic marmot, 4 subspecies of other mammals, 2 subspecies of trout, and 12 species or varieties of plant. 11 major river systems drain the Olympic mountains, offering some of the best habitat for anadromous fish species (such as salmon that live their lives in the sea and migrate to a freshwater river to spawn) in the country.

Reflecting the varied topography (from seashore to glacier) and the varied rainfall, the vegetation zones in the site are complex and varied. The park is divided into two segments: a mountainous core and a separate coastal strip. The rugged features of Olympic National Park are the result of the collision of drifting continental plates.

The area contains a great wealth of geological formations, affected by high rainfall on the west and low rainfall on the east. The lighter shales, sandstones and basalts, which had been violently sheared and squeezed during this tectonic movement, bobbed up like a cork, forming a dome some 95 km in diameter. Deep valleys and canyons were eroded out of this dome and glaciers sculpted the craggy peaks and beautiful cirques to form the spectacular landscape which characterizes the modern Olympics.

The mountains contain about 60 active glaciers; the area is unique in because it is the lowest latitude in the world in which glaciers begin at an elevation lower than 2,000 m and exist below 1,000 m. Glacier-clad peaks interspersed with extensive alpine meadows are surrounded by an extensive old growth forest, among which is the best example of intact and protected temperate rainforest in the Pacific Northwest.

The coastal strip of the site stretches along 80 km of wilderness beach, characterized by rocky headlands, log-strewn beaches, and a wealth of intertidal life; rocky islets along the coast are remnants of a continuously receding, changing coastline, and the arches, caves and buttresses are evidence of the continuous battering of the waves. Tide pools are filled with hundreds of species of invertebrate life, and seals, sea lions, sea otters and several species of whale are often seen in the waves and around the offshore islands.

The main danger to the integrity of the site is, oddly, one of its attractions: the mountain goat. Due to the isolation of the site, mountain goats never dispersed naturally to the Olympics, so their introduction in 1925-29 may be causing significant changes in the natural ecosystem. The mountain goats have reduced plant cover, increased erosion, and shifted plant-community dominants towards more resistant or less palatable species; they have been recorded feeding on at least three of the endemic plants, and some concern has been expressed that these species may be endangered by the mountain goat.

The coniferous forest of Olympic is of prime commercial interest and practically all the original forest outside the park has been harvested.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

29 June 1938 as a national park; the Pacific Coastal Area and Queets River corridor were added on 6 January 1953. Accepted as a biosphere reserve in June 1976, and as a World Heritage site in 1981.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation