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Okapi Wildlife Reserve

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Factors affecting the property in 2017*
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Illegal activities
  • Mining
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Extensive poaching of large mammals, in particular elephants
  • Mining activities inside the property
  • Uncontrolled migration into the villages located within the property
  • Illegal timber exploitation in the Ituri Forest, which might affect the property in the near future
  • Planned rehabilitation of the National Road RN4 crossing the property, for which no proper Environmental Impact Assessment was conducted 
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Impact of the conflict : looting of the infrastructures, poaching of elephants
  • Presence of gold mining sites inside the property
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted in 2009 and revised in 2014, see page  https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/5983

Corrective Measures for the property

Adopted in 2009 and revised in 2014, see page  https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/5983   

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2017

Total amount granted: USD 1,450,000, from the United Nations Foundation (UNF), Government of Belgium, the Rapid Response Facility (RRF) and the United Nations Peacebuilding Fund (UNPF)

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2017
Requests approved: 4 (from 1993-2012)
Total amount approved : 103,400 USD
Missions to the property until 2017**

1996 and May 2006: UNESCO World Heritage Centre monitoring missions; 2009 and 2014: joint World Heritage Centre/IUCN Reactive Monitoring missions

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2017

On 13 February 2017, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, which is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/718/documents/. Progress in implementing the corrective measures is provided as follows:

  • The Congolese Institute for Conservation of Nature (ICCN) and the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) conducted joint patrols in targeted areas of the property using SMART (Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool) software, which indicated a decrease in monitoring area coverage in 2016 (52%) compared to 2015 (68%) due to increased insecurity in the South Zone;
  • Two aerial surveys were conducted in 2016, which noted the distribution of illegal gold extraction sites and deforestation;
  • Sensitization efforts were undertaken of traditional authorities and public administration to facilitate their active participation in the peaceful evacuation of artisanal gold miners;
  • Barriers have been introduced on the RN4 to close off road traffic at night;
  • The Management Plan has not yet been finalized due to limited resource availability;
  • Introduction of integral conservation zones was agreed between ICCN and stakeholders, including the public administration and local communities, for which validation is expected to take place in 2017;
  • Zoning of the property has led to the delimitation of 32 agricultural areas, 29 hunting areas and 5 integral conservation zones;
  • Sustainable natural resource management efforts for the forests adjacent to the property have focused on sensitization meetings with traditional leaders, resulting in the signing of a protocol between the management authority and the local committee;
  • Representatives of FARDC, police, public administration and traditional leaders have agreed to hold monthly meetings on local security issues;
  • The first Site Coordination Committee (CoCoSi) meeting, attended by traditional leaders, Governance Councils, and Conservation and Development Council was held in November 2016 to establish a Local Development Plan.

The State Party also listed planned activities for 2017, which include a gradual recruitment of 200 new guards, open two guard posts in the eastern part of the property to increase staff presence, and develop a Conflict Transformation Strategy.

General Decision on the properties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Current conservation issues

On 13 February 2017, the State Party submitted a report on the progress made in the implementation of Decision 40 COM 7A.42. This report is available at the following address https://whc.unesco.org/en/sessions/41com/documents/#state_of_conservation_reports and contains the information below:

  • The Corps responsible for the security of the National Parks (CorPPN) and related natural reserves, created in June 2015, is not operational due to lack of human and financial resources. Nevertheless, in 2016, the State Party made available to the Congolese Institute for Nature Conservation (ICCN) arms and ammunitions that has benefitted the National Parks of Garamba and Virunga ;
  • No activity linked to petroleum was observed, in 2016, at the Virunga National Park. However, the State Party notes that it wishes to officially request an IUCN advisory mission to discuss the petroleum issue at the property;
  • The support programme of the 11th European Development Fund (EDF) of the European Union continues to provide financial and technical support to the National Parks of Virunga, Garamba and Salonga. Through the German Development Bank (KfW - Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau), Germany supports the Okapi Wildlife Reserve, and the National Parks of Salonga and Kahuzi-Biega ;
  • The Trust Fund « Okapi Fund for Conservation - FOCON » for a sustainable funding of the protected areas of the DRC now has the status of a charitable organization and an Administrative Council. The World Bank and the KfW have funded the FOCON to the amount of 30 million US dollars. Nevertheless, the report underlines that the decree for the establishment of the FOCON Headquarters in the DRC has not yet been signed by the national authorities. Without the decree, this Fund cannot be operational
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2017

The continued insecurity in the region and the on-going presence of armed rebel groups, who are preventing the patrol teams from gaining full access to the property, and the reported resultant decrease in surveillance coverage compared to 2015, are of significant concern as they complicate the protection of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property. However, the surveillance coverage reported for 2015 (68%) is inconsistent with the figure reported to the 40th session of the Committee (37%). Noting that this is the second consecutive year in which inconsistencies have been noted, future State Party reports should ensure accuracy in the data presented or provide clarifications on any changes.

Although the Committee had requested the State Party to recruit additional guards for patrolling, this appears not to have been achieved and as a result, there continues to be a shortage of guards to ensure sufficient coverage of the property. Expanding patrol coverage to halt poaching is critical but the security situation firstly needs to be improved. Adequate provision of financial and material resources is required to regain control of the site. In that regard, the initiation of joint operations between ICCN and FARDC using SMART technology is welcomed.

The State Party recalls the closure of large mines in 2015, and the undertaking of sensitization efforts to address the issue of artisanal mining in 2016. However, it still remains unclear if any further mining permits remain that encroach on the property. Any overlapping permits need to be cancelled and illegal occupants evacuated as a matter of urgency. According to third party information, it has been reported that the majority of gold and diamond mines inside the property have been reoccupied and have resumed operation, and additional new mines have been opened. The World Heritage Centre has requested comments from the State Party in this regard but no comments were received at the time of drafting this report.

The closure of RN4 at night is a welcome progress to reduce traffic within the property, but road use needs to be monitored to ensure compliance and effectiveness. In line with the corrective measures, other mechanisms to further limit road use need to be implemented, such as setting up a toll system. The State Party does not however provide any updates on the increasing number of inhabitants around the villages in pursuit of artisanal mining, and the measures taken to address this. Third party information has indicated significant expansions for example in the village of Badengaido.. As requested by the Committee (40 COM 7A.39), the impacts of the significant increase in inhabitants in the villages along RN4 on the land use around the villages need to be evaluated, but no update is provided in this regard. The World Heritage Centre has also requested comments from the State Party in this regard and no comments were received at the time of drafting this report.

The establishment of integral conservation zones in the property is appreciated but the extended delay in finalizing the Management Plan for the property is noted with concern. Progress is noted in improving communication between stakeholders on security issues and towards preparing a zoning plan for the forest areas adjacent to the property. 

No information was provided by the State Party with regards to the attainment of the indicators of the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR).

General Decision on the properties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Analysis and conclusions of the World Heritage Centre and the IUCN

The allocation of arms and ammunitions for the two properties, Garamba and Virunga National Parks, is an important effort on the part of the State Party; however, insecurity persists and is becoming more serious in the four properties located in the eastern part of the DRC. Technical and financial means must be made available to the ICCN to secure all the World Heritage properties and their surroundings.

The years 2016 and 2017 were dramatic for the ICCN staff and FARDC (Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Eleven guards lost their lives and many others were seriously injured during attacks carried out against the National Parks of Garamba (2 victims), Virunga (5 victims) and Kahuzi Biega (3 victims). A guard was also killed at the Okapi Wildlife Reserve in May 2017. It is recommended that the Committee condemn this violence and address its condolences to the families of the guards and the soldiers killed during operations for the protection of the properties.

The delay incurred in the deployment of the CorPPN contingent is unfortunate. It is recommended that the Committee reiterate its request to the State Party to provide human and financial means to the CorPPN to render it operational and that it also requests the State Party to do its utmost to implement, in conformity with the Kinshasa Declaration (January 2011), and restore security conditions to enable the ICCN staff to carry out their mission.

With regard to the issue of petroleum exploration and exploitation projects, the State Party notes that no petroleum activity has been observed in the Virunga National Park. No information has been provided as concerns the petroleum interests at the Salonga National Park, expressed by the State Party during the 2012 Reactive Monitoring mission (see point 10 of Document WHC/17/41.COM/7A). It is recommended that the Committee reiterate its request to the State Party to officially confirm the definite cancellation of the petroleum concession overlapping the Virunga National Park and to clarify the situation as regards its petroleum interest in the Salonga National Park.

The efforts of the State Party to mobilize major funding for the DRC properties are favourably welcomed. Important progress has been achieved in organizing the Trust Fund for the Protected Areas of the DRC. Nevertheless, it is recommended that the Committee request the State Party to take legal measures by adopting the necessary decree to render operational the FOCON Fund; these provisions will enable the properties of the DRC to benefit from substantial financial resources.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2017
41 COM 7A.12
General Decision on the properties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/17/41.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 40 COM 7A.42, adopted at its 40th session (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016) and reiterating the need to implement the Kinshasa Declaration adopted in 2011,
  3. Condemns the violence perpetrated against the guards and soldiers killed during operations for the protection of the World Heritage properties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), addresses its most sincere condolences to their families and expresses its very deep concern as regards the worsening security situation in the properties located in the eastern part of the DRC;
  4. Regrets the delay incurred in the establishment of the Corps responsible for security in the National Parks and Protected Areas (CorPPN) and requests the State Party to provide it, rapidly, with human and financial resources to enable the deployment of contingents to establish security within the properties;
  5. Expresses again its utmost concern as regards the intention of the State Party to officially address the World Heritage Centre to request an IUCN advisory mission to discuss the petroleum issue in the Virunga National Park;
  6. Reiterates with insistence its request to the State Party to cancel the petroleum exploration concession encroaching on the Virunga National Park and to clarify the situation concerning its petroleum interest in Salonga National Park, expressed by the State Party during the 2012 Reactive Monitoring mission, and reiterates its position according to which all mineral, petroleum and gas exploration and exploitation is incompatible with World Heritage status, policy supported by the commitments made by industry leaders, such as Shell and Total, not to undertake such activities within World Heritage properties;
  7. Congratulates the State Party for its efforts to mobilize sustainable funding and notes with appreciation the substantial support provided to the properties of the DRC by the donors;
  8. Also congratulates the State Party for the major progress achieved in finalizing the creation of the Trust Fund for the protected areas in the DRC, entitled « Okapi Fund for Conservation – FOCON » and also requests the State Party to take all the necessary legal provisions to render it operational without delay;
  9. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2018, a detailed report on the implementation of the Kinshasa Declaration, on the security situation in the properties, on the status of the petroleum exploration and exploitation concessions that overlap the World Heritage properties, for examination by the Committee at its 42nd session in 2018.
41 COM 7A.9
Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (N 718)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/17/41.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decisions 38 COM 7A.41 and 40 COM 7A.39, adopted at its 38th (Doha, 2014) and 40th (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016) sessions respectively,
  3. Expresses its deepest concern over continued insecurity around the property, especially in the south, that has led to a reported decrease in surveillance coverage in the reporting period;
  4. Reiterates its request to the State Party to prioritize efforts to further expand the patrol coverage and regain control of the property to halt poaching and the deterioration of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property, including through the recruitment of additional guards and the adequate provision of financial and material resources;
  5. Welcomes the initiation of joint operations between the Congolese Institute for Conservation of Nature (ICCN) and the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) to patrol targeted areas within the property using SMART (Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool) technology;
  6. Appreciates the closure of the RN4 road at night to reduce traffic within the property, but requests the State Party to monitor compliance and effectiveness, and to implement additional mechanisms to further mitigate the impacts of road use, and also reiterates its request to the State Party to evaluate the impacts of the increasing local populations on land use around the villages along the RN4;
  7. Reiterating its concern about rebel groups encouraging the reopening of artisanal mining sites, and that the cause of increasing immigrants in the villages along the RN4 is closely linked to mining, also requests the State Party to provide an update on the measures taken to mitigate the threat, and further reiterates its request to the State Party to provide information on the remaining mining permits overlapping with the property and to ensure their cancellation;
  8. Also appreciates the establishment of integral conservation zones in the property but notes with concern the extended delay in finalizing the Management Plan for the property and further requests the State Party to expedite its finalization rapidly;
  9. Requests furthermore the State Party to provide details on the data collected through the application of the SMART technology in order to enable an assessment of the illegal activities and poaching/wildlife trade, and their impacts on the OUV of the property and an assessment of progress achieved towards the targets defined in the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR);
  10. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2018, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018;
  11. Decides to continue to apply the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism for the property;
  12. Also decides to retain Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Democratic Republic of the Congo) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
41 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/17/41.COM/7A, WHC/17/41.COM/7A.Add and WHC/17/41.COM/7A.Add.2),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
    • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 41 COM 7A.54)
    • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 41 COM 7A.55)
    • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 41 COM 7A.2)
    • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 41 COM 7A.23)
    • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.4)
    • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 41 COM 7A.24)
    • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 41 COM 7A.6)
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.7)
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.8)
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 41 COM 7A.9)
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.10)
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.11)
    • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 41 COM 7A.32)
    • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 41 COM 7A.3)
    • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 41 COM 7A.18)
    • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 41 COM 7A.33)
    • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 41 COM 7A.34)
    • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 41 COM 7A.35)
    • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 41 COM 7A.36)
    • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 41 COM 7A.37)
    • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 41 COM 7A.38)
    • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 41 COM 7A.39)
    • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 41 COM 7A.40)
    • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 41 COM 7A.41)
    • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 41 COM 7A.14)
    • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 41 COM 7A.28)
    • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 41 COM 7A.29)
    • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 41 COM 7A.30)
    • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 41 COM 7A.56)
    • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 41 COM 7A.15)
    • Palestine, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Decision 41 COM 7A.42)
    • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 41 COM 7A.43)
    • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 41 COM 7A.25)
    • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 41 COM 7A.26)
    • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.16)
    • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 41 COM 7A.21)
    • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 41 COM 7A.19)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 41 COM 7A.44)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 41 COM 7A.45)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 41 COM 7A.46)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 41 COM 7A.47)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 41 COM 7A.48)
    • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 41 COM 7A.49)
    • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 41 COM 7A.31)
    • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 41 COM 7A.22)
    • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 41 COM 7A.17)
    • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 41 COM 7A.1)
    • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 41 COM 7A.57)
    • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 41 COM 7A.27)
    • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 41 COM 7A.51)
    • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 41 COM 7A.52)
    • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 41 COM 7A.53)
      Draft Decision: 41 COM 7A.9

      The World Heritage Committee,

      1. Having examined Document WHC/17/41.COM/7A,
      2. Recalling Decisions 38 COM 7A.41 and 40 COM 7A.39, adopted at its 38th (Doha, 2014) and 40th (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016) sessions respectively,
      3. Expresses its deepest concern over continued insecurity around the property, especially in the south, that has led to a reported decrease in surveillance coverage in the reporting period;
      4. Reiterates its request to the State Party to prioritize efforts to further expand the patrol coverage and regain control of the property to halt poaching and the deterioration of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property, including through the recruitment of additional guards and the adequate provision of financial and material resources;
      5. Welcomes the initiation of joint operations between the Congolese Institute for Conservation of Nature (ICCN) and the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) to patrol targeted areas within the property using SMART (Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool) technology;
      6. Appreciates the closure of the RN4 road at night to reduce traffic within the property, but requests the State Party to monitor compliance and effectiveness, and to implement additional mechanisms to further mitigate the impacts of road use, and also reiterates its request to the State Party to evaluate the impacts of the increasing local populations on land use around the villages along the RN4;
      7. Reiterating its concern about rebel groups encouraging the reopening of artisanal mining sites, and that the cause of increasing immigrants in the villages along the RN4 is closely linked to mining, also requests the State Party to provide an update on the measures taken to mitigate the threat, and further reiterates its request to the State Party to provide information on the remaining mining permits overlapping with the property and to ensure their cancellation;
      8. Also appreciates the establishment of integral conservation zones in the property but notes with concern the extended delay in finalizing the Management Plan for the property and further requests the State Party to expedite its finalization rapidly;
      9. Requests furthermore the State Party to provide details on the data collected through the application of the SMART technology in order to enable an assessment of the illegal activities and poaching/wildlife trade, and their impacts on the OUV of the property and an assessment of progress achieved towards the targets defined in the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR);
      10. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2018, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018;
      11. Decides to continue to apply the Reinforced Monitoring Mechanism for the property;
      12. Also decides to retain Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Democratic Republic of the Congo) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

      Draft Decision: 41 COM 7A.12

      The World Heritage Committee,

      1. Having examined Document WHC/17/41.COM/7A.Add,
      2. Recalling Decision 40 COM 7A.42, adopted at its 40th session (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016) and reiterating the need to implement the Kinshasa Declaration adopted in 2011,
      3. Condemns the violence perpetrated against the guards and soldiers killed during operations for the protection of the World Heritage properties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), addresses its most sincere condolences to their families and expresses its very deep concern as regards the worsening security situation in the properties located in the eastern part of the DRC;
      4. Regrets the delay incurred in the establishment of the Corps responsible for security in the National Parks and Protected Areas (CorPPN) and requests the State Party to provide it, rapidly, with human and financial resources to enable the deployment of contingents to establish security within the properties;
      5. Expresses again its utmost concern as regards the intention of the State Party to officially address the World Heritage Centre to request an IUCN advisory mission to discuss the petroleum issue in the Virunga National Park;
      6. Reiterates with insistence its request to the State Party to cancel the petroleum exploration concession encroaching on the Virunga National Park and to clarify the situation concerning its petroleum interest in Salonga National Park, expressed by the State Party during the 2012 Reactive Monitoring mission, and reiterates its position according to which all mineral, petroleum and gas exploration and exploitation is incompatible with World Heritage status, policy supported by the commitments made by industry leaders, such as Shell and Total, not to undertake such activities within World Heritage properties;
      7. Congratulates the State Party for its efforts to mobilize sustainable funding and notes with appreciation the substantial support provided to the properties of the DRC by the donors;
      8. Also congratulates the State Party for the major progress achieved in finalizing the creation of the Trust Fund for the protected areas in the DRC, entitled « Okapi Fund for Conservation – FOCON » and also requests the State Party to take all the necessary legal provisions to render it operational without delay;
      9. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2018, a detailed report on the implementation of the Kinshasa Declaration, on the security situation in the properties, on the status of the petroleum exploration and exploitation concessions that overlap the World Heritage properties, for examination by the Committee at its 42nd session in 2018.
      Report year: 2017
      Democratic Republic of the Congo
      Date of Inscription: 1996
      Category: Natural
      Criteria: (x)
      Danger List (dates): 1997-present
      Documents examined by the Committee
      SOC Report by the State Party
      Report (2017) .pdf
      arrow_circle_right 41COM (2017)
      Exports

      * : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
      Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

      ** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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