1.         Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor (Montenegro) (C 125ter)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List  1979

Criteria  (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)

Year(s) of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger    1979-2003

Previous Committee Decisions  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/125/documents/

International Assistance

Requests approved: 0 (from 1979-1982)
Total amount approved: USD 70,000
For details, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/125/assistance/

UNESCO Extra-budgetary Funds


Previous monitoring missions

2003: joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS mission; January 2006: Management Planning Course; February 2008: joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS mission; March 2013: ICOMOS Advisory mission 

Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports

Illustrative material  see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/125/

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2016

On 30 November 2015, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, which is available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/125/documents/ and provides the following information on the implementation of the recommendations made by the World Heritage Committee at its 38th session (Doha, 2014):

Analysis and Conclusions of the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and ICCROM

The report shows that the State Party has continued its efforts in addressing the property's current conservation issues and in setting up effective management mechanisms and structures, supported by adequate legislative and regulatory provisions. The appointment and enforcement of the Management Council, with clear responsibilities, is urgent to guarantee management coordination and effectiveness. Completing the harmonization of all planning tools for the property and its buffer zone is a crucial and urgent factor to ensure that present and future development is sustainable, equitable and compatible with the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property. Within the review of all planning instruments, adopting a comprehensive HIA framework for all of them, based on the OUV and its related attributes and under the coordination of the Management Council, would strategically assist the responsible administrations in orienting the overall planning framework, defining land-use zones and the related system of measures and detailed provisions so as to protect the characteristics of the cultural landscape and to provide precise criteria and limits for future development. In this respect, the finalization of the HIA for the Verige Bridge and for its alternatives appears pivotal also for the delineation of a transportation strategy for the Region of Kotor that does not negatively impact on the World Heritage property.

The State Party reports briefly on the developments in Morinj, Kostanijca and Glavati and on the obligation to carry out a HIA. However, a letter by a third party, received on 4 April 2016 and transmitted to the State Party in conformity with Paragraph 174 of the Operational Guidelines on 6 April 2016, informs that a Local Study of Location of a tourism facility project (41.197sqm, 4 floors and 400 beds) has been adopted by the Municipality of Kotor for Glavati, at St Anne cove, which is one of the rare, still pristine rural areas along the coast contributing to the OUV as an essential element of the settlement layout. At the time of writing this report, the State Party had not yet provided any clarification. This new proposal adds on others already begun that caused serious concerns to the Committee in 2014 and resulted in a specific recommendation. It also highlights certain tensions towards contradictory approaches to development. An independent HIA is necessary before any planning provision is finalized and building permit issued for this project; HIAs for the development projects already begun, at the above-mentioned and at any other location, would also assist in identifying options for reducing or mitigating their impacts. In this regard, an inventory of all development projects, planned, approved or begun, is indispensable as a solid base for a comprehensive HIA approach.

The efforts already undertaken by the State Party will only achieve effectiveness if a committed sustainable, heritage-compatible and equitable development approach, including tourism, which is designed around the property’s OUV and shaping development and spatial planning, is embraced by all parties concerned.

Decision Adopted: 40 COM 7B.54

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/16/40.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 38 COM 7B.29, adopted at its 38th session (Doha, 2014),
  3. Welcomes the progress made by the State Party in strengthening the legal, planning and management framework of the property;
  4. Strongly requests the State Party to proceed with promptly finalizing the appointment and enforcement of the Management Council with a clear mandate to ensure effective coordination in management;
  5. Also strongly requests the State Party to finalize the actions undertaken to respond to the World Heritage Committee’s recommendations, in particular to:
    1. Review and harmonize all planning instruments through a comprehensive Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA), based on the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for Cultural World Heritage Properties, so as to establish a clear planning / policy framework that is consistent with the need for protecting the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property and its attributes and promoting sustainable, equitable and compatible forms of development,
    2. Finalize the Study of protection of cultural properties for the Special Purpose Spatial Plan for the Coastal Area (SPSPCA), as a basis for defining land-use zoning and its related system of measures and detailed provisions, which should be founded on the OUV of the property and the characteristics of its landscape, and incorporate them into all other plans,
    3. Finalize the HIAs for the Verige Bridge and for any alternative options to it as a basis for developing the Regional Transport Strategy,
    4. Conclude and adopt the Spatial Urban Plan for the Municipality of Kotor, in coherence with the objectives, zoning and provisions that will be elaborated for the SPSPCA;
  6. Requests the State Party to undertake an independent HIA, in line with the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for Cultural World Heritage Properties, for the tourist facility at Glavati - Prčanj for which a Local Study of Location has been adopted, as well as for all planned, approved and begun development projects, in order to assess their impacts on the OUV of the property and its attributes;
  7. Reiterates its request to the State Party to submit the results of the above HIAs to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies, prior to undertaking any further commitment;
  8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2017, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 42nd session in 2018.