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Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur

Egypt
Factors affecting the property in 2001*
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Housing
  • Land conversion
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other Threats:

    Deterioration of the stones

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Growing number of visitors
  • Uncontrolled development of the nearby village (issue resolved)
  • Deterioration of the stones
  • Road construction project (issue resolved)
  • Encroachment upon the site and its buffer zone
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2001
Requests approved: 4 (from 1991-1995)
Total amount approved : 81,450 USD
1995 Experts missions to Pyramids Plateau (Approved)   13,450 USD
1993 Financial contribution for the Pyramides Plateau of Giza (Approved)   20,000 USD
1991 Three international experts (an economist, an ... (Approved)   30,000 USD
1991 Mission to take part in the first stage of the ... (Approved)   18,000 USD
Information presented to the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee in 2001

Previous deliberations:
Eighteenth session of the Committee (page 29).
Nineteenth session of the Committee (paragraph number VII.34)

Main issues: Urban encroachment.

New information:

During the mission to Cairo carried out in February 2001, the Deputy Director of the World Heritage Centre, accompanied by a consultant, was made aware of the fact that the re-routing of the Cairo Great Ring Road to the North East of the Pyramids, agreed upon in 1998 between UNESCO and the Egyptian Government, had not yet been implemented. While the traffic pressure mounts, certain local authorities are reportedly re-considering the possibility of having the Ring Road cross the World Heritage site of the Memphis Necropolis with a tunnel, or alternatively in an open trench.

In the mean time, a new motorway bypass has been realized to the North of the Giza Plateau by the Egyptian authorities. This bypass, linking the existing Ring Road, the 6th of October City and the road to Alexandria, provides the solution to the problem which had prompted the initial proposal for the Ring Road extension across the World Heritage site of Memphis of 1994-5.

Action Required
The Bureau, recalling the Agreement between UNESCO and the Egyiptian authorities in 1998, reaffirms the vital importance of preventing any encroachment upon the site, such as highways, roads, water supply pipes and buildings within the World Heritage protected area. The Bureau invites the Egyptian authorities to develop and adopt, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre, a comprehensive Management Plan with appropriate measures to protect the World Heritage site of the Memphis necropolis from unwanted urban developments.
Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2001
25 BUR V.203-205
Memphis and its Necropolis - the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur (Egypt)

V.203     The Secretariat reported to the Bureau on information received, that certain local authorities were still considering having a new section of the Greater Cairo Ring Road built to cross the plateau of the Pyramids, despite the existence of a recently built by-pass linking the Ring Road to the road to Alexandria. The Bureau’s attention was also drawn to the need to regulate the use of the area surrounding the pyramids, currently encroached by settlements and commercial activities.

V.204     The Delegate of Thailand expressed his surprise at the news that, despite the Agreement reached between UNESCO and the Egyptian Government in 1998, the question was still a matter of discussion.

V.205     The Bureau, recalling the Agreement signed between UNESCO and the Egyptian Government in 1998, reaffirmed the importance of preventing any encroachment upon the site, such as highways, roads, water supply pipes and buildings within the World Heritage protected area. The Bureau invited the Egyptian authorities to develop and adopt, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre, a comprehensive Management Plan, with appropriate measures to protect the World Heritage site of Memphis Necropolis from unwanted urban developments and inappropriate uses.

Report year: 2001
Egypt
Date of Inscription: 1979
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iii)(vi)
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 25COM (2001)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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