Take advantage of the search to browse through the World Heritage Centre information.

Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam

Afghanistan
Factors affecting the property in 2006*
  • Civil unrest
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other Threats:

    Inclination of Minaret

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Political instability;

b) Inclination of Minaret;

c) Local infrastructural requirements;

d) Lack of management plan.

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Lack of legal protection;
  • Lack of an effective monuments protection agency;
  • Lack of adquate protection and conservation personnel;
  • Lack of a comprehensive management plan.
Corrective Measures for the property

To be identified. A joint UNESCO-ICOMOS mission shall be fielded in order to determine whether the site could be removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger. If this is not considered possible, the criteria and timeframe for the possible removal of the property from the List shall be defined in close co-operation with the State Party (see draft Decision, paragraph 8).

UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2006

Total amount provided to the property: USD 800,000 have been provided by the Government of Italy for the “Emergency Consolidation and Restoration of the Minaret of Jam and Monuments in Herat” and USD 138,000 by the Government of Switzerland for the “Emergency Consolidation and Restoration of the Minaret of Jam”. These projects are currently being implemented.

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2006
Requests approved: 1 (from 2002-2002)
Total amount approved : 20,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2006**

UNESCO Experts-Division of Cultural Heritage mission in May/June and October 2005.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2006

The World Heritage Centre received a progress report by the State Party on 31 March 2006 in which it stated that following the request of the World Heritage Committee at its 29th session, the State Party has halted the construction of a road at the site. Furthermore, the State Party intends to implement the Herat-Chaghcharan road construction project according to UNESCO’s advice in 2005 and in line with the Decision 29 COM 7A.20 adopted by the World Heritage Committee in 2005, as well as national legislation. Since the proposed new itinerary of the road remains at a distance of 500 to 600 meters from the Jam Minaret, this option respects the preservation needs of the Minaret and the archaeological remains of Jam.

In addition, the World Heritage Committee had recommended the construction of an alternative footbridge and a ford across the Hari River. This will enable access of villagers from the Bedam Valley to the Jam valley, as well as allowing a limited number of vehicles to cross the river, following the UNESCO mission in February 2004. So far, the State Party has not implemented this recommendation.

Through the on-going implementation of the UNESCO/Italy and UNESCO/Switzerland Funds-in-Trust projects, the following additional information is available:

In 2005, substantial progress was achieved in the preparation of the consolidation intervention for the protection of the base of the Minaret of Jam, which is the most endangered part of the monument. At a preparatory mission, undertaken in May/June 2005 by UNESCO experts, a geophysical survey of the site was conducted in order to determine the cause of the Minaret’s inclination. A geo-radar study was also carried out in order to gain a clearer understanding of the Minaret’s foundation.

The October 2005 mission, carried out by the UNESCO experts with the representatives of the Afghan Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism, achieved the following outcomes:

a) Commencement of masonry work at the Minaret’s base, which consisted of reconstructing the damaged areas;

b) Restoration of a damaged window at the upper level of the monument with newly produced bricks;

c) Excavation carried out around the base which has provided new information on the condition of the upper portion of the foundation of the Minaret;

d) Discovery of large boulders collected around the foundation, indicating that a flash flood may have occurred sometime in the past which had a sudden impact on the stability of the Minaret.

On 15 March 2006, an expert meeting was organised by the World Heritage Centre in Paris, in order to determine the priorities for further activities for the consolidation of the Jam Minaret in 2006 and to prepare the next interventions. The meeting was attended by six international experts. The experts recommended a plan of action for priority consolidation measures, which includes the completion of the reinforcement of the base of the Minaret through masonry work, an in-depth analysis of the feasibility of partial strengthening of the base of the Minaret by means of circumferential pre-stressing according to the present site conditions, the undertaking of soil investigations and the installation of a monitoring system. This will allow the expert team to determine whether or not the minaret is stable or whether it continues in its inclination, and if so, at what rate. A mission initiating these activities is scheduled for July 2006.

Furthermore, an archaeological mission organised by the Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge / UK, in co-operation with the State Party, has carried out a survey of the archaeological landscape around Jam in order to place the Minaret in its environmental context and explore the extent of the archaeological site.

It is recommended to field a joint UNESCO-ICOMOS mission to determine whether the site could be removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger. If this is not considered possible, the benchmarks and timeframe for the possible removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger shall be defined in close co-operation with the State Party.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2006
30 COM 7A.22
Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) (C 211rev)

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-06/30.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 29 COM 7A.20, adopted at its 29th session (Durban, 2005),

3. Commends the State Party for having halted the construction of the road and for the progress achieved for the strengthening of the base of the Minaret by masonry work and the geophysical survey of the site;

4. Reiterates its strong encouragement of the State Party to construct an alternative footbridge and a ford across the Hari River, in order to enable access of the villagers from the Bedam Valley to the Jam Valley, as well as allowing a limited number of vehicles to cross the river, following the recommendations of the UNESCO mission in February 2004;

5. Urges the State Party, with assistance from UNESCO and the international community, to continue the on-going efforts for the structural consolidation of the Minaret as recommended by the expert meeting on the continuation of consolidation activities in Jam, organised by the World Heritage Centre in Paris on 15March 2006;

6. Requests the State Party, with assistance from the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, to elaborate a site management plan for the Minaret and the archaeological remains, taking into account the relevant provisions of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the Convention;

7. Also requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to assess the state of conservation of the property and to define, in close collaboration with the State Party, benchmarks for corrective measures and related timeframe for the possible removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger, for examination by the Committee at its 31st session in 2007;

8. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2007, a report on the state of conservation of this property for examination by the Committee at its 31st session in 2007; and

9. Decides to retain the Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

30 COM 8C.2
Update of the World Heritage List in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-06/30.COM/7A and WHC-06/30.COM/7A.Add.Rev),

2. Maintains the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:

   • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 30 COM 7A.22)

   • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley, (Decision 30 COM 7A.23)

   • Azerbaijan, Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower (Decision 30 COM 7A.29

   • Benin, Royal Palaces of Abomey (Decision 30 COM 7A.16)

   • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.1)

   • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 30 COM 7A.31)

   • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.2)

   • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 30 COM 7A.3)

   • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 30 COM 7A.8)

   • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.6)

   • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Virunga National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.7)

   • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Garamba National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.4)

   • Democratic Rep. of the Congo Salonga National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.5)

   • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 30 COM 7A.19)

   • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.9)

   • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 30 COM 7A.15)

   • India, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (Decision 30 COM 7A.13)

   • Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 30 COM 7A.25)

   • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 30 COM 7A.20)

   • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 30 COM 7A.34)

   • Nepal, Kathmandu Valley (Decision 30 COM 7A.26)

   • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 30 COM 7A.10)

   • Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 30 COM 7A.27)

   • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 30 COM 7A.32)

   • Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 30 COM 7A.28)

   • United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 28 COM 7A.17)

   • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 30 COM 7A.14)

   • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 30 COM 7A.33)

   • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 30 COM 7A.21)

Draft Decision: 30 COM 7A.22

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-06/30.COM/7A,

2. Recalling Decision 29 COM 7A.20, adopted at its 29th session (Durban, 2005),

3. Commends the State Party for having halted the construction of the road and for the progress achieved for the strengthening of the base of the Minaret by masonry work and the geophysical survey of the site;

4. Reiterates its strong encouragement of the State Party to construct an alternative footbridge and a ford across the Hari River, in order to enable access of the villagers from the Bedam Valley to the Jam Valley, as well as allowing a limited number of vehicles to cross the river, following the recommendations of the UNESCO mission in February 2004;

5. Urges the State Party, with assistance from UNESCO and the international community, to continue the on-going efforts for the structural consolidation of the Minaret as recommended by the expert meeting on the continuation of consolidation activities in Jam, organised by the World Heritage Centre in Paris on 15 March 2006;

6. Requests the State Party, with assistance from the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, to elaborate a site management plan, taking into account the relevant provisions of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the Convention;

7. Also requests the State Party to invite a joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to assess the state of conservation of the property and to define, in close collaboration with the State Party, benchmarks for corrective measures and related timeframe for the possible removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger, for examination by the Committee at its 31st session in 2007;

8. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre by 1 February 2007, a report on the state of conservation of this property for examination by the Committee at its 31st session in 2007; and

9. Decides to retain the Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Report year: 2006
Afghanistan
Date of Inscription: 2002
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)
Danger List (dates): 2002-present
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 30COM (2006)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


top