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Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor

Montenegro
Factors affecting the property in 2016*
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Housing
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Earthquake damage (issue resolved)
  • Lack of Management Planning/system
  • Inadequate legal system
  • Accelerated urban development and urban pressure
  • Proposed major bridge at Verige
  • Lack of buffer zone – requested since 2003
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2016
Requests approved: 2 (from 1979-1982)
Total amount approved : 70,000 USD
1982 Equipment for the Institute for the Protection of ... (Approved)   50,000 USD
1979 Emergency assistance for the natural and ... (Approved)   20,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2016**

2003: joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS mission; January 2006: Management Planning Course; February 2008: joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS mission; March 2013: ICOMOS Advisory mission 

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2016

On 30 November 2015, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, which is available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/125/documents/ and provides the following information on the implementation of the recommendations made by the World Heritage Committee at its 38th session (Doha, 2014):

  • The establishment of the Management Council of the Kotor Region has progressed. An updated legal framework ensures the protection and management of the property. Visual Impact Studies are compulsory for plans and projects of structures or infrastructures larger than 3000 sqm and for those causing major changes. The Directorate for the Protection of Cultural Property issues opinions on planning documents and permits for conservation projects;
  • A draft Study for the protection of the Kotor Region identifies attributes and measures for their preservation and a Study for the protection of heritage properties is expected, defining parameters and protection regimes for inclusion in the Special Purpose Spatial Plan for the Coastal Area; the Study on traffic is underway. The completed Study for the protection of cultural properties for inclusion in the Spatial Urban Plan (SUP) for the Municipality of Kotor was expected by the end of 2015, and the SUP will be aligned to it. The Strategic Plan for Development of the Municipality of Kotor (2013 – 2017) was adopted in 2013;
  • The Visual Impact Study for the Verige Bridge recommended exploring less impacting alternatives; accordingly, a feasibility study for a tunnel was elaborated and sent to the Ministries of Sustainable Development and of Transport for consideration. The Directorate for Planning and Development of Kotor, as developer of the above infrastructure, is responsible for elaborating the requested Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA). A road map and timeframe are included in the report, envisaging the submission of the HIA report by February 2016;
  • The report also updates on progress in implementing the management plan, legislation and planning documents, strengthening the legal/institutional framework, improving protection and valorization of the property's heritage, strengthening the capacity and increasing human resources and defining sustainable development strategies and actions.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2016

The report shows that the State Party has continued its efforts in addressing the property's current conservation issues and in setting up effective management mechanisms and structures, supported by adequate legislative and regulatory provisions. The appointment and enforcement of the Management Council, with clear responsibilities, is urgent to guarantee management coordination and effectiveness. Completing the harmonization of all planning tools for the property and its buffer zone is a crucial and urgent factor to ensure that present and future development is sustainable, equitable and compatible with the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property. Within the review of all planning instruments, adopting a comprehensive HIA framework for all of them, based on the OUV and its related attributes and under the coordination of the Management Council, would strategically assist the responsible administrations in orienting the overall planning framework, defining land-use zones and the related system of measures and detailed provisions so as to protect the characteristics of the cultural landscape and to provide precise criteria and limits for future development. In this respect, the finalization of the HIA for the Verige Bridge and for its alternatives appears pivotal also for the delineation of a transportation strategy for the Region of Kotor that does not negatively impact on the World Heritage property.

The State Party reports briefly on the developments in Morinj, Kostanijca and Glavati and on the obligation to carry out a HIA. However, a letter by a third party, received on 4 April 2016 and transmitted to the State Party in conformity with Paragraph 174 of the Operational Guidelines on 6 April 2016, informs that a Local Study of Location of a tourism facility project (41.197sqm, 4 floors and 400 beds) has been adopted by the Municipality of Kotor for Glavati, at St Anne cove, which is one of the rare, still pristine rural areas along the coast contributing to the OUV as an essential element of the settlement layout. At the time of writing this report, the State Party had not yet provided any clarification. This new proposal adds on others already begun that caused serious concerns to the Committee in 2014 and resulted in a specific recommendation. It also highlights certain tensions towards contradictory approaches to development. An independent HIA is necessary before any planning provision is finalized and building permit issued for this project; HIAs for the development projects already begun, at the above-mentioned and at any other location, would also assist in identifying options for reducing or mitigating their impacts. In this regard, an inventory of all development projects, planned, approved or begun, is indispensable as a solid base for a comprehensive HIA approach.

The efforts already undertaken by the State Party will only achieve effectiveness if a committed sustainable, heritage-compatible and equitable development approach, including tourism, which is designed around the property’s OUV and shaping development and spatial planning, is embraced by all parties concerned.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2016
40 COM 7B.54
Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor (Montenegro) (C 125ter)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/16/40.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 38 COM 7B.29, adopted at its 38th session (Doha, 2014),
  3. Welcomes the progress made by the State Party in strengthening the legal, planning and management framework of the property;
  4. Strongly requests the State Party to proceed with promptly finalizing the appointment and enforcement of the Management Council with a clear mandate to ensure effective coordination in management;
  5. Also strongly requests the State Party to finalize the actions undertaken to respond to the World Heritage Committee’s recommendations, in particular to:
    1. Review and harmonize all planning instruments through a comprehensive Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA), based on the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for Cultural World Heritage Properties, so as to establish a clear planning / policy framework that is consistent with the need for protecting the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property and its attributes and promoting sustainable, equitable and compatible forms of development,
    2. Finalize the Study of protection of cultural properties for the Special Purpose Spatial Plan for the Coastal Area (SPSPCA), as a basis for defining land-use zoning and its related system of measures and detailed provisions, which should be founded on the OUV of the property and the characteristics of its landscape, and incorporate them into all other plans,
    3. Finalize the HIAs for the Verige Bridge and for any alternative options to it as a basis for developing the Regional Transport Strategy,
    4. Conclude and adopt the Spatial Urban Plan for the Municipality of Kotor, in coherence with the objectives, zoning and provisions that will be elaborated for the SPSPCA;
  6. Requests the State Party to undertake an independent HIA, in line with the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for Cultural World Heritage Properties, for the tourist facility at Glavati - Prčanj for which a Local Study of Location has been adopted, as well as for all planned, approved and begun development projects, in order to assess their impacts on the OUV of the property and its attributes;
  7. Reiterates its request to the State Party to submit the results of the above HIAs to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies, prior to undertaking any further commitment;
  8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2017, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018.
Draft Decision: 40 COM 7B.54

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/16/40.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 38 COM 7B.29, adopted at its 38th session (Doha, 2014),
  3. Welcomes the progress made by the State Party in strengthening the legal, planning and management framework of the property;
  4. Strongly requests the State Party to proceed with promptly finalizing the appointment and enforcement of the Management Council with a clear mandate to ensure effective coordination in management;
  5. Also strongly requests the State Party to finalize the actions undertaken to respond to the World Heritage Committee’s recommendations, in particular to:
    1. Review and harmonize all planning instruments through a comprehensive Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA), based on the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for Cultural World Heritage Properties, so as to establish a clear planning / policy framework that is consistent with the need for protecting the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property and its attributes and promoting sustainable, equitable and compatible forms of development,
    2. Finalize the Study of protection of cultural properties for the Special Purpose Spatial Plan for the Coastal Area (SPSPCA), as a basis for defining land-use zoning and its related system of measures and detailed provisions, which should be founded on the OUV of the property and the characteristics of its landscape, and incorporate them into all other plans,
    3. Finalize the HIAs for the Verige Bridge and for any alternative options to it as a basis for developing the Regional Transport Strategy,
    4. Conclude and adopt the Spatial Urban Plan for the Municipality of Kotor, in coherence with the objectives, zoning and provisions that will be elaborated for the SPSPCA;
  6. Requests the State Party to undertake an independent HIA, in line with the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for Cultural World Heritage Properties, for the tourist facility at Glavati - Prčanj for which a Local Study of Location has been adopted, as well as for all planned, approved and begun development projects, in order to assess their impacts on the OUV of the property and its attributes;
  7. Reiterates its request to the State Party to submit the results of the above HIAs to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies, prior to undertaking any further commitment;
  8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2017, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018.
Report year: 2016
Montenegro
Date of Inscription: 1979
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)
Danger List (dates): 1979-2003
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2015) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 40COM (2016)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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