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Simien National Park

Ethiopia
Factors affecting the property in 2011*
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Land conversion
  • Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals
  • Other Threats:

    Declining populations of Walia ibex, Ethiopian wolf and other large mammal species

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Declining populations of Walia ibex, Ethiopian wolf and other large mammal species
  • Increasing human populations and livestock numbers in the park
  • Agricultural encroachment
  • Road construction
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Depletion of the Walia ibex population and of other large mammals
  • Encroachment
  • Impacts of road construction
Corrective Measures for the property

See Decision 30 COM 7A.9 (Vilnius, 2006), https://whc.unesco.org/en/sessions/30COM/decisions/ 

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
No precise timeframe was set so far although the World Heritage Committee mentioned that the corrective measures could be implemented in the short term (1-2 years).
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2011
Requests approved: 9 (from 1978-2008)
Total amount approved : 293,171 USD
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2011

The State Party did not submit a report on the state of conservation of the property, as requested at the 34th session of the World Heritage Committee, and thus almost no information is available regarding progress in addressing the corrective measures. This report only considers the priority actions identified by the 2009 monitoring mission for the 3 corrective measures which were not considered completed.

a) Improve the on-the-ground demarcation of the property and finalize its gazetting into national law

The World Heritage Centre and IUCN have no new information about the progress made in improving the ground demarcation or the re-gazetment procedures by the parliament. IUCN notes that not all of the proposed new boundary appears to be geo-referenced and hence is imprecise in relation to current forest boundaries, cultivated land, and villages. This calls for proper mapping and fine-tuning before demarcation on the ground is finalized, and legal gazetting at the national level.

b) Review the Grazing Pressure Reduction Strategy to identify priorities and partners and funding for its implementation

The World Heritage Centre and IUCN do not have new information concerning the requested update on the grazing strategy. The critical issue remains the requirement to raise the necessary funds to implement the requested actions, in conjunction with the development of an alternative livelihoods strategy (see below).

c) Identify and implement the lessons learned from the recent successful voluntary relocation of 165 households from the village of Arkwasiye, and seek support from development NGO, donors and the government for the provision of alternative livelihoods

According to the available information, funding has not yet been secured, and no significant progress has been made in finding alternative livelihoods for those who remain resident inside the park.

 

Donor conference

The World Heritage Centre and IUCN reiterate that to implement the grazing strategy and to address the issue of alternative livelihoods, it is crucial that funding is mobilized from the government and donors. They note that a proposed date for the donor conference requested by the World Heritage Committee was postponed in February 2010, and that a new proposal for a date of the conference has still not been suggested. The available funding to organize the conference, which was secured in 2009 under the budget line for sites on the List of World Heritage in danger under the World Heritage Fund, is unfortunately no longer available, given that the activity was not implemented in the planned timeframe. The World Heritage Centre, through the UNESCO Addis Ababa office, at several occasions reminded the State Party of the need to organize the conference as soon as possible, but so far no new proposed dates were put forward. 

Extension of the World Heritage property

The World Heritage Centre and IUCN reiterate the importance of bringing forward an extension of the property to reflect the boundary changes to the National Park (extensions as well as the exclusion of certain villages). They recommended this project as one of the potential priorities for upstream support. The World Heritage Centre and IUCN also reiterate that the documentation for this extension does not need to be as extensive as a nomination for a new property and that the State Party could request International Assistance from the World Heritage Fund to obtain consultant support to prepare the necessary documentation. IUCN remains willing to provide technical advice and identify expert support to assist the State Party in addressing the requirements of a new nomination. 

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2011

The World Heritage Centre and IUCN recommend that the World Heritage Committee regret that no report was received from the State Party and that there appears to have been little or no significant progress on the outstanding actions that would address the remaining corrective measures for the property since the 34th session of the World Heritage Committee. They, therefore, also recommend, that the World Heritage Committee maintain this property on the List of World Heritage in Danger. They also draw the World Heritage Committee’s attention on the need for supportive action to assist Simien Mountains National Park as a priority by the World Heritage Centre, IUCN and partners in the follow-up to the recently completed Periodic Report for Africa. They note that with appropriate commitment by the State Party, and investment of conservation finance, the property has the potential to be considered for removal from the List of World Heritage in Danger within a foreseeable future. The African World Heritage Fund may also be in a position to facilitate support and funding for the required actions.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2011
35 COM 7A.9
Simien National Park (Ethiopia) (N 9)

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add,

2. Recalling Decision 34 COM 7A.9, adopted at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010),

3. Regrets that the State Party did not submit a state of conservation report on the property, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session, making it impossible to assess progress in addressing the corrective measures;

4. Expresses its concern that the State party has not yet organized the donor conference, which was requested by the World Heritage Committee since its 33rd session and notes that without the mobilisation of additional funding it will be impossible to implement some of the outstanding corrective measures, in particular the grazing pressure reduction strategy and the effective measures to address agricultural encroachment in the property;

5. Urges the State Party to organise as soon as possible the donor conference in order to identify potential donors, and reiterates its request to the International Community to financially support the implementation of the grazing management and alternative livelihoods strategies;

6. Also urges the State Party to continue its efforts to implement the three remaining outstanding corrective measures, in particular the priority actions requested by the World Heritage Committee in its previous decision;

7. Encourages to the State Party to submit the proposed extension of the property through the preparation of a new nomination, and to apply for International Assistance to support this process;

8. Recommends that the State Party seek support from the World Heritage Centre, IUCN and the African World Heritage Fund to meet the outstanding corrective measures;

9. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1February2012, a report on the state of conservation of the property, in particular on progress accomplished in the implementation of corrective measures and the recommendations of the 2009 mission, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session in 2012;

10. Decides to retain Simien Mountains National Park (Ethiopia) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

35 COM 8C.2
Establishment of the World Heritage List in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-11/35.COM/7A, WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add and WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add.Corr),

2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:

  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 35 COM 7A.24)
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 35 COM 7A.25)
  • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 35 COM 7A.15)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.1)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 35 COM 7A.32)
  • Colombia, Los Katios National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.16)
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.2)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 35 COM 7A.3)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.4)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.5)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.6)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.7)
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 35 COM 7A.8)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 35 COM 7A.19)
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.9)
  • Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (Decision 35 COM 7A.29)
  • Georgia, Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Decision 35 COM 7A.30)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 35 COM 7A.20)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 35 COM  7A.21)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 35 COM 7A.26)
  • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 35 COM 7A.22)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 35 COM 7A.10)
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 35 COM 7A.11)
  • Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 35 COM 7A.27)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 35 COM 7A.33)
  • Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 35 COM 7A.28)
  • Senegal, Niokolo Koba National Park (Decision 35 COM  7A.12)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 35 COM 7A.31)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 35 COM 7A.18)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 35 COM 7A.17)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 35 COM 7A.14)
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 35 COM 7A.34)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 35 COM 7A.23)
Draft Decision: 35 COM 7A.9

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-11/35.COM/7A.Add,

2. Recalling Decision 34 COM 7A.9, adopted at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010),

3. Regrets that the State Party did not submit a state of conservation report on the property, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session, making it impossible to asses progress in addressing the corrective measures;

4. Expresses its concern that the State party has not yet organized the donor conference, which was requested by the World Heritage Committee since its 33rd session and notes that without the mobilisation of additional funding it will be impossible to implement some of the outstanding corrective measures, in particular the grazing pressure reduction strategy and the effective measures to address agricultural encroachment in the property;

5. Urges the State Party to organise as soon as possible the donor conference in order to identify potential donors, and reiterates its request to the International Community to financially support the implementation of the grazing management and alternative livelihoods strategies;

6. Also urges the State Party to continue its efforts to implement the three remaining unmet corrective measures, in particular the priority actions requested by the World Heritage Committee in its previous decision;

7. Encourages to the State Party to submit the proposed extension of the property through the preparation of a new nomination, and to apply for International Assistance to support this process;

8. Recommends that the State Party seek support from the World Heritage Centre, IUCN and the African World Heritage Fund to meet the outstanding corrective measures;

9. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2012, a report on the state of conservation of the property, in particular on progress accomplished in the implementation of corrective measures and the recommendations of the 2009 mission, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session in 2012;

10. Decides to retain Simien Mountains National Park (Ethiopia) on the List of World Heritage in Danger. 

Report year: 2011
Ethiopia
Date of Inscription: 1978
Category: Natural
Criteria: (vii)(x)
Danger List (dates): 1996-2017
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 35COM (2011)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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