Take advantage of the search to browse through the World Heritage Centre information.

Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam

Afghanistan
Factors affecting the property in 2012*
  • Civil unrest
  • High impact research / monitoring activities
  • Illegal activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other Threats:

    b) Inclination of the Minaret;

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports

a) Political instability;

b) Inclination of the Minaret;

c) Lack of Management Plan;

d) Illicit excavations and looting.

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Lack of legal protection
  • Lack of an effective monuments protection agency
  • Lack of adequate protection and conservation personnel
  • Lack of a comprehensive Management Plan
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective Measures for the property
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2012

Total amount provided to the property: USD 845,000 provided by the Government of Italy and USD 138,000 by the Government of Switzerland. 

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2012
Requests approved: 1 (from 2002-2002)
Total amount approved : 20,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2012**

Several annual UNESCO expert missions took place between 2002 and 2006 in order to implement the operational projects for the property. After a period of three years of inactivity from 2007 to 2009 due to the security situation, UNESCO dispatched a mission in cooperation with an Afghan local NGO in 2010 to resume the on-site operations. 

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2012

At the time of drafting the present document, no progress report on the implementation of the corrective measures has been submitted by the State Party to the World Heritage Centre as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session (Decision 35 COM 7A.24).

However, the State Party noted in a progress report submitted in May 2011 its concern that despite the efforts being made to the conservation of the property, it may not be able to complete the required corrective measures due to the time required for an appropriate planning and implementation. In light of the absence of a feasible long-term solution for the stabilization of the Minaret, the State Party indicated that the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger by 2011 would be unrealistic.

a) Hydrology study based on stereoscopic imagery

Due to the security situation in the Jam area, it was not possible to dispatch a UNESCO international expert mission to the property, as intended to follow-up the UNESCO/Italy and Switzerland Funds-In-Trust projects. Nevertheless, the following activities were carried out by the World Heritage Centre in close cooperation with the Aachen Conservation and Documentation Centre (ACDC) in line with the corrective measures identified by the World Heritage Committee.

Regarding the interpretation of satellite stereo images of the Jam area, the data obtained from the stereoscopic image in correlation with geological data allows understanding the complete geometric details, including the archaeological remains on site.

A preliminary study on the hydrology of the River Jam and Hari for the purpose of establishing a hydrological system to safeguard the property with a long-term perspective. Based on the simulation of the water flow drawn from the stereoscopic data, this study gives a better understanding on the peak water flow, flow velocity and the cross section of the River Jam and Hari. It shall allow identifying appropriate protection measures to monitor flooding and prevent further erosion.

Expert studies on the leaning of the minaret have been conducted in 2010 at the request of the World Heritage Centre and the final reports are expected to provide additional indications as to the reasons for the inclination and whether this leaning is still increasing.

b) Replacement of wooden stairs and emergency surface restorations of the upper minaret

The Department of Historical Monuments of the Ministry of Culture and Information envisaged commencing emergency restorations of the upper parts of the minaret in late 2011. No information as to whether these measures have started is available.

In addition, a preparatory mission focused on the elaboration of a budget and work plan for the replacement of the wooden stairs inside the Minaret of Jam was carried out by an Afghan official in October 2011. An Emergency Assistance Request, submitted to conduct this replacement, is under evaluation.

c) Other developments

Furthermore, the World Heritage Centre plans to organize the 3rd Expert Working Group Meeting for Jam and Herat, in Turin, Italy, tentatively in September 2012. This meeting will aim at assessing the progress made through the implementation of the various UNESCO activities, to define future strategies for the conservation of the property and to adopt recommendations for achieving the desired state of conservation.  

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2012

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies note the continued technical and financial support and commitment of the international community, notably through the implementation of the UNESCO/Italy and Switzerland Funds-In-Trust projects. However, they observe that no further information was made available by the State Party on the state of conservation of the property in 2012, including information on the progress made in the implementation of the corrective measures.

They further note that the previously proposed time frame for implementing the corrective measures cannot be achieved and needs to be updated, so as to gradually attain the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2012
36 COM 7A.25
Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) (C 211 rev)

The World Heritage Committee,

1.   Having examined Document WHC-12/36.COM/7A.Add,

2.   Recalling Decisions 33 COM 7A.20, 34 COM 7A.20 and 35 COM 7A.24 adopted at its 33rd (Seville, 2009), 34th (Brasillia, 2010) and 35th (UNESCO, 2011) sessions respectively,

3.   Regrets that the State Party did not submit a state of conservation report, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011);

4.   Takes note of the planned Third expert working group meeting for Jam and Herat to take place in tentatively September 2012 and encourages the State Party to utilise this meeting to define future strategies for achieving the Desired state of conservation;

5.   Reiterates its request to the State Party to continue its efforts towards implementing all the corrective measures adopted at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007) and requests the State Party to update the time frame for the implementation of the corrective measures in order to attain the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;

6.   Calls upon the international community to continue its technical and financial support in co-operation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies with the aim of implementing all the corrective measures;

7.   Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, a report on the state of conservation of the property and on the implementation of the corrective measures, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session in 2013;

8.  Decides to retain the Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

36 COM 8C.2
Establishment of the World Heritage List in Danger (Maintained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

1.   Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-12/36.COM/7A and WHC-12/36.COM/7A.Add),

2.   Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:

    • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 36 COM 7A.25)
    • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 36 COM 7A.26)
    • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 36 COM 7A.15)
    • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.1)
    • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 36 COM 7A.33)
    • Colombia, Los Katíos National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.16)
    • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.2)
    • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 36 COM 7A.3)
    • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.4)
    • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.5)
    • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.6)
    • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.7)
    • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 36 COM 7A.8)
    • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 36 COM 7A.20)
    • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.9)
    • Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (Decision 36 COM 7A.30)
    • Georgia, Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Decision 36 COM 7A.31)
    • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 36 COM 7A.17)
    • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 36 COM 7A.13)
    • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 36 COM 7A.21)
    • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 36 COM 7A.22)
    • Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 36 COM 7A.27)
    • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 36 COM 7A.23.I)
    • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 36 COM 7A.10)
    • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 36 COM 7A.11)
    • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 36 COM 7A.34)
    • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.12)
    • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 36 COM 7A.32)
    • United Rep. of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 36 COM 7A.19)
    • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 36 COM 7A.18)
    • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 36 COM 7A.14)
    • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 36 COM 7A.35)
    • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 36 COM 7A.24)
Draft Decision: 36 COM 7A.25

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-12/36.COM/7A.Add,

2. Recalling Decisions 33 COM 7A.20,34 COM 7A.20 and 35 COM 7A.24 adopted at its 33rd (Seville, 2009), 34th (Brasillia, 2010) and 35th (UNESCO, 2011) sessions respectively,

3. Regrets that the State Party did not submit a state of conservation report, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011);

4. Takes note of the planned Third expert working group meeting for Jam and Herat to take place in tentatively September 2012 and encourages the State Party to utilise this meeting to define future strategies for achieving the Desired state of conservation;

5. Reiterates its request to the State Party to continue its efforts towards implementing all the corrective measures adopted at its 31st session (Christchurch, 2007) and requests the State Party to update the time frame for the implementation of the corrective measures in order to attain the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;

6. Calls upon the international community to continue its technical and financial support in co-operation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies with the aim of implementing all the corrective measures;

7. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2013, a report on the state of conservation of the property and on the implementation of the corrective measures, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session in 2013;

8. Decides to retain the Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Afghanistan) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Report year: 2012
Afghanistan
Date of Inscription: 2002
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)
Danger List (dates): 2002-present
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 36COM (2012)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


top