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Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam

Afghanistan
Factors affecting the property in 2019*
  • Civil unrest
  • Erosion and siltation/ deposition
  • Illegal activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other Threats:

    Inclination of the Minaret

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Civil unrest (Political instability)
  • River erosion (Inclination of the Minaret)
  • Management systems/ management plan (Lack of management plan)
  • Illegal activities (Illicit excavations and looting)
  • Erosion and siltation/deposition
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Lack of legal protection
  • Lack of an effective monuments protection agency
  • Lack of adequate protection and conservation personnel
  • Lack of a comprehensive Management Plan
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1286  

Corrective Measures for the property

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/1286  

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

In progress

UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2019

Total amount granted: USD 844,901 (2003-2012) from the UNESCO/Italy Funds-in-Trust; USD 124,300 (2003-2012) from the UNESCO/Switzerland Funds-in-Trust; USD 16,800 (2017) from the UNESCO Heritage Emergency Fund

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2019
Requests approved: 2 (from 2002-2015)
Total amount approved : 93,750 USD
Missions to the property until 2019**

Several annual UNESCO expert missions took place between 2002 and 2006 in order to implement the operational projects for the property. After a period of three years of inactivity from 2007 to 2009 due to the security situation, UNESCO dispatched two missions in cooperation with an Afghan local NGO in 2010 and 2014 to resume on-site operations; September 2017: mission within the framework of the UNESCO Heritage Emergency Fund

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2019

On 9 February 2019, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, which is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/211/documents and provides information on the implementation of the corrective measures and other elements as follows:

  • In terms of preservation and conservation, in 2019, the Ministry of Information and Culture (MoIC) plans to produce an Action Plan for the emergency conservation work of the property on the basis of the documentation work of September 2017, using 3D data on the minaret and its surroundings. The tiles and stuccos on the outer parts of the property should be protected and restored. The lack of reliable electricity in the remote area of the minaret and the deteriorating security situation have hindered the installation of in-situ monitoring equipment to record the movement of the minaret. Its stabilization will be helped by reinstalling the wooden elements of the staircase and the frames to the openings, and through masonry work. The cantilevers of the openings and the inner parts will be protected, as they require emergency stabilization. Due to the risk of possible flooding of the Hari Rud, the extension of gabion walls and the planting of trees upstream of the property were planned to prevent or lessen floodwater damage. The installation of equipment to record water levels and the flow of the Hari Rud and Jam Rud is planned for 2019;
  • As regards community development, the much-awaited construction of the footbridge over the Hari Rud to enable year-round access for inhabitants of nearby villages, and for future conservation work, has not been realized. Its construction depends on the national budget allocation in 2019 as well as on the security situation on site;
  • The MoIC and the Ministry of Interior Affairs have deployed 20 police officers to monitor and safeguard the property, and in particular to address the issue of illicit traffic of movable cultural properties below ground;
  • Concerning the guesthouse project, the reconstruction of the damaged site office of MoIC will commence after the receipt of funding. It will provide basic accommodation for experts and staff.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2019

Actual conservation work, as specified by the 2017 Conservation Action Plan (CAP), and the implementation of corrective measures, as recommended by previous Committee Decisions, were not realized due to the lack of financial resources and the continued difficulties in accessing the property. It is regrettable that the data collected in 2017 may become obsolete if no action takes place in the immediate future. The CAP should serve as a basis to revise the timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures adopted by the Committee in Decision 31 COM 7A.20 (Christchurch, 2007), so as to achieve the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR).

The actions recommended by previous Committee Decisions, such as the installation of a monitoring device at the minaret, emergency stabilization work on the wooden staircases, the construction of a footbridge over the Hari Rud, and the rehabilitation of the guesthouse, were not realized. Nonetheless, the deployment of 20 security personnel has been ensured.

As has been repeatedly pointed out by the Committee, the adoption of clear boundaries is an essential step towards developing an effective conservation strategy. The lack of progress on this makes it necessary for the Committee to reiterate its request to the State Party to increase its efforts to clearly delineate the boundaries of the minaret, the other three components of the property, and the encompassing buffer zone. This work should take into consideration the topographic map produced in 2012 and lead to the submission of a minor boundary modification, allowing the identification of the boundaries in relation to archaeological investigations that have been undertaken since inscription, in conformity with the CAP and in accordance with Paragraphs 163-164 of the Operational Guidelines.

There was no report on capacity building or new national or international assistance funds for the property.

Considering the consistent lack of financial resources, strong mobilization of international cooperation remains critical in order to implement the abovementioned CAP and to help to achieve the corrective measures previously adopted by the Committee.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2019
43 COM 7A.42
Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) (C 211 rev)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/19/43.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 42 COM 7A.2, adopted at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018),
  3. Notes that actual conservation work based on the 2017 Conservation Action Plan (CAP) and other activities repeatedly recommended by the Committee could not be realized, due to the lack of the necessary financial resources and the security situation, and urges the State Party to seek means to implement the following:
    1. Installation of a monitoring instrument on the Minaret of Jam to measure its inclination,
    2. Emergency stabilization work for the wooden staircases, in order to prevent further destabilization of the minaret’s structure,
    3. Construction of a footbridge over the Hari Rud and a guesthouse at the property, in order to improve access to the property and provide site security;
  4. Also notes that an Action Plan for emergency conservation work at the property, on the basis of the documentation work of September 2017 and comprising 3D data on the minaret and its surrounding, will be produced in 2019;
  5. Also recalling that a topographical map was realized for this purpose as part of a UNESCO/Italy Funds-in-Trust project in 2012, regrets that the boundaries of the property and its buffer zone remain to be precisely defined, and also urges the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, a proposal for a minor boundary modification, in conformity with the CAP and in accordance with Paragraphs 163-164 of the Operational Guidelines, for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  6. Notes with serious concern that actual conservation work and corrective measures have not progressed for several years, requests the State Party to deploy its efforts in seeking the means of allocating the necessary financial and human resources, and encourages it to seek International Assistance from the World Heritage Fund and other extra-budgetary resources to address conservation issues at the property;
  7. Calls upon the international community to provide technical and financial support, in cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, for the implementation of the above-mentioned CAP, which will be part of the strategy to implement the corrective measures adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007);
  8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020;
  9. Decides to retain Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
43 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/19/43.COM/7A, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.3 and WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.3.Corr),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 43 COM 7A.41)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision43 COM 7A.42)
  • Austria, Historic Centre of Vienna (Decision 43 COM 7A.45)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 43 COM 7A.48)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.5)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.6)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.7)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.8)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.9)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.10)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.11)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 43 COM 7A.17)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.4)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 43 COM 7A.1)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 43 COM 7A.18)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 43 COM 7A.19)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 43 COM 7A.20)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 43 COM 7A.22)
  • Kenya, Lake Turkana National Parks (Decision 43 COM 7A.12)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 43 COM 7A.23)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 43 COM 7A.24)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 43 COM 7A.25)
  • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 43 COM 7A.26)
  • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 43 COM 7A.27)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 43 COM 7A.13)
  • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 43 COM 7A.53)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 43 COM 7A.54)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 43 COM 7A.55)
  • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 43 COM 7A.43)
  • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 43 COM 7A.14)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 43 COM 7A.30)
  • Palestine, Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town (Decision 43 COM 7A.29)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 43 COM 7A.50)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 43 COM 7A.51)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.15)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 43 COM 7A.46)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 43 COM 7A.2)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 43 COM 7A.31)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 43 COM 7A.32)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 43 COM 7A.33)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 43 COM 7A.34)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 43 COM 7A.35)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 43 COM 7A.36)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 43 COM 7A.56)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 43 COM 7A.47)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.16)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.3)
  • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 43 COM 7A.44)
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 43 COM 7A.52)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 43 COM 7A.38)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 43 COM 7A.39)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 43 COM 7A.40)
Draft Decision: 43 COM 7A.42

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/19/43.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 42 COM 7A.2, adopted at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018),
  3. Notes that actual conservation work based on the 2017 Conservation Action Plan (CAP) and other activities repeatedly recommended by the Committee could not be realized, due to the lack of the necessary financial resources and the security situation, and urges the State Party to seek means to implement the following:
    1. Installation of a monitoring instrument on the Minaret of Jam to measure its inclination,
    2. Emergency stabilization work for the wooden staircases, in order to prevent further destabilization of the minaret’s structure,
    3. Construction of a footbridge over the Hari Rud and a guesthouse at the property, in order to improve access to the property and provide site security;
  4. Also notes that an Action Plan for emergency conservation work at the property, on the basis of the documentation work of September 2017 and comprising 3D data on the minaret and its surrounding, will be produced in 2019;
  5. Also recalling that a topographical map was realized for this purpose as part of a UNESCO/Italy Funds-in-Trust project in 2012, regrets that the boundaries of the property and its buffer zone remain to be precisely defined, and also urges the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, a proposal for a minor boundary modification, in conformity with the CAP and in accordance with Paragraphs 163-164 of the Operational Guidelines, for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  6. Notes with serious concern that actual conservation work and corrective measures have not progressed for several years, requests the State Party to deploy its efforts in seeking the means of allocating the necessary financial and human resources, and encourages it to seek International Assistance from the World Heritage Fund and other extra-budgetary resources to address conservation issues at the property;
  7. Calls upon the international community to provide technical and financial support, in cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, for the implementation of the above-mentioned CAP, which will be part of the strategy to implement the corrective measures adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007);
  8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020;
  9. Decides to retain Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2019
Afghanistan
Date of Inscription: 2002
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)
Danger List (dates): 2002-present
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2019) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 43COM (2019)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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