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Ennedi Massif: Natural and Cultural Landscape

Chad
Factors affecting the property in 2018*
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
Factors identified at the time of inscription in 2016:
  • Need to strengthen the legal protection status of the property 
  • Inadequate management plan
  • Need for a zonation which allows full protection of the key areas for biodiversity
  • Need to guarantee the full participation of the local communities and of their traditional authorities in the management of the property
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2018
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved : 0 USD
Missions to the property until 2018**
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2018

On 5 December 2017, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, which is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1475/documents/, providing the following information:

  • While a strengthened legal protection status of the property remains pending, the creation of the Natural and Cultural Reserve of Ennedi (RNCE) is underway, with strong local support. The November 2016 site visit by a ministerial delegation enhanced local awareness and created momentum. A map of the proposed RNCE was submitted, which seems to indicate that the entire mountain chain of Ennedi, surrounded by a substantial buffer zone, would be included in the reserve;
  • Conservation and management of RNCE will be ensured through a partnership agreement between the State Party and the African Parks Network (APN), funded by the European Union and other partners. The agreement will increase the availability of financial and human resources and should improve the ability to address Committee recommendations;
  • Local participation, acknowledged as paramount to conservation, is formally ensured by local committees and a future local Governance Council with an advisory role;
  • Funding constraints have prevented the effective implementation of the existing Management Plan (2014-2024) for the property and impeded the requested revision of the Plan. APN and the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) conducted preparatory studies in 2016 to inform the future zonation to be reflected in a revised Management Plan. A botanical inventory, along with broader intentions to strengthen ecological monitoring, is foreseen as part of the consolidation of management;
  • The report indicates that functional traditional management exists and that there are no imminent threats foreseen. Specific legal provisions are in place and considered adequate to protect cultural and natural heritage;
  • Vandalism of rock art remains a serious challenge, while climate change is acknowledged as a concern likely to affect biodiversity;
  • The State Party further notes that field missions and training on rock art in both Ennedi and Tibesti have taken place through the support of the U.S. Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation via the Trust for African Rock Art (TARA);
  • Preparations for the reintroduction of ostrich have advanced, and reintroductions of oryx and addax are being envisaged.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2018

The large and remote property is sparsely populated and subject to limited immediate pressures. While the local extinction of many mammal species illustrates that the human presence has resulted in significant ecological impacts, traditional regimes and social control are in place, contributing to the management of the fragile natural and cultural resources. However, there are indications that grazing pressure is increasing in some parts of the property and, if left unchecked, could quickly escalate. Climate change could aggravate concerns by reducing water availability. The documented cases of vandalism of some of the rock art in the property are also of serious concern, and reports on rehabilitation should be made available. Tourism is being actively promoted as a local development option; if successful, this could bring local economic benefits, but could also bring additional pressure. To be prepared for emerging threats, it is therefore important that the government commitment to the conservation of the area be translated into tangible management and conservation actions to complement traditional natural resource management practices.

Since the submission of the State Party report, the agreement between the Republic of Chad and APN was signed on 19 February 2018 (https://www.african-parks.org/press-release/chad-ennedi-protected). As part of this agreement, the European Union and the Dutch Postcode Lottery have committed 7.7M euros to manage and restore RNCE. This funding provides an unprecedented opportunity to consider all Committee requests and recommendations and translate longstanding political commitment into action. The announced strengthening of the legal protection status can at last become a reality. This process should carefully consider the boundaries of the inscribed property, which were modified during the course of the evaluation. The property, as currently inscribed, does not include the northern part of the massif, leaving out important rock art sites, including the emblematic site of Niola Doa, and potentially important areas for biodiversity. At the time of inscription, the Committee recommended an extension of the property, in particular to protect important rock art sites in the north and north-western part of the Ennedi Massif. The creation of the RNCE provides an opportunity to address this recommendation and it is recommended that the Committee urge the State Party to consult with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies before finalizing the proposal for the boundaries of the RNCE so as to guarantee that all important areas are included and an appropriate buffer zone is foreseen. The map provided as part of the State Party report was of poor quality and does not allow a clear analysis.

The availability of funding and human resources through the RNCE partnership will also enable the overdue revision of the Management Plan, which should fully consider all previous Committee requests and recommendations in terms of zonation, preparedness for potential threats, local participation and respect for existing traditional knowledge and practices, as well as systematic and adequate documentation of the rock art sites.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2018
42 COM 7B.64
Ennedi Massif: Natural and Cultural Landscape (Chad) (C/N 1475)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decisions 40 COM 8B.15 and 41 COM 8B.52, adopted at its 40th (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016) and 41st (Krakow, 2017) sessions respectively,
  3. Welcomes the proposal to upgrade the protection status and consolidate the management of the property, and the opportunities offered by the new partnership between the State Party and African Parks Network (APN), with financial support of the European Union, Dutch Postcode Lottery and other partners, and encourages the international community to continue to provide financial and technical support for the property;
  4. Also welcomes the efforts undertaken by the State Party to document and mitigate the reported cases of vandalism of some of the rock art in the property since its inscription, and requests the State Party to provide a detailed report of the extent of the damage and measures taken to rehabilitate the affected sites;
  5. Strongly encourages the State Party and its partners to systematically address all the outstanding requests and recommendations already expressed in Decision 40 COM 8B.15 through the new project to support Natural and Cultural Reserve of Ennedi (RNCE), in cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  6. Recommends that the long-envisioned strengthening of the legal protected area status be accompanied by a review of the best possible configuration for the property, ensuring full harmonization between the national legal status, management approach, World Heritage status and buffer zone boundaries, and urges the State Party to consult with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies before finalizing the proposal for the boundaries of the RNCE so as to guarantee that all important areas are included and that an appropriate buffer zone is foreseen, and to submit a request for boundary modification for examination by the World Heritage Committee;
  7. Recalls that the longstanding relationship between local communities, the archaeological remains and an extreme natural environment contributes to the authenticity and sustainable conservation of the property, and reiterates its request to the State Party to ensure full participation of local communities and their traditional authorities in the governance and management of the property, and also encourages traditional management systems be further documented;
  8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020.
Draft Decision: 42 COM 7B.64

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decisions 40 COM 8B.15 and 41 COM 8B.52, adopted at its 40th (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016) and 41st (Krakow, 2017) sessions respectively,
  3. Welcomes the proposal to upgrade the protection status and consolidate the management of the property, and the opportunities offered by the new partnership between the State Party and African Parks Network (APN), with financial support of the European Union, Dutch Postcode Lottery and other partners, and encourages the international community to continue to provide financial and technical support for the property;
  4. Also welcomes the efforts undertaken by the State Party to document and mitigate the reported cases of vandalism of some of the rock art in the property since its inscription, and requests the State Party to provide a detailed report of the extent of the damage and measures taken to rehabilitate the affected sites;
  5. Strongly encourages the State Party and its partners to systematically address all the outstanding requests and recommendations already expressed in Decision 40 COM 8B.15 through the new project to support Natural and Cultural Reserve of Ennedi (RNCE), in cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  6. Recommends that the long-envisioned strengthening of the legal protected area status be accompanied by a review of the best possible configuration for the property, ensuring full harmonization between the national legal status, management approach, World Heritage status and buffer zone boundaries, and urges the State Party to consult with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies before finalizing the proposal for the boundaries of the RNCE so as to guarantee that all important areas are included and that an appropriate buffer zone is foreseen, and to submit a request for boundary modification for examination by the World Heritage Committee;
  7. Recalls that the longstanding relationship between local communities, the archaeological remains and an extreme natural environment contributes to the authenticity and sustainable conservation of the property, and reiterates its request to the State Party to ensure full participation of local communities and their traditional authorities in the governance and management of the property, and also encourages traditional management systems be further documented;
  8. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020.
Report year: 2018
Chad
Date of Inscription: 2016
Category: Mixed
Criteria: (iii)(vii)(ix)
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2017) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 42COM (2018)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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