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Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur

Egypt
Factors affecting the property in 1997*
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Housing
  • Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation
  • Land conversion
  • Other Threats:

    Deterioration of the stones

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Growing number of visitors
  • Uncontrolled development of the nearby village 
  • Deterioration of the stones
  • Motorway project
  • Encroachment upon the site and its buffer zone
International Assistance: requests for the property until 1997
Requests approved: 4 (from 1991-1995)
Total amount approved : 81,450 USD
1995 Experts missions to Pyramids Plateau (Approved)   13,450 USD
1993 Financial contribution for the Pyramides Plateau of Giza (Approved)   20,000 USD
1991 Three international experts (an economist, an ... (Approved)   30,000 USD
1991 Mission to take part in the first stage of the ... (Approved)   18,000 USD
Information presented to the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee in 1997

A preparatory study on the ventilation of the tombs of Saqqara in the Valley of the Kings and at Abu Simbel was carried out by INERIS (National Institute for Natural Environment and Risks, France), the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) and the University of Cairo, in October 1996.  It was financed by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with support from the World Heritage Centre, and organized at site by the Cairo Office which will follow up on the recommendations. The study evaluated the negative effects of tourism on the conservation of mural paintings, with particular attention to heat, carbonic gas and water condensation.  The expert made several recommendations, notably with regard to the advantage of air-conditioning systems as opposed to more simple ventilation, and concerning provisional preventive measures to undertake at Abu Simbel.  The study will continue through spring 1997 and concrete solutions will be forthcoming.

Action Required

After having taken note of the report of the Secretariat regarding the studies carried out in several tombs at Saqqara in the Necropolis of Thebes and at Abu Simbel, by INERIS, the Supreme Council of Antiquities and the University of Cairo, the Bureau thanked the Egyptian authorities for their cooperation and invited them to implement the recommendations of the experts concerning the ventilation of these monuments, which would ensure the long-term conservation of their mural paintings.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 1997
21 BUR IV.B.38
Memphis and its Necropolis - the Pyramid fields from Giza to Dahshur; Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae; Ancient Thebes with its Necropolis (Arab Republic of Egypt)

After having taken note of the report of the Secretariat regarding the studies carried out in several tombs at Saqqara in the Necropolis of Thebes and at Abu Simbel, by INERIS, the Supreme Council of Antiquities and the University of Cairo, the Bureau thanked the Egyptian authorities for their cooperation and invited them to implement the recommendations of the experts concerning the ventilation of these monuments, which would ensure the long-term conservation of their mural paintings.

Report year: 1997
Egypt
Date of Inscription: 1979
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iii)(vi)
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 21COM (1997)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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