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Mount Kenya National Park/Natural Forest

Kenya
Factors affecting the property in 2000*
  • Avalanche/ landslide
  • Fire (widlfires)
  • Illegal activities
  • Land conversion
  • Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals
  • Management systems/ management plan
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2000
Requests approved: 1 (from 2000-2000)
Total amount approved : 25,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2000**
Information presented to the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee in 2000

New Information : IUCN has received a report on 'Aerial Survey of the Destruction of Mt. Kenya, Imenti and Ngare Ndare Forest Reserves, February-June 1999' prepared by the Kenya Wildlife Service and dated August 1999. The results of the survey, which have been substantiated by other sources, have established that the whole of Mt. Kenya and Imenti forests are heavily impacted by illegal activities leading to serious destruction below the bamboo/bamboo-podocarpus belt. Results from this survey have noted severe impacts associated with:

  • illegal, unsustainable logging of indigenous tree species;
  • past and on-going extensive charcoal production;
  • expansion of human settlements and associated crop cultivation, which have restricted elephant migration from the mountains;
  • cultivation of marijuana, extending over more than 200 hectares;
  • illegal hunting; and
  • increased incidence of fire associated with encroachment of human settlements

These factors are contributing to significant negative long-term impacts, such as: disruption of wildlife habitat; loss of biodiversity; and deterioration of watershed services provided by the Mountain. All these impacts impair tourism development, retard poverty alleviation efforts and lead to increasing human/wildlife conflicts.

Action Required

The Bureau notes with concern the reported impacts on this site. The Bureau recommends that the State Party provide to the next Committee session a plan of actions to alleviate the threats identified in the August 1999 report of the Kenya Wildlife Services. The Bureau also recommends that the State Party consider inviting a UNESCO/IUCN mission to consider whether this site needs to be included in the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2000

The Centre received a letter dated 11 September 2000 from the Director of the Kenya National Parks in which he transmitted to the Centre a copy of a Legal Notice No.93 dated 24/7/2000 gazetting all that area of land measuring approximately 2,124 sq.km covering Mt. Kenya indigenous forest, the Park and the plantations as National Reserve under Kenya Wildlife Service, and to be governed under the Wildlife Act (Cap 376). A report presented by the Senior Warden of Mount Kenya National Park at the African Natural World Heritage site managers held in South Africa from 18 – 22 September 2000, reveals that most of the indigenous forests on Mt. Kenya were heavily impacted by illegal activities leading to serious destruction of canopy and a decrease of the overall forest area.  Quoting a 1999 Kenya Wildlife Service report, the Warden reported that the threats included 14,600 indigenous trees felled, 8,200 hectares of indigenous forest clear-felled, 2,465 charcoal kilns, 4,258 head of livestock grazing in the site, 21 areas impacted by fire, 120 landslides, 127 extensive areas on “non-resident cultivation” and some 200 hectares of cannabis cultivation.  The report cites other counter measures taken by the Government, such as the creation of a task force comprising of Kenya Wildlife Service and Forest Department personnel to oversee and give recommendations on the transition of management of the indigenous forest and to work out modalities of continued Forest Department management of plantation areas within the newly gazetted National Reserve. In its letter, the State Party suggested that the new measures undertaken by the Government to mitigate threats to this site would call for the extension of the World Heritage site and would also negate suggestions to include Mt. Kenya on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Kenya is in the process of implementing a management plan from an International Assistance amounting to US$25,000 approved under Technical Cooperation by the twenty-fourth ordinary session of the Bureau.  The management plan will include a rehabilitation program for Mount Kenya National Park/Forest Reserve. IUCN expressed extreme concern about the critical situation of this site.  IUCN suggests that a monitoring mission should take place as a priority to ascertain the state of conservation of the site and to consider its potential inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

 

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2000
24 BUR IV.B.31
Mount Kenya National Park/Natural Forest (Kenya)

The Bureau noted that IUCN has received a report on 'Aerial Survey of the Destruction of Mt. Kenya, Imenti and Ngare Ndare Forest Reserves, February-June 1999' prepared by the Kenya Wildlife Service and dated August 1999. The results of the survey, which have been substantiated by other sources, have established that the whole of Mt. Kenya and the Imenti Forests are heavily impacted by illegal activities leading to serious destruction below the bamboo/bamboo-podocarpus belt. Results from this survey have noted severe impacts associated with: illegal, unsustainable logging of indigenous tree species; past and on-going extensive charcoal production; expansion of human settlements and associated crop cultivation, which have restricted elephant migration from the mountains; cultivation of marijuana extending over more than 200 hectares; illegal hunting; and increased incidence of fire associated with encroachment of human settlements.

These factors are contributing towards significant negative long-term impacts, such as: disruption of wildlife habitat; loss of biodiversity; and deterioration of watershed services provided by the Mountain. All these impacts impair tourism development, retard poverty alleviation efforts and lead to increasing human/wildlife conflicts. 

The Bureau further noted that discussions on improving the management of the site are in progress following the receipt by the Secretariat of a letter dated 29 May 2000 from the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, in which the State Party proposes to extend Mount Kenya World Heritage site to include the current National Park, entire natural forest and the plantation areas.

The Bureau noted with concern the reported impacts on this site, and requested the State Party to provide to the next Committee session a plan of actions to alleviate the threats identified in the August 1999 report of the Kenya Wildlife Services. The Bureau also recommended that the State Party consider inviting a UNESCO/IUCN mission to consider whether this site needs to be included in the List of World Heritage in Danger.

24 BUR VII.4
Requests for International Assistance

NATURAL HERITAGE

Technical Co-operation

Guinea - Assessment of the State of Conservation of Mt. Nimba Strict Nature Reserve and Institutional Strengthening of the Centre for Environmental Management of Mt. Nimba - US$ 30,000

The Bureau authorized the Chairperson to approve up to an amount of US$ 30,000 for the request described in WHC-2000/CONF.202/12, subject to the Centre and the State Party co-operating to prepare a detailed budget breakdown and to achieve cost-savings for vehicle repairs, fuel costs, and the final report production.

Kenya - Preparation of a Management Plan for Mt. Kenya National Park/Natural Forest - US$ 25,000

The Bureau approved an amount of US$ 25,000 for the request as described in the WHC-2000/CONF.202/12.

Kenya - Preparation of a Management Plan for Sibiloi/Central Islands National Parks - US$ 25,300

The Bureau approved an amount of US$ 25,300 for the request, as described in WHC-2000/CONF.202/12.

NATURAL HERITAGE

Training Assistance

Madagascar - Building Capacity for World Heritage Area Planning in Southern Madagascar - US$ 30,000

The Bureau approved US $30,000 as a contribution towards direct costs for the project, as described in WHC-2000/CONF.202/12.

Malawi - Capacity Building for Lake Malawi National Park - Recommended approval to Committee

The Bureau recommended approval of US$ 37,094 by the Committee at its twenty-fourth session for the request as described in WHC-2000/CONF.202/12.

CULTURAL HERITAGE

Technical Co-operation

Latvia - Digitizing Works on Computers for all existing utilities networks located in the Old Town of Riga - US$ 27,000

Latvia - Carrying out archaeological and historical investigations in the centre of the Old Town of Riga - US$ 29,579

The Bureau approved US$ 27,000 for the request as described in WHC-2000/CONF.202/12.

Turkmenistan - Technical Support for monitoring the principal earthen architectural monuments within Ancient Merv - US$ 30,000

The Bureau approved US$ 30,000 for the request as described in WHC-2000/CONF.202/12, subject to the State Party paying its dues to the World Heritage Fund, and requesting the Centre to co-ordinate the implementation of the activity in close collaboration with the State Party and CRATerre.

24 COM VIII.iii
State of conservation reports of natural properties noted by the Committee

 State of conservation reports of natural properties noted by the Committee

Belovezhskaya Pushcha/Bialowieza Forest (Belarus/Poland)

Pirin National Park (Bulgaria)

Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon)

Gros Morne National Park (Canada)

Canadian Rocky Mountains Parks (Canada)

Comoe National Park (Côte d'Ivoire)

Galapagos Islands (Ecuador)

Komodo National Park (Indonesia)

Lorenz National Park (Indonesia)

Mount Kenya National Park/Natural Forest (Kenya)

Te Wahipounamu - South West New Zealand (New Zealand)

Arabian Oryx Sanctuary (Oman)

Huascarán National Park (Peru)

Danube Delta (Romania)

Lake Baikal (Russian Federation)

Niokolo-Koba National Park (Senegal)

Doñana National Park (Spain)

Sinharaja Forest Reserve (Sri Lanka)

Bwindi Impenetrable Forest (Uganda)

Gough Island (United Kingdom)

Ngorongoro Conservation Area and the Serengeti National Park (United Republic of Tanzania)

Ha Long Bay (Vietnam)

Mosi-oa-Tunya/Victoria Falls (Zambia/Zimbabwe)

The Bureau may wish to adopt the following and transmit it to the Committee for noting:

“The Bureau welcomes the actions taken by the State Party, and requests the Centre and IUCN to co-operate with the State Party with a view to undertaking a monitoring mission to the site to ascertain its state of conservation. The Bureau requests the State Party to co-operate with the Centre and IUCN with a view to completing the management plan and the programme of rehabilitation to be submitted to the Centre by 15 March 2001 for consideration by the twenty-fifth session of the Bureau.”

Report year: 2000
Kenya
Date of Inscription: 1997
Category: Natural
Criteria: (vii)(ix)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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