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Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy

Indonesia
Factors affecting the property in 2021*
  • Changes in traditional ways of life and knowledge system
  • Governance
  • Housing
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Land conversion
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Society's valuing of heritage
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Changes in traditional ways of life and knowledge systems (Vulnerability of the Subak system)
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community (Lack of support for traditional farming systems and of benefits that would allow farmers to stay on the land)
  • Land Conversion (Protection of the setting of the landscape to protect the water source that underpins the Subak system)
  • Housing (Development pressures)
  • Governance, Management systems/management plans (Lack of functioning governance system to implement the Management Plan, Absence of a strategic tourism plan)
  • Society’s valuing of heritage
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2021

Total amount granted: USD 20,000 from the UNESCO/Netherlands Funds-in-Trust provided for a preparatory assistance to the nomination process (2001).

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2021
Requests approved: 1 (from 2001-2001)
Total amount approved : 30,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2021**

January 2015: Joint ICOMOS/ICCROM Advisory mission

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2021

On 1 December 2020, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, which is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1194/documents/ and presents progress in a number of conservation issues addressed by the Committee at its previous sessions, as follows:

  • In response to Decision 43 COM 7B.63, the State Party indicated its current priorities;
  • Continued measures to improve the sustainability of the subaks have been implemented by Bali Province and the Tabanan and Gianyar Regencies, including financial assistance, tax relief, repair and maintenance of temple buildings and irrigation canals, provision of equipment and farming supplies, support for ceremonies, educational scholarships for farming families, and sustainable energy initiatives;
  • The State Party has identified coordination across sectors and regions as a priority. Progress has been made at the national level by the Coordination Team within the Coordination Ministry for Human Development and Culture, complemented by a Coordination Forum and the Provincial and Regency offices/agencies for culture. The Bali Provincial Government has established the Customary Community Advancement Office, which is notably tasked with monitoring the effectiveness of subak initiatives and the implementation of the Subak Empowerment programme of Bali Province. Village development plans are the responsibility of the assemblies for subak members and villagers (krama subak and krama adat);
  • Heritage Impact Assessments (HIAs) are required by the Cultural Property Law (2010) and the Provisions for the Utilisation of National and World Cultural Property (2013). The Ministry of Education and Culture is currently preparing technical guidelines for HIAs that will apply to all of Indonesia’s cultural World Heritage properties;
  • The State Party reports that the necessary processes to achieve the designation of the property as a National Strategic Area are in progress, including consultations with stakeholders on the Draft Presidential Regulation. The National Strategic Area Spatial Plan is being developed through discussions with the relevant ministries of local and regional governments, and the State Party aims to complete this process and submit the draft National Strategic Area Spatial Plan to the Minister of Law and Human Rights by the end of 2021.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2021

The State Party, Bali Province and the Regency governments have continued to make progress towards the implementation of the previous Committee decisions and the recommendations of the 2015 joint ICOMOS/ICCROM Advisory mission. There are ongoing challenges for this living cultural landscape, and the processes of securing its protection and management require continued efforts by all levels of government along with support for the functioning of the subaks and water temples.

The Bali Province and the Tabanan and Gianyar Regencies’ efforts to provide a broad suite of financial and practical measures and programmes to support subak farmers and enhance the resilience and sustainability of the subaks are welcomed. The Bali Province Regional Regulation Number 4 of 2019 concerning Customary Villages in Bali opens income opportunities for Customary Villages to support subak activities. Given that village development decisions are taken primarily at the local level, the uses of these new provisions should be closely monitored.

The designation of a National Strategic Area is considered beneficial to strengthen spatial planning for the property and provides an integrated approach to catchment management, the management of natural resources that are essential to the functioning of the subaks, and the conservation of cultural heritage. The State Party’s indication that the necessary consultations and the drafting of the National Strategic Area Spatial Plan should be completed by the end of 2021 is therefore welcomed, and the Committee may wish to encourage the State Party to finalise the process of designating the property as a National Strategic Area as soon as possible.

Given the need for sustainable development and the ongoing pressures of development inside and beyond the boundaries of the inscribed components of the property, the need for effective HIA processes is a matter of continuing concern. The State Party’s commitment to making progress in that regard as a matter of priority is welcomed, and the current process to develop technical guidelines is noted. It is encouraged that the State Party develop technical guidelines on HIA in conformity with the ICOMOS Guidance on Heritage Impact Assessments for World Heritage cultural properties. The State Party recalls agreements made in 2018 concerning community-centred decision-making processes for Jatiluwih. While the importance of community-centred processes is supported, continued work at the provincial and national levels is needed to ensure that the potential impacts of new developments across the entire serial property are effectively analysed in terms of the protection of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV). It is therefore recommended that the World Heritage Committee welcome the State Party’s efforts and encourage the completion of the necessary processes, using the guidance documents provided by ICOMOS and IUCN. It is also essential that HIA information be provided to the World Heritage Centre for new development, including tourism and other commercial development, for review by the Advisory Bodies before any decision is made that would be difficult to reverse, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2021
44 COM 7B.143
Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy (Indonesia) (C 1194rev)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7B.63, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Commends the State Party for the progress made with the implementation of its previous decisions and encourages continued work to implement effective mechanisms for the management and protection of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property;
  4. Welcomes in particular the updates provided by the State Party concerning its current priorities for this property and the various financial, cultural and physical measures that are planned and implemented by Bali Province and the Tabanan and Gianyar Regencies to support farming communities and increase the resilience and sustainability of the farming landscape, and requests the State Party to monitor the uses of recent provisions for Customary Villages to access new income opportunities to support subak activities;
  5. Also welcomes the State Party’s indication that the draft National Strategic Area Spatial Plan should be completed by the end of 2021, and also encourages the State Party to finalise the process of designating the property as a National Strategic Area as soon as possible;
  6. Notes that the State Party is currently developing technical guidelines on Heritage Impact Assessments (HIA) that will apply to all of Indonesia’s cultural World Heritage properties, further encourages the State Party to carry out the work in conformity with the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for World Heritage cultural properties, and also requests the State Party to continue developping specific HIA mechanisms that are linked to the property’s management system and can explicitly address the need for the ongoing protection of the OUV of the cultural landscape;
  7. Further requests the State Party to conduct HIAs for all new development within the property and its setting, particularly at Jatiluwih, and to provide documentation on new development proejcts and the associated HIAs to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, before making any decision that would be difficult to reverse;
  8. Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 46th session.
Draft Decision: 44 COM 7B.143

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7B.63, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Commends the State Party for the progress made with the implementation of its previous decisions and encourages continued work to implement effective mechanisms for the management and protection of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property;
  4. Welcomes in particular the updates provided by the State Party concerning its current priorities for this property and the various financial, cultural and physical measures that are planned and implemented by Bali Province and the Tabanan and Gianyar Regencies to support farming communities and increase the resilience and sustainability of the farming landscape, and requests the State Party to monitor the uses of recent provisions for Customary Villages to access new income opportunities to support subak activities;
  5. Also welcomes the State Party’s indication that the draft National Strategic Area Spatial Plan should be completed by the end of 2021, and also encourages the State Party to finalise the process of designating the property as a National Strategic Area as soon as possible;
  6. Notes that the State Party is currently developing technical guidelines on Heritage Impact Assessments (HIA) that will apply to all of Indonesia’s cultural World Heritage properties, further encourages the State Party to carry out the work in conformity with the ICOMOS Guidance on HIAs for World Heritage cultural properties, and also requests the State Party to continue developping specific HIA mechanisms that are linked to the property’s management system and can explicitly address the need for the ongoing protection of the OUV of the cultural landscape;
  7. Further requests the State Party to conduct HIAs for all new development within the property and its setting, particularly at Jatiluwih, and to provide documentation on new development proejcts and the associated HIAs to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, before making any decision that would be difficult to reverse;
  8. Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 46th session in 2023.
Report year: 2021
Indonesia
Date of Inscription: 2012
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (ii)(iii)(v)(vi)
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2020) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 44COM (2021)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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