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Group of Monuments at Hampi

India
Factors affecting the property in 2001*
  • Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Construction of two suspension bridges
  • Major increase in heavy goods traffic
  • Dismantling and reconstruction of an important historic monument
  • Serious problems in the implementation of cultural heritage policies and regulations
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2001
Requests approved: 1 (from 2001-2001)
Total amount approved : 17,370 USD
Information presented to the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee in 2001

Previous deliberations:
World Heritage Committee, twenty-fourth session, paragraph VIII.18
World Heritage Bureau, twenty-fourth session, partagraph IV.60

Main Issues / Threats to the Site:

  • Lack of a comprehensive management approach and plan: At the time of inscription of the site on the World Heritage List in 1986, the World Heritage Committee requested the Indian Authorities to elaborate, adopt and implement a comprehensive management plan taking into due consideration the large territory designated as World Heritage, the various rural development pressures and the numerous stakeholders concerned for the conservation and development of the site. No plan has been formally adopted and implemented to date.
  • Lack of co-ordinating authority: Hampi is presently administered by numerous local bodies with overlapping jurisdiction and varying functions, increasing the difficulties in ensuring adequate site management.
  • Rural development pressure and ad-hoc public works: The inclusion of the Groups of Monuments at Hampi on the List of World Heritage in Danger was prompted by the construction of two suspension bridges, which dominate the extraordinary natural environment.  These bridges threaten the World Heritage site's integrity, and pose ascertained and potential threats to the monuments and archaeological remains within the site. The construction and use of the roads linked to the vehicular bridges will result in a major increase of traffic transporting products from the mining and steel industries in the immediate vicinity of the World Heritage site. The construction of a new road leading to the large bridge in Anegundi has already resulted in the dismantling and reconstruction of an important historic monument - a mandapa (a pillared stone rest-house), signifying serious problems in the implementation of existing cultural heritage policies and regulations.

New information:

  • 4-point recommendations for corrective measures elaborated in February 2000 by the ICOMOS-UNESCO Reactive Monitoring Mission, endorsed by the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee in June 2000 and by the World Heritage Committee in December 2000.
  • Following a study and its recommendations undertaken by the Karnataka State Government's Task Force for Hampi, Karnataka State Government Cabinet decided to dismantle and relocate two bridges in May 2000. This decision was received favourably by the general public in India.
  • Resolution concerning Hampi adopted by the participants of the UNESCO-Archaeological Survey of India National Workshop for Management of Indian World Cultural Heritage (22-24 October 2000) strongly recommending that a special administrative body empowered to ensure integrated development and conservation of the whole World Heritage protected areas is established. The primary objective of this authority would be to coordinate various development and cultural and natural heritage conservation activities within the World Heritage protected areas.
  • Karnataka State Government Authorities took action to remove illegal encroachment within the site by November 2000.
  • Karnataka State Government Authorities, and in particular, the District Commissioners of Bellary and Koppal began the preparation of a comprehensive management plan by November 2000.
  • The Chief Minister of the Karnataka State Government announces that a detailed study of the vehicular bridge connecting Anegundi and Hampi would be undertaken, with a view to maintaining a balance between the needs to protect the heritage values and those of the local community members who had been demanding the construction of these bridges and therefore had strong views on the matter.
  • A plan of action for implementing the 4-point recommendations for corrective measures drafted by the World Heritage Centre for consideration by the Indian Authorities between January – April 2001.
  • Indian Authorities inform the World Heritage Centre that they welcome the Centre’s proposal for a UNESCO team of experts to examine various issues, with the concerned authorities, in order to elaborate a comprehensive management and development plan for Hampi, with a view to establishing Hampi as an international case study for sustainable conservation and development in May 2001.
  • At the request of the Indian Authorities, the World Heritage Centre is elaborating an international assistance request for assisting the authorities concerned in carrying out the necessary needs assessment and feasibility studies for elaborating the comprehensive management plan. The Centre has contacted the Japan Bank for International Cooperation to propose a joint UNESCO/WHC – JBIC mission to examine both the conservation and regional development issues.
Action Required

The Bureau welcomes the positive actions taken and being planned by the State Party and the World Heritage Centre to elaborate a comprehensive management plan for the site. The Bureau requests the State Party and the Centre to continue its close co-operation in order to complete the needs assessment and feasibility studies as a matter of urgency, in order to ensure that an integrated conservation and development management plan be elaborated, adopted and implemented as soon as possible. The Bureau requests the State Party and the Centre to report on the progress made in removing the threats to the site for examination by the Committee at its twenty-fifth session.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2001

Principal issues:

Lack of a comprehensive management approach and plan. Lack of co-ordinating authority.  Rural development pressure and ad-hoc public works.

New information:

·         Following the recommendation of the UNESCO-Archaeological Survey of India National Workshop for Management of Indian World Cultural Heritage (22-24 October 2000) for the establishment of a special administrative body empowered to ensure integrated development and conservation of the whole World Heritage protected areas, the Karnataka State Government informed the World Heritage Centre that the necessary legal steps were being taken for a Hampi Planning Authority to be established. The primary objective of this authority would be to co-ordinate various development and cultural and natural heritage conservation activities within the World Heritage protected areas;

·         Karnataka State Government Authorities, and in particular, the Deputy Commissioner of Bellary began the preparation of a comprehensive management plan in November 2000. In October 2001, a UNESCO International Planning Expert undertook a mission to assist the authorities in elaborating this plan. Findings and recommendations of this mission will be presented to the Committee at its twenty-fifth session;

·         In September 2001, the World Heritage Centre mobilized extrabudgetary funds from a Swedish Tourism conglomerate, TEMA, amounting to US$ 80,000 for the rehabilitation of one historic building within Hampi into a Heritage House for Enhanced Management of the World Heritage protected areas. This Heritage House will serve as an Interpretation Centre providing free information on the World Heritage values of the site to visitors, legal/administration advice and information to the local community members. This TEMA contribution will also be utilized for the organization of a Stakeholders’ Workshop as well as the production and dissemination of information brochures concerning the site and the Project;

·         The State Government of Karnataka informed the Centre that resettlement of approximately 300 illegal encroachers within Hampi site had been organized between January and July 2001. In particular, violations within historic monuments or their immediate vicinity had been corrected. The Centre was informed that the remaining illegal encroachment within the World Heritage protected areas are being addressed with State funding;

·         In July 2001, the Indian Authorities submitted a training assistance request for co-funding a Study Tour to the United Kingdom for the regional and national site-managers of Hampi to share site-management experiences with English Heritage; and

·         Following the request of the Bureau at its twenty-fifth session, the World Heritage Centre expects to receive further updated information concerning the (a) relocation of the two intrusive bridges, (b) implementation of the 4-point recommendations for corrective measures, and (c) preparation of the comprehensive management plan, for the examination by the Committee at its twenty-fifth session. 

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2001
25 BUR V.70-74
Group of Monuments of Hampi (India)

V.70       The Bureau recalled that the inscription of this site on the List of World Heritage in Danger in 1999 was prompted by the construction of two intrusive suspension bridges that dominate the extraordinary natural environment of the site. Noting that a large area of over 30 km2, including numerous archaeological ruins, fortifications, palatial complexes, and active religious centres of pilgrimage, are designated as World Heritage, the Bureau recalled that the Committee had requested the Indian authorities to elaborate, adopt and implement a comprehensive management plan in 1986. This request was again made at the time of the site’s inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

V.71       The Bureau was informed that consultations had taken place between national, state and local authorities, representatives and NGOs of the local communities of Anegundi, Hampi and Virapapura Gada Island since January 2001. These consultations had resulted in plans for the establishment of a special administrative body whose primary objective would be to co-ordinate the various development and cultural and natural heritage conservation activities within the protected areas of Hampi. The establishment of this “Hampi Development Authority” would assist in facilitating site management by bringing together the numerous local bodies with overlapping jurisdiction and varying functions. According to information received by the Centre, the Hampi Development Authority, to be chaired by the District Commissioner of Bellary, would (a) elaborate a comprehensive management plan together with UNESCO and other agencies concerned; (b) adopt and implement such a plan; and (c) ensure co-ordinated heritage conservation and sustainable development activities.

V.72       The Bureau was informed that the Centre, at the invitation of the concerned authorities, was organizing a mission led by an international rural development planner with experience in cultural heritage areas. The mission would take place in August 2001.  The expert is expected to work closely with the authorities to prepare and complete the needs and impact analysis of the two bridges; feasibility studies for possible alternative locations of the bridges; and possible solutions for removing the threats facing the site. The result of these activities will serve in the elaboration of the comprehensive management plan. Finally, the Bureau was informed that a mission by Centre staff is planned in July 2001 to discuss with the concerned authorities, a draft action plan to implement the 4-point recommendations for corrective measures drafted by the Centre.

V.73       The Bureau expressed its appreciation for the positive actions taken by the State Party to ensure the conservation of the World Heritage values of the site, in particular, its plans to establish the “Hampi Development Authority” involving the various authorities and stakeholders representing the local communities. This action directly responds to the Committee’s request for the establishment of a special administrative body, empowered to ensure integrated development and conservation of the whole World Heritage area. The Bureau requested that the State Party and the Centre continue to co-operate closely to complete the needs assessment and impact assessment of the two bridges, and to ensure the elaboration, adoption and implementation of the integrated conservation and management plan.

V.74       Finally, recalling the Committee’s request at its twenty-fourth session, the Bureau requested the State Party, with the assistance of the Centre, to report on the progress made in:

(a)     relocating the two intrusive bridges outside the World Heritage site;

(b)     implementing the 4-point recommendations for corrective measures of the UNESCO-ICOMOS mission in February 2000;

(c)     preparing a comprehensive management plan for the site;

for examination by the Committee at its twenty-fifth session.

25 COM VIII.64-66
Group of Monuments at Hampi (India)

VIII.64 The Committee examined the report on the state of conservation of the Group of Monuments at Hampi. The Committee was informed that the Centre organized a mission by an international rural planner in close cooperation with the national and state government authorities responsible for the conservation and management of this large site. The expert mission assisted the authorities concerned to elaborate and carry out an impact assessment study related to the two bridges partially constructed within the site and to examine the feasibility and alternative sites for relocating these bridges. The Committee was informed that the Centre had received information concerning the progress being made in establishing a Hampi Management and Development Authority to co-ordinate, in a comprehensive manner, all conservation and development activities within the core World Heritage protected areas of Hampi.

VIII.65 The Delegate of India confirmed that necessary steps were being taken by the concerned authorities to establish the Hampi Management and Development Authority and to implement the recommendations of the UNESCO international expert. He informed the Committee that the report on the progress made would be submitted in time for examination by the Committee at its twenty-sixth session.

VIII.66 The Committee welcomed the positive actions taken and being planned by the State Party and the World Heritage Centre to elaborate a comprehensive management plan for the site. The Committee congratulated the State Government of Karnataka and the Deputy Commissioner of Bellary for taking the necessary actions in removing a large number of illegal encroachments from within the World Heritage protected areas. The Committee requested the State Party and the Centre to continue its close cooperation in order to complete the needs assessment and feasibility studies as a matter of urgency, in order to ensure that an integrated conservation and development management plan be elaborated, adopted and implemented as soon as possible. The Committee requested the State Party and the Centre to report on the progress made in removing the threats to the site for examination by the Committee at its twenty-sixth session.

TheCommittee may wish to examine any additional information at the time of its twenty-fifth session, and adopt the following: 

“The Committee welcomes the positive actions taken and being planned by the State Party and the World Heritage Centre to elaborate a comprehensive management plan for the site. The Committee congratulates the State Government of Karnataka and the Deputy Commissioner of Bellary for taking the necessary actions in removing a large number of illegal encroachments from within the World Heritage protected areas. The Committee requests the State Party and the Centre to continue its close co-operation in order to complete the needs assessment and feasibility studies as a matter of urgency, in order to ensure that an integrated conservation and development management plan be elaborated, adopted and implemented as soon as possible. The Committee requests the State Party and the Centre to report on the progress made in removing the threats to the site for examination by the Committee at its twenty-sixth session.”

Report year: 2001
India
Date of Inscription: 1986
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iii)(iv)
Danger List (dates): 1999-2006
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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